Overview

A large percentage of the population in the United States indicates that they are affiliated or adhere to a specific religious orientation. Despite the general population's reliance on spirituality, the fields of social work, mental health counseling and nursing have been reluctant to introduce and incorporate religion and spirituality in the professional training curricula, and faculty and practitioners are frequently ill-equipped to discuss these themes with clients and patients. At the same time, the emphasis on cultural competency in these fields requires practitioners' understanding, examination, and appreciation of faith, religion, and spirituality, which for many groups are intertwined with their cultural values. This course provides an overview of the impact of spirituality on health and mental health, with an emphasis on minority cultural and spiritual beliefs. An assessment and integration plan is also included.

Education Category: Community Health
Release Date: 05/01/2015
Expiration Date: 04/30/2018

Audience

This course is designed for social workers, mental health counselors, physicians, nurses, and other allied health professionals who work in a clinical practice setting.

Accreditations & Approvals

NetCE is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. NetCE is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. NetCE has been approved by NBCC as an Approved Continuing Education Provider, ACEP No. 6361. Programs that do not qualify for NBCC credit are clearly identified. NetCE is solely responsible for all aspects of the programs. NetCE is approved to offer continuing education through the Florida Board of Nursing Home Administrators, Provider #50-2405. NetCE is approved by the California Nursing Home Administrator Program as a provider of continuing education. Provider number 1622. NetCE, #1092, is approved as a provider for social work continuing education by the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB) www.aswb.org through the Approved Continuing Education (ACE) Program. NetCE maintains responsibility for the program. ASWB Approval Period: 03/13/2016 to 03/13/2019. Social workers should contact their regulatory board to determine course approval for continuing education credits. NetCE is accredited by the International Association for Continuing Education and Training (IACET). NetCE complies with the ANSI/IACET Standard, which is recognized internationally as a standard of excellence in instructional practices. As a result of this accreditation, NetCE is authorized to issue the IACET CEU. NetCE SW CPE is recognized by the New York State Education Department's State Board for Social Work as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed social workers #0033. This course is considered self-study, as defined by the New York State Board for Social Work. This course is approved by the Association of Social Work Boards - ASWB NJ CE Course Approval Program Provider #14 Course #138. Social workers will receive the following type and number of credit(s): Clinical Social Work Practice 1 Social and Cultural Competence 4 for the approval period starting 05/01/2015 and ending 10/30/2016. Materials that are included in this course may include interventions and modalities that are beyond the authorized practice of licensed master social work and licensed clinical social work in New York. As a licensed professional, you are responsible for reviewing the scope of practice, including activities that are defined in law as beyond the boundaries of practice for an LMSW and LCSW. A licensee who practices beyond the authorized scope of practice could be charged with unprofessional conduct under the Education Law and Regents Rules.

Designations of Credit

NetCE designates this enduring material for a maximum of 5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. NetCE designates this continuing education activity for 5 ANCC contact hour(s). NetCE designates this continuing education activity for 6 hours for Alabama nurses. NetCE designates this continuing education activity for 2 NBCC clock hour(s). Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the participant to earn up to 5 MOC points in the American Board of Internal Medicine's (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program. Participants will earn MOC points equivalent to the amount of CME credits claimed for the activity. It is the CME activity provider's responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABIM MOC credit. Completion of this course constitutes permission to share the completion data with ACCME. Social workers participating in this intermediate to advanced course will receive 5 Clinical continuing education clock hours, in accordance with the Association of Social Work Boards. This home study course is approved by the Florida Board of Nursing Home Administrators for 5 credit hour(s). This course is approved by the California Nursing Home Administrator Program for 5 hour(s) of continuing education credit - NHAP#1622005-4772/P. California NHAs may only obtain a maximum of 10 hours per course. AACN Synergy CERP Category B. NetCE is authorized by IACET to offer 0.5 CEU(s) for this program.

Individual State Nursing Approvals

In addition to states that accept ANCC, NetCE is approved as a provider of continuing education in nursing by: Alabama, Provider #ABNP0353, (valid through December 12, 2017); California, BRN Provider #CEP9784; California, LVN Provider #V10662; California, PT Provider #V10842; Florida, Provider #50-2405; Iowa, Provider #295; Kentucky, Provider #7-0054 through 12/31/2017.

Individual State Behavioral Health Approvals

In addition to states that accept ASWB, NetCE is approved as a provider of continuing education by the following state boards: Alabama State Board of Social Work Examiners, Provider #0515; Florida Board of Clinical Social Work, Marriage and Family Therapy and Mental Health Counseling, CE Broker Provider #50-2405; Illinois Division of Professional Regulation for Social Workers, License #159.001094; Illinois Division of Professional Regulation for Licensed Professional and Clinical Counselors, License #197.000185; Illinois Division of Professional Regulation for Marriage and Family Therapists, License #168.000190; Texas State Board of Social Worker Examiners, Approval #3011; Texas State Board of Examiners of Professional Counselors, Approval #1121; Texas State Board of Examiners of Marriage and Family Therapists, Approval #425.

Special Approvals

This activity is designed to comply with the requirements of California Assembly Bill 1195, Cultural and Linguistic Competency.

Course Objective

The purpose of this course is to raise practitioners' awareness about the role of spirituality in health and mental health, specifically how spirituality is utilized as a coping mechanism and acts as a protective factor toward stress.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this course, you should be able to:

  1. Define the concepts of spirituality and religiosity.
  2. Describe the historical evolution of spirituality and religiosity in the fields of nursing, medicine, social work, and mental health counseling.
  3. Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of incorporating issues of spirituality into clinical practice and the challenges associated with defining and measuring spirituality.
  4. Discuss the role of spirituality in the course and prognosis of health conditions.
  5. Outline the role of spirituality in mental health.
  6. Analyze the effects that spirituality and religion might have on coping.
  7. Describe how different ethnicities or cultures define spirituality.
  8. Identify spiritually sensitive assessment and intervention guidelines and possible ethical issues that might arise.

Faculty

Alice Yick Flanagan, PhD, MSW, received her Master’s in Social Work from Columbia University, School of Social Work. She has clinical experience in mental health in correctional settings, psychiatric hospitals, and community health centers. In 1997, she received her PhD from UCLA, School of Public Policy and Social Research. Dr. Yick Flanagan completed a year-long post-doctoral fellowship at Hunter College, School of Social Work in 1999. In that year she taught the course Research Methods and Violence Against Women to Masters degree students, as well as conducting qualitative research studies on death and dying in Chinese American families.

Previously acting as a faculty member at Capella University and Northcentral University, Dr. Yick Flanagan is currently a contributing faculty member at Walden University, School of Social Work, and a dissertation chair at Grand Canyon University, College of Doctoral Studies, working with Industrial Organizational Psychology doctoral students. She also serves as a consultant/subject matter expert for the New York City Board of Education and publishing companies for online curriculum development, developing practice MCAT questions in the area of psychology and sociology. Her research focus is on the area of culture and mental health in ethnic minority communities.

Faculty Disclosure

Contributing faculty, Alice Yick Flanagan, PhD, MSW, has disclosed no relevant financial relationship with any product manufacturer or service provider mentioned.

Division Planners

John M. Leonard, MD

Jane C. Norman, RN, MSN, CNE, PhD

Division Planners Disclosure

The division planners have disclosed no relevant financial relationship with any product manufacturer or service provider mentioned.

About the Sponsor

The purpose of NetCE is to provide challenging curricula to assist healthcare professionals to raise their levels of expertise while fulfilling their continuing education requirements, thereby improving the quality of healthcare.

Our contributing faculty members have taken care to ensure that the information and recommendations are accurate and compatible with the standards generally accepted at the time of publication. The publisher disclaims any liability, loss or damage incurred as a consequence, directly or indirectly, of the use and application of any of the contents. Participants are cautioned about the potential risk of using limited knowledge when integrating new techniques into practice.

Disclosure Statement

It is the policy of NetCE not to accept commercial support. Furthermore, commercial interests are prohibited from distributing or providing access to this activity to learners.

Table of Contents

Technical Requirements

Supported browsers for Windows include Microsoft Internet Explorer 9.0 and up, Mozilla Firefox 3.0 and up, Opera 9.0 and up, and Google Chrome. Supported browsers for Macintosh include Safari, Mozilla Firefox 3.0 and up, Opera 9.0 and up, and Google Chrome. Other operating systems and browsers that include complete implementations of ECMAScript edition 3 and CSS 2.0 may work, but are not supported.

#91981: The Role of Spirituality in Health and Mental Health

  • Back to Course Home
  • Participation Instructions

INTRODUCTION

A large percentage of the population in the United States is affiliated with or adheres to a specific religious orientation. According to the Gallup Poll, 51% of individuals in the United States identify as Protestant, 25.1% as Catholic, and 1.2% as Jewish [1]. Hinduism, Islam, and Buddhism combined account for approximately 3% of the U.S. population. Approximately 15% of the general population does not claim any religious preference. An estimated 40% to 45% of Americans indicate that they regularly attend a church, mosque, or synagogue; for the past 60 to 70 years, this attendance rate has been quite consistent [1,2,3]. However, studies have shown that individuals in the United States are increasingly reluctant to identify with a specific religion and less likely to attend a place of worship [5].

Despite these statistics, the fields of psychology, social work, mental health, counseling, medicine, and nursing have been reluctant to introduce and incorporate religion and spirituality into professional training curricula. Consequently, practitioners are frequently ill-equipped to discuss issues related to spirituality with patients [4]. According to a 2009 meta-analysis, 66% to 89% of social workers report having obtained minimal to no instruction during their education about working with patients on issues related to spirituality and religion or how their own spirituality may influence intervention recommendations [136].

SPIRITUALITY AND RELIGIOSITY

Spirituality has been defined as the beliefs and practices that develop based on personal values and ideology of the meaning and purpose of life [6]. It refers to the belief that there is a power or powers outside one's own that transcend understanding [7]. It has been stated that there are three dimensions of spirituality [8]:

  • Making personal meaning out of situations

  • Coming to an understanding of self

  • Appreciating the importance of connections with others

Pargament and Mahoney argue that, for many, spirituality involves searching to discover what is sacred, and this journey can take either traditional pathways (e.g., organized religions) or nontraditional avenues (e.g., involvement in 12-step groups, meditation, or retreat centers) [9]. People appear to have multiple and elaborate definitions of spirituality. Some definitions of spirituality focus on a vertical dimension, with a primary emphasis on transcendence to a higher power; for others, the horizontal dimension is considered to be a more important component, with a focus on connecting with others and the physical world [137].

King and Crowther define religion as "an organized system of beliefs, practices, rituals, and symbols designed (a) to facilitate closeness to the sacred or transcendent (God, higher power, or ultimate truth/reality), and (b) to foster an understanding of one's relation and responsibility to others in living together in a community" [10]. Religiosity has been categorized as either nonorganizational religiosity, which consists of prayer and importance of religious beliefs, or organizational religiosity, which encompasses attendance at services and other activities [11,137]. When researchers attempt to measure religiosity, they often inquire regarding attendance at religious services; attitudes toward religious behaviors, such as Bible reading and prayer; and involvement in religious activities [12,137].

Some argue that spirituality and religiosity are interrelated, as religiosity focuses on external expressions of spirituality or faith [13]. In other words, religious practices can foster spirituality. Similarly, spiritual practices may involve aspects of religious participation. Furthermore, it is possible to experience spirituality outside the context of religious behaviors and activities [138]. Others maintain that religiosity and spirituality are distinctive. For example, one may outwardly exhibit religious behaviors (e.g., regularly attend services) but may not necessarily have a relationship with God [10]. Mattis' study of African American women found that the participants clearly differentiated religion and spirituality [14]. For these women, religion was generally defined as organized worship, whereas spirituality was described as the process of internalizing positive values. Religion was viewed as a path, while spirituality was considered an outcome [14]. More recently, religion has been perceived as restrictive, while spirituality is viewed as freeing [138].

HISTORICAL ROOTS

In the medieval period in Europe, there were no formal government-sponsored social care or healthcare systems in place to care for those in need. Instead, feudal societies, along with the churches, assumed primary responsibility in the provision of services to the poor, sick, and needy [15]. During this time, male and female religious orders worked with the sick, and purgings, emetics, blood cleanings, and prayers were common nursing interventions [16].

During the Age of Enlightenment in the 1700s, the intellectual climate was marked by two movements: rationalism and empiricism [17]. Rationalism emphasized that the primary authority for truth is rationality or logic; spirituality, faith, and religion were considered outside these rational boundaries [17]. Empiricism focused on the idea that knowledge stems from direct, first-hand observations or sensory experiences [17]. Ultimately, these two intellectual movements challenged the authority of the church and affected the provision of general health and mental health care.

When the feudal system was abolished, the existing agrarian society transitioned to an industrial society, and social conditions ultimately deteriorated. Families and children worked long hours under deplorable conditions. Religious institutions again assumed much of the responsibility for the provision of social care [15].

The 20th century marked a major move toward professionalism and scientific inquiry in many of the helping professions. In psychology, for example, Freud had little regard for religion and viewed it as a neurosis, and as behaviorism became more prominent, religion as a topic in psychology diminished [18,139]. Behavioral theorists such as B.F. Skinner emphasized determinism and that phenomena should be measurable and observable in order to be scientific, and consequently, spirituality and religiosity were no longer considered rational explanations for health and mental health conditions [18]. For the next 50 years (i.e., 1920–1970), psychology moved toward behaviorism and the cognitive sciences.

In the 1950s, humanism emerged in the psychology landscape, primarily guided by the work of Abraham Maslow [18]. His theoretical constructs of self-actualization and the hierarchy of needs included a spiritual component. Later, humanist psychologists such as Viktor Frankl and Rollo May shifted the discussion of spirituality to focus more on individual values rather than a supreme being, leading to the label "secular humanists" [139]. During this same period, spirituality and religiosity became more prominent in the counseling professions [18,19]. The division of Catholic Counselors in the American Personnel and Guidance Association (APGA) emerged in the 1950s. In 1974, this group became known as the Association for Religious Values in Counseling (ARVIC), and in 1993, ARVIC changed its name to the Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling (ASERVIC) [18,19].

In the 1960s, the field of nursing moved toward a more holistic view of patient needs, including religious and spiritual arenas [16]. Although much of the early literature regarding nursing discusses religion, it was not until the 1960s that there was actual discussion of spirituality in nursing [16,20].

Into the 1990s, there was a focus on diversity issues in many of the social sciences. The 1994 revision (fourth edition) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) included a new category for religious or spiritual problems. Conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention as religious or spiritual problems according to the fifth edition of the DSM include loss or questioning of faith, problems with religious conversion, or questioning of spiritual values [21]. The impetus for the consideration of a new diagnostic category came from a proposal from the Spiritual Emergence Network, which had concerns regarding how the field of mental health pathologized religious and spiritual problems [22]. Some individuals, for example, might experience distress as a result of questioning their faith. When taken out of context, the symptoms can mimic a psychiatric disorder when, in fact, the reactions are "normal" [22].

In social work, consideration of spirituality and religion gained attention as well. Though social work was built on religious underpinnings, over the decades, it has maintained ambivalence in incorporating religion and spirituality into the field [140]. However, in the 1990s, the "strengths perspective" was becoming more popular, with its emphasis on acknowledging patients' attributes, strengths, worth, and potential. Social workers began to embrace their role in helping patients enhance their capabilities [23,24]. This was a concerted move away from a pathology-based model.

INCORPORATING SPIRITUALITY/RELIGIOSITY INTO PRACTICE

POSSIBLE BENEFITS OF INCORPORATING SPIRITUALITY

Many supporters believe that the need to incorporate spiritual and religious attention into professional practice is based on the concept of spiritual and religious pluralism being fundamental in a multicultural society [25]. Gilligan and Furness argue that an emphasis on cultural competency means that practitioners should understand and appreciate how faith, religion, and spirituality are intertwined with the cultural values and belief systems of ethnic minority groups [26]. This is particularly important due to increased globalization and the intersection of culture and ethnic identity with other identities, such as religion, spirituality, worldviews, disability, and political affiliation [27]. Similarly, practitioners argue that it is within a profession's ethical mandate to consider religion and spirituality because they are important factors of human experience. Not considering these issues would lead to insensitive assessment and treatment [22].

Others note that the symptoms resulting from spiritual distress are similar to the symptoms of depression [25]. Addressing potential problems of spiritual or religious origin may be an important aspect of treating depression and, potentially, other mental and health conditions. More research in this area is necessary to determine the impact of spiritual/religious interventions on overall well-being. Incorporating spirituality and religion into practice aligns with the strengths-based perspective and theories that advocate for empowering and fostering resilience [141].

Worthington and Sandage have identified several ways whereby spirituality and religion may become an issue in clinical practice [28]. First, a patient might specifically request therapy that incorporates religious components and question the practitioner's religious/spiritual background. Alternately, a patient might request that religion and spirituality not be discussed. If spirituality and/or religiosity are vital dimensions of a patient's life but this is not explicitly articulated, disagreements or misunderstandings may develop between the practitioner and patient regarding the course of treatment. Such a situation can ultimately hinder the practitioner from effectively treating or helping the patient. Finally, spirituality is often intertwined with culture. It is important to remember that patients are a part of a larger social system (i.e., family, neighborhood, community, religious institutions, school, employment). It is not possible to disentangle these social forces from patients' lives.

POSSIBLE DISADVANTAGES OF INCORPORATING SPIRITUALITY

One of the key attributes of any profession is that it possesses a unique set of competencies meant to facilitate problem solving based on scientific theory and technique [29]. In Western society, scientific theory is based on empiricism and rationalism, with a focus on measuring and observing phenomena. Because spirituality is an intangible concept, it is not easily subjected to measurement. Therefore, proponents of the empirical science of health and mental health care maintain that it is vital for professionals to remain objective and distant [30].

There are also concerns about incorporating spirituality into practice because of practitioners' levels of competence. Connelly and Light assert that most practitioners are generally not well trained to address faith-based aspects of care despite the fact that more electives on spirituality and religiosity are being offered in nursing, medical, counseling, and social work curricula [31]. A study of a random sample of baccalaureate nursing programs indicated that there was sparse teaching on spirituality and religiosity in most nursing curricula [32]. Spiritual and faith-based interventions and reflective practice were not covered in depth. Consequently, many nurses were not comfortable with their role in raising spiritual questions to patients and expressed fear or reluctance to invade a patient's private space [33]. On the other hand, a cohort of nursing students who received teaching on the spiritual dimension in care overwhelmingly found the instruction to be both personally and professionally beneficial [34].

Providers who use tools addressing religion/spirituality should refer to the available evidence-based practice literature to assess the efficacy and define progress [142]. Religion should not obscure what has been defined as markers of progress [142]. There is also controversy regarding the use of public funds to study spirituality and religiosity [35]. Some contend that it is not appropriate to use public funding to study religious phenomena because of the notion of separation of church and state [35]. This discussion is ongoing, and it is unclear to what extent it will help or hinder the provision of care.

Overall, the issue of autonomy is at the heart of the decision of whether or not to incorporate spirituality into practice. It is not a matter of what the provider wants; the patient's preferences should be honored [141]. The question of whether or not to incorporate spirituality or religion ultimately rests with the patient.

CHALLENGES IN DEFINING SPIRITUALITY

One challenge related to the incorporation and study of spirituality and religiosity is related to the measurement of this complex and multifaceted concept. The majority of instruments that assess spirituality and religion are quantitative, consisting of closed-ended question items. Quantitative instruments are based on the premise that there exists one defined objective reality of spirituality and religiosity that can be measured [23]. However, when these instruments are utilized, the subjective and intangible human experience of spirituality, religion, and faith are lost [23].

Another challenge when measuring spirituality and religiosity stems from the varied definitions. Hill and Pargament reviewed available quantitative instruments and found that existing instruments assessed different dimensions of spirituality and religiosity [36]. Aspects of spirituality that may be addressed include [36,37,38,39,40,41]:

  • Perceived closeness or connection to God or higher power(s): Questions related to this dimension assume that individuals who are spiritual or religious value a connection to God or a transcendent being. For example, some instruments ask individuals to rate how closely they feel or experience God. There are other instruments that instruct individuals to describe to what extent they turn to God or a higher power in times of need or challenges.

  • Sustaining force: Some individuals view spirituality and religiosity as a force or motivation that provides direction and guidance for living. An instrument attempting to measure this aspect would inquire about the role of spirituality or religion in the patient's framework or approach to life.

  • Religious support: Some researchers measure spirituality or religiosity by examining the notion of religious support, whereby individuals derive their social support from church, their faith community, and a group of other individuals who share the same values and worldview. Perceived religious support may also derive from knowing that others are praying on their behalf.

  • Struggle with religion and spirituality: As with any worldview, there will be times when individuals challenge their faith or spirituality. Presence of this struggle may be an indication that the patient requires additional support.

Senreich argues for a definition that is inclusive and captures all belief systems. He defines spirituality as [143]:

…a human being's subjective relationship (cognitive, emotional, and intuitive) to what is unknowable about existence, and how a person integrates that relationship into a perspective about the universe, the world, others, self, moral values, and one's sense of meaning.

The definition of spirituality can lead to a bias. For example, if spirituality is defined as a personal search for meaning and purpose but a patient with depression has lost his or her sense of purpose, is that patient void of spirituality? Using emotional well-being as part of the definition may be dangerous because the outcome is intertwined with the concept of spirituality itself [144].

OVERVIEW OF THE ROLE OF SPIRITUALITY/RELIGIOSITY IN HEALTH

The relationship between spirituality/religiosity and health is complicated in part because of the various definitions and research limitations. A discussion of some empirical studies conducted in this area is provided here as a basic overview.

A survey conducted by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) found that 52% of respondents had prayed for their own health [42]. Prayer was defined by NCCAM as "an active process of appealing to a higher spiritual power" [42]. Overall, prayer has been identified as the most commonly used form of complementary and alternative medicine in the United States. Other techniques with spiritual or religious basis include meditation, yoga, tai chi, qigong, and Reiki [42].

Studies have also shown that physicians regularly underestimate the degree to which their patients would like their concerns regarding spiritual or religious issues addressed [43,44,45]. Because spiritual well-being has been recognized as an important part of many patients' lives, practitioners should be aware of available resources and refer patients to the appropriate spiritual leader or advisor (e.g., chaplain) or support groups when necessary.

Health issues may arise that are specific to certain religious groups, and knowledge of major ideology specific to these groups is necessary in the provision of culturally competent care (Table 1). For example, health issues related to fasting may arise among Buddhists, Hindus, Muslims, and some Christian patients, as well as persons of other faiths. This may particularly become an issue during extended fasts, such as the Muslim observance of Ramadan, which continues for one month [46]. Fasting is done during Ramadan as a spiritual exercise and is mandatory for all healthy adults. Those exempt from Ramadan fasting include children (prior to the onset of puberty); developmentally disabled individuals; the elderly; those who are acutely or chronically ill, for whom fasting would be detrimental to health; travelers who have journeyed more than approximately 50 miles; and pregnant, menstruating, or breastfeeding women [46]. Practitioners should advise all patients for whom fasting would prevent healing or adequate care (e.g., inability to take medication) to postpone or abstain from the ritual, if possible [46].

AN OVERVIEW OF MAJOR RELIGIOUS IDEOLOGY AS IT RELATES TO HEALTH CAREa

TopicsBuddhismCatholicismHinduismIslamJudaismProtestantism
BirthAs part of the reincarnation cycle, birth may be viewed as an opportunity for the spirit to attain enlightenment in this life. Although there are no Buddhist rituals specific to the birth of a child, some practitioners may engage in a naming ceremony.Infants are usually baptized 40 days after birth.At birth, the sacrament of jatakarma is performed, in which the father smells and touches the child and whispers religious passages. Om symbols may be placed on or around the child to ward off evil. A naming ceremony takes place 10 to 12 days after birth. The time of birth is of special astrological importance.Infants are usually bathed immediately after birth, prior to being given to the mother. The call to prayer is whispered in the child's ear, so it is the first sound heard. Male children are usually circumcised within 7 days of birth.A rite of passage in the Jewish community, birth is celebratory and is marked by a bris (circumcision ceremony) and a naming ceremony. Circumcision usually takes place 8 days after birth.Infants may be baptized in a symbolic ceremony, although this often takes place later in life.
Birth controlPreconception birth control is acceptable.The official Church stance is against artificial birth control.Birth control is generally accepted.Preconception birth control that has no negative health consequences and does not lead to permanent sterilization is generally acceptable.Birth control is considered a private issue, between a woman, man, and their particular faith.There are diverse opinions regarding this subject among Protestant denominations.
DeathIt is very important that everything be done to provide a quiet and calm environment for patients for whom death is imminent, as it is believed that calmness of mind at death translates to a better rebirth.A priest should be called to give last rites if death is imminent. Last confession may be made to any person, although the patient may prefer a priest. Cremation is allowed; scattering of ashes is not.A Hindu priest or Guru may be summoned for last rites. As the soul (jiva) is reincarnated until karmic absolution, death is seen as an opportunity to continue the spiritual journey.Dying patients may request to face Mecca. Burial usually takes place as soon as possible, and there are special washing and shrouding procedures.It is believed that one should not go into death alone; therefore, the dying individual will receive as much attention as possible. A confessional and shema (statement of faith) is read when death is imminent.Traditions regarding death are also diverse. Some traditions require prayer and liturgies.
BereavementPrayers for an auspicious rebirth are said for the 49 days following an individual's death. Meditation on impermanence is also important.The presence of a priest may be necessary for support during this time. Prayers for the deceased soul may be said, informally and/or formally (Mass and/or the Rosary).Remorse for the deceased is believed to inhibit the spirit from leaving the body. Therefore, excessive mourning is discouraged, though not always avoided.The head should be covered when speaking of the deceased. Continuous prayers are recited in the home for 3 days following an individual's death. Guilt is a common component of grieving.Bereavement does not formally begin until the burial, after which there is generally a 7-day period of mourning.Among Protestants, bereavement is less structured than in other religions. Each person should be individually assessed.
Common religious objectsPrayer beads, images of Buddha and other deitiesBible, crucifix, rosary, images of the Holy family or saints, saint medallionsPrayer beads, incense, images/statutes of deitiesPrayer rug, Koran, amuletYarmulke or kippah (head covering), tallit (prayer shawl), siddur (prayer book), tefillin or phylacteries, candlesBible, images of Jesus Christ or Biblical figures, religious jewelry
Major holidaysWesak/Buddha Day, Losar, Parinirvana/Nirvana Day, Asala/Dharma Day, Bodhi DayChristmas, Ash Wednesday, Lent, Palm Sunday, Holy Thursday, Good Friday, Easter
Makar Sankrant, Holi, Diwali, Mahashivratri, Vasant Panchami, Rama Navami, Janmashtami/
Krishna Jayanti
Al Hijra, Milad un Nabi, Ramadan, Eid Al Fitr, Eid Al Adha, Day of Ashura, Lailat-ul-Quadr, HajjShabbat, Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, Purim, Passover, Shavuot, Sukkot, ChanukahChristmas, Ash Wednesday, Palm Sunday, Good Friday, Easter
aThis overview is meant only to give a simple, brief summary of general ideology of each religion. By no means are all of the rites, beliefs, or holidays described practiced by all members of each religion; likewise, not all religious rites, beliefs, or holidays are listed for each religion. As always, individualized assessment is encouraged.

Circumcision is also common among some religious groups, and complications related to circumcision should be reviewed as necessary. Sharing of razors, as in the case of ritual hair removal, or any other possible means of transmission of bloodborne pathogens (e.g., piercings, tattoos) should be considered, and risk minimization strategies should be discussed with patients [47].

CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH

Masters et al. examined the relationship between religious orientation (intrinsic vs. extrinsic) and blood pressure reactivity among adults older than 60 years of age and younger adults, 18 to 24 years of age, when exposed to hypothetical stressful vignettes that described interpersonal confrontations [48]. Individuals were identified as intrinsically religiously oriented if they internalized their religious beliefs, while those who were extrinsically religiously oriented associated outward activities, such as attendance at religious services, to their level of religious beliefs [48]. The study found that older and more extrinsically religiously oriented individuals showed higher blood pressure reactivity compared to younger and more intrinsically religiously oriented individuals. The researchers were cautious in generalizing the results to the larger population, but it appears that religious orientation in particular could in some way be linked to cardiovascular reactivity [48].

Studies show that attending religious services may serve as a protective buffer for coronary heart disease. In a large-scale study with 5,442 Canadians, those who attended religious services more than once per week had a lower odds of having diabetes or hypertension than those who attended less often or never [145]. There is conflicting evidence, albeit in small studies, of the positive effects of intercessory prayer, or prayer on behalf of another person, on cardiovascular health. Two studies of patients admitted to coronary care units (CCUs) examined the effects of remote, directed prayer by an outside group of Christians [49,50]. The authors of the first study found that those who were the subjects of an intercessory prayer group required less ventilatory assistance, antibiotics, and diuretics than the control group; researchers in the second study determined that those who had been recipients of prayer had significantly lower CCU course scores [49,50]. However, a study completed in 2006 found no difference in cardiac bypass patients who were recipients of intercessory prayer [135]. In fact, patients who were certain that intercessors would pray for them had a higher rate of complications compared to patients who were unsure. The authors hypothesize that there are several potential reasons for this finding differing from earlier studies: the effect was smaller than the 10% difference the study was designed to detect, the measurement (complications within 30 days of coronary artery bypass graft surgery) was not appropriate, or intercessory prayer has no effect on outcomes in patients undergoing bypass graft surgery [135].

It has also been suggested that cardiovascular benefits may be derived from chanting or prayer recitation [51]. In one small study, recitation of six Ave Maria prayers or yoga mantras per minute was associated with a significant increase in baroreflex sensitivity and enhanced heart rate variability [52]. The authors of the study concluded that engaging in the prayer or mantras provided cardiovascular benefits because it slowed "respiration to almost exactly six respirations per minute, which is essentially the same timing as that of endogenous circulatory rhythms" [52]. Consistent Buddhist meditation has also been found to be correlated with decreases in blood pressure, pulse rate, and serum cortisol [53]. In a systematic review of 19 studies, 63% found an inverse relationship between religion and spirituality and coronary heart disease [146].

HEALTH PROMOTION AND WELL-BEING

There also appears to be a relationship between religion and health-promoting types of behaviors. In other words, religious orientation may play a role in decreasing the tendency to engage in health compromising behaviors, such as substance misuse. In one study conducted with 211 African American college students, researchers found that students with proreligious, intrinsic, or extrinsic religious orientations were more likely to engage in health-promoting behaviors, including eating well, reporting symptoms to a physician, and using stress management techniques [54].

McCullough et al. found that those who were less religiously involved were more vulnerable to death at follow-up compared to those who were more religiously involved, even after controlling for demographic variables, health behavior, and social support [55]. In a longitudinal study that followed adults with cancer for more than 30 years, cancer mortality was found to be lower for those who attended church more frequently, when age and gender were taken into account [56]. However, the findings were not statistically significant after controlling for pre-existing health conditions. In yet another study, spirituality was not found to be related to slowing the progression of cancer or improved recovery [57]. In a review of 326 quantitative studies that examined the relationship between well-being and spirituality/religion, 79% found a statistically significant positive relationship [146].

CHRONIC ILLNESS

HIV/AIDS

Spirituality and religion are considered important aspects of care for patients with chronic illnesses. This has perhaps been most extensively studied among patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). There have been studies of the effects of religion and spirituality on well-being, coping, and psychological adjustment of those diagnosed with HIV. In a large-scale, national study of HIV-infected adults in the United States, 70% stated that religion was very important to them and 90% viewed spirituality as very important [58]. These findings are not surprising given the serious nature of their illness. Although this study did not find any relationship between the clinical stage of the HIV infection and level of religiosity or spirituality, a longitudinal study that examined disease progression in 100 people with HIV found that the increase in spirituality/religiousness after HIV diagnosis predicted a slower disease progression [58,59]. Another study of 275 HIV-infected individuals residing in Wisconsin found that different dimensions of spirituality and religiosity were correlated with coping and adapting [60]. For example, those who engaged in prayer practices, utilized formal religion, and reported a higher sense of spirituality were more likely to use adaptive coping strategies. Furthermore, a profile emerged in which spirituality was associated with being female, non-White, receiving support from family members, and using active problem-solving strategies [60]. An investigation into the relationship between religious coping and health outcomes (e.g., viral load, CD4 count, HIV symptoms) in 429 patients with HIV/AIDS indicated that positive religious coping (e.g., seeking spiritual support) is associated with positive health outcomes [61].

In one study, themes emerged related to building spiritual meaning for patients with HIV, including the concepts that purpose in life emerges from stigmatization; opportunities for meaning arise from a disease without a cure; and after suffering, spirituality frames the life [62]. Another qualitative study focused on individuals with HIV/AIDS who practiced Buddhism [147]. The researchers found that the individuals reported harmony with their illness and an acceptance of impermanence, which brought the participants peace. Recommended spiritual interventions for patients with HIV include promoting hope, teaching, sharing information, and creating a sense of empowerment to address spiritual issues [63].

Cancer

Spirituality has also been examined with regard to the course of illness for cancer patients, though the results are mixed in terms of its role in cancer morbidity and mortality [138]. One consistent finding is that spirituality is related to positive reports of well-being among cancer patients regardless of the stage of the illness [138]. In a small, qualitative study conducted by Simon et al., the experiences of spirituality among female patients in different stages of cancer were examined [64]. For many of the participants, spirituality served as a coping resource upon learning of their diagnosis. Anxiety and fear were common reactions to the cancer diagnosis; many of the women expressed the feeling that spirituality had helped them find meaning in the situation. During this initial phase, many of the women referred to a reliance on their faith in God to direct their decisions about treatment. During the treatment phase, the women stated that their faith and spirituality allowed them to maintain a positive attitude and reduced their fears. Furthermore, spirituality helped patients find a will to live. Consequently, many of these women discussed the growth of their spirituality during treatment. Finally, survivorship was linked to their higher power. In other words, many of the women believed that they had survived because of their God [64].

The National Cancer Institute has identified ways in which spiritual and religious well-being may improve cancer patients' quality of life, including [43]:

  • Improved health outcomes

  • Increased ability to enjoy life during cancer treatment

  • Better adjustment to the effects of cancer and its treatment

  • A feeling of personal growth as a result of living with cancer

Although spirituality and religiosity should be considered as part of the assessment of cancer patients, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend participation in spiritual/religious activities as part of the treatment [65]. Addressing spiritual concerns has traditionally been regarded as an end-of-life issue, even though such concerns may arise at any time after diagnosis. The National Cancer Institute recommends that inquiries into spiritual and religious concerns be postponed for cancer patients until after diagnosis and treatment options have been discussed and considered by the patient [43].

Overall, many researchers have found links between spirituality or religion and health outcomes, but they remain cautious about the findings. First, many of these studies involve small sample sizes, nonrepresentative samples, and/or correlational research designs, whereby one cannot infer cause and effect at the conclusion of the study. Second, because spirituality and religiosity are complex, multidimensional constructs, it is difficult to derive a correlation with health outcomes [66]. Third, many studies do not control for other variables, such as socioeconomic status, age, physical mobility, and social support, all of which may also affect outcomes [67]. In some cases, when additional variables are controlled for, the significant relationships disappear altogether [66].

OVERVIEW OF THE ROLE OF SPIRITUALITY/RELIGIOSITY IN MENTAL HEALTH

Spirituality and religiosity have also been examined in the field of mental health. Because they are only part of a diverse set of variables that affect mental health, spirituality and religiosity should be assessed in addition to various other contributory factors.

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

In the area of domestic violence, the role of spirituality/religiosity is not clear and is complicated by cultural norms and ethnic perspectives. Patriarchy and sexism, for example, are often reinforced by cultural and religious communities, in which an individual's place in society is often defined by gender. Patriarchal ideology reinforces personal and institutional sexist expectations for women and results in power differentials between men and women [68]. Many religious tenets, for example, place women in a subordinate role [69]. In Islam, marriage is considered "a means toward personal and spiritual fulfillment," and a husband is to be a "partner in faith" [70]. Muslim women may enter marriage believing that the act is an "enactment of spiritual harmony and for the greater social good" [70]. These assumptions about women's roles in the family could then affect how abuse is handled and reported.

Spiritual and religious involvement has also been shown to decrease the incidence of depression among domestic violence survivors. In a survey of African American domestic violence survivors, researchers found a positive relationship between religious involvement and level of social support [71]. This support then served as protective against adverse mental health outcomes, such as depression. In a separate study of Latino couples, spirituality served as a protective buffer against psychological abuse [148].

Spirituality and religion may also be utilized as coping strategies or mechanisms for healing in cases of domestic violence. In one study of domestic violence survivors, Gillum et al. found that the majority of women identified their spirituality and the support they received from their faith community as vital to healing and recovery [72]. The extent of religious involvement influenced the level of psychological well-being in a positive manner, decreasing the probability of depressive symptoms.

SUBSTANCE MISUSE AND DEPENDENCE

There has been increased attention to the relationship between spirituality/religion and substance misuse and dependence. In part, this can be attributed to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), a self-help group organization founded in 1935. The AA program is based on spirituality, as it views alcoholism as a multifaceted problem affecting physical, spiritual, and mental arenas. The 12-step program utilized by AA and other support groups is a process-oriented treatment and recovery plan with a spiritual component [73,74]. Neff and MacMaster argue that each of the 12 steps reflects cognitive and behavioral components, which also encompass spirituality [75]. One of the major tenets of the 12-step program is surrender to a higher power, but along with this spiritual ideology are cognitive and behavioral factors, such as obtaining a sponsor and attending meetings. Ultimately, AA's recovery process emphasizes the importance of surrendering to a higher power and the role of prayer (i.e., the Lord's Prayer and the Serenity Prayer) [76]. Interpretation of the concept of "higher power" is left to the individual to define [76]. It has been said that AA's spiritual philosophy is broad so that diverse groups can embrace its tenets [77].

It has also been surmised that spirituality and religion may reduce the risk of substance misuse [78,79,80,81]. In a 2015 study, researchers found that positive religious coping and aspects of spirituality serve are protective against drinking alcohol and cannabis use [149]. Using a longitudinal design, adolescents who endorsed higher levels of religiosity were found to have lower levels of use of cigarettes, alcohol, and cannabis compared to their less-religious counterparts [150]. Finally, in a systematic review of the literature from 2007 to 2013, the researchers found an inverse relationship between substance use behaviors and spirituality and religion [151]. However, it is not clear which components of spirituality and religion (i.e., commitment to substance avoidance, social support, religious involvement, or prosocial values promoted by religious affiliation) actually act as the protective factors [79]. There is also some contrary evidence that shows a positive relationship between religion and increased risk of substance misuse [79].

PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND MENTAL ILLNESS

Although there is an increasing emphasis on interventions that take a holistic approach to mental illness and working with patients and families toward recovery, some practitioners have expressed concern about focusing on spirituality and religiosity, particularly with patients who are diagnosed with severe mental and psychotic disorders [82]. Because patients with psychotic disorders may experience delusions and hallucinations with religious content, focusing on religion might exacerbate symptoms of disorganized thought and potentially promote injury to self or others [82,83]. Furthermore, rigid religious beliefs associated with guilt or sin may have the potential to aggravate major depression [82,146]. An extreme version of this is moral or religious scrupulosity, an obsessive concern with one's sins and moral behavior. This condition is generally considered to be a type of obsessive-compulsive disorder [84]. Scrupulosity is characterized by excessive guilt or obsession related to religious issues, often along with extreme moral or religious observance [85]. Treatment of this disorder is difficult, as practitioners often feel torn between addressing the pathology of the disorder and respecting the patient's religious beliefs.

However, there is no doubt that some individuals turn to spirituality and religion in times of stress. An overwhelming number of psychiatric patients stated that religion was their source of comfort [86,87]. Religion/spirituality may be considered a mechanism of social support, positive coping and decision making, and avoidance of substance misuse. At times, it can positively impact psychological well-being [83,87]. A separate study of Catholic and Protestant students in Northern Ireland found that increased prayer frequency was associated with a better level of psychological health in terms of Eysenck's concept of psychoticism, which is characterized by recklessness, disregard for common sense, inappropriate emotional expression, and hostility toward authority figures [88]. Corrigan et al. found that spirituality and religiousness decreased psychiatric symptoms, increased overall management of daily tasks of life, and increased psychological well-being among those with mental illness [89]. A Canadian study of approximately 37,000 individuals found that higher worship attendance frequency was associated with a lower risk for the development of mood, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders [90].

A 2012 meta-analysis of 444 studies dating back to the 1960s, 61% reported an inverse relationship between spirituality/religion and depression [146]. In another systematic review focusing on research published between 1990 and 2010 and including all types of mental disorders, 72% of the studies demonstrated an inverse relationship between religion/spirituality and mental disorders [152]. However, the findings were mixed when focusing solely on schizophrenia, and no relationship was found in studies examining only bipolar disorder.

In summary, as in the area of general health, there are no definitive conclusions about the precise mechanisms or correlations between spirituality and religion and amelioration of mental health outcomes, coping, and psychological well-being. Causal statements at this point cannot be made; continued research efforts are needed.

COPING AND SPIRITUALITY/RELIGIOSITY

When individuals experience health or mental health problems, spirituality or religiosity may be utilized as a form of coping. Pargament identified three ways that religion might aid individuals in coping [91]. First, religion can influence the perspective an individual assumes toward the stressor; the source of stress may be viewed as part of a divine plan or acceptance of a larger life plan [153]. Second, religion can shape the coping process; that is, religion or spirituality can be employed as an inner resource to overcome the challenges associated with the health or mental health problem. Finally, the coping process may strengthen an individual's spiritual or religious orientation. Three different types of religious coping have been identified [91,92]:

  • Self-directed coping: No reliance on God or higher power(s) to solve problems. ("It's my problem to solve, not God's.")

  • Collaborative religious coping: Utilization of strategies within oneself and God or higher power(s). ("God helps those who help themselves.")

  • Deferred religious coping: Passive attitude toward problems; waiting for God or higher power(s) to intervene. ("It's in God's hands.")

Rowe and Allen found that there were positive relationships between spirituality and coping among those with chronic illness [93]. Patients with chronic illness who measured high in terms of spirituality also measured high in areas of coping, which may reflect the role of spirituality in managing the stressors of chronic illness. In addition, intrusive positive thoughts (i.e., the ability to cope with stress through a positive outlook) predicted levels of spirituality among those with chronic illness. As a result, it was speculated that how one copes is mediated by one's outlook, which in turn may be influenced by one's spirituality [93].

In a study of 100 adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, spiritual coping predicted the level of current distress after controlling for various demographic factors, severity of abuse, and satisfaction with social support [94]. Adult survivors with self-directed and deferred religious coping styles were more likely to experience anxiety than those who utilized collaborative religious coping techniques. Spiritual discontent, another negative form of spiritual coping, tended to be correlated with greater distress [94]. In a 2013 study involving women with breast cancer, patients who deferred control to God were less anxious and had fewer concerns, but this also fostered a passive coping style and potentially a lower quality of life [154]. While deferring control can lead to acceptance and peace, practitioners can assist patients to implement active coping styles that are in harmony with their existing beliefs.

CULTURE AND SPIRITUALITY/RELIGIOSITY

Although many instruments meant to measure religion and spirituality have been developed, these instruments have been characterized by some as Eurocentric and Judeo-Christian focused [38]. Because the United States is both culturally diverse and religiously pluralistic, the role of culture, race, and ethnicity in the discussion of spirituality and religiosity should not be discounted.

Culture is defined as the beliefs, values, and prescribed ways of behaving that are passed from generation to generation, affecting cognition, structural institutions, and social, interpersonal, and political arenas of life [95]. Similarly, religion and spirituality consist of systematic patterns of beliefs, values, and worldviews shared by groups of individuals that affect patterns of behavior. Religion also influences how social relationships are organized, specifically through diverse rituals and ceremonies [27]. For many ethnic minority groups, religion and spirituality are intertwined with their cultural values and belief systems. Spirituality and religiosity may be interconnected with issues of marginalization, oppression, and discrimination for some cultural and ethnic minority groups. In many cases, religion and spiritual beliefs may serve to buffer the life stressors caused by oppression [27].

AFRICAN AMERICAN CULTURES

Some have argued that religion and spirituality in African American culture are shaped by political and social contexts, particularly issues of oppression, justice, and liberation [96]. Spirituality for African Americans has been referenced in the following manner [97]:

Faith in an omnipotent, transcendent force, experienced internally and/or externally as caring interconnectedness with others, God, or a higher power; manifested as empowering transformation of and liberating consolation for life's adversities; and thereby inspiring fortified belief in and reliance on the benevolent source of unlimited potential.

God, Allah, and figures of a higher being are viewed as conquerors for the oppressed. Consequently, religious and spiritual orientations are often used among African Americans both to deal with and construct meaning from oppression and promote social justice and activism [96].

The belief that God is a deliverance from pain during times of suffering is centered on the historical legacy of slavery and its attempt to destroy African culture and families [98]. Many African Americans indicate that they derive their strength from the belief that God is in a personal relationship with them and that life's adversities will eventually liberate them [99].

Religious involvement has become a source of empowerment and strength for many African Americans. According to the National Survey of American Life, which included 6,082 adults in the United States, African Americans and Afro-Caribbean participants were more likely to report attendance at religious services and affiliation to a specific religious denomination than non-Hispanic white participants [5]. In many cases, African American women play critical roles in the church [98]. Emotional expressiveness often characterizes African American churches, as emotions provide a venue for suffering and sorrow [98]. The level of religiosity may correlate with older age. For example, one study found that 89% of African Americans reported being religious, but only 52% to 55% of African American adolescents indicated that religion played a very important role in their lives [155].

JEWISH CULTURES

As noted, Judaism is the second most commonly practiced religion in the United States, following Christian denominations [1]. There are four major branches of Judaism, although smaller movements do exist worldwide. For the most part, Jewish individuals may be classified as Reform (the most liberal expression of modern Judaism); Conservative (known as Masorti Judaism outside the United States); Orthodox (the most traditional expression of modern Judaism); or Hasidic [100,101]. Some individuals may not practice a particular religious tradition, but because of the long cultural and ethnic history, these individuals may identify either racially or ethnically as Jews [100]. Experts often refer to this as Humanistic Judaism [103].

The major themes of Jewish values include community solidarity, fundamental social justice, and covenantal relationships [104]. These values are maintained through religious ceremonies and, especially among Reform or Humanistic Jews, through the pursuit of social justice.

ASIAN CULTURES

Many Asian cultures are predominantly influenced by Buddhism, Taoism, and Shintoism. Buddhism is based on the life and teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, who is believed to have founded Buddhism more than 2500 years ago. The crux of Buddhist spiritual beliefs are manifested in the Four Noble Truths [105]:

  • The Truth of Suffering: Conflict and tension are attributes of life.

  • The Truth of the Cause of Suffering: The root of this tension stems from desire or craving.

  • The Truth of the End of Suffering: In order to end tension, desire or craving must be eradicated.

  • The Truth of the Path Leading to the End of Suffering: Practice of the Eightfold Path leads to nirvana and ends desire.

Shintoism involves the worship of spirits and was once the official religion in Japan. Shintoists describe humans as body, mind, heart, and spirit. The spirit leaves at death. In the living world, the goal is to take care of one another and one's ancestors, which is why ancestor worship is important [106]. Thus, there are both vertical and horizontal relationships: those with ancestors and those with other members of society.

Many Asians, both abroad and in the United States, have adopted Christianity or Islam. There was a large Christian missionary influence dating back to 19th century in Asia, and many converted to Christianity before or after immigrating to the United States, with some viewing conversion as part of the acculturation process [156]. Despite the adoption of a monotheistic religion, many Asian families retain Buddhist, Taoist, or Shinto influences as part of their cultural traditions [156].

HISPANIC/LATINO CULTURES

According to the Hispanic Churches in American Life Survey, the vast majority of Hispanics/Latinos self-identified as Christians [157]. The Hispanic/Latino culture is heavily influenced by Roman Catholicism. It is estimated that Roman Catholicism plays a predominant role in the lives of approximately 90% of Hispanic/Latino Americans [107]. Roman Catholics strongly adhere to religious values that are centered on marriage and family, and condemnation of premarital sex, abortion, and the use of contraception is stressed [107]. In addition, the concepts of penance and redemption are key for practicing Catholics. While the main figures of Christianity are foremost (i.e., God, Jesus, and the Apostles), the Virgin Mary and canonized saints play a large role in the creation of spiritual relationships.

While many persons of Latin American descent practice Catholicism, for some, Santería and Espiritismo blend with their spiritual beliefs [98,148]. Both Santería and Espiritismo have their roots in African and Catholic beliefs [108]. When African slaves were brought to the Caribbean, they were exposed to Catholicism [108]. The blending of the traditional African religion of Ifa and Roman Catholicism resulted in Santería. Orishas, the potent forces or spiritual energies that are the foundation of the universe, are the central tenet of Santería [109].

Espiritismo is another spiritual belief system practiced among Hispanics/Latinos. The central focus of Espiritismo involves the existence of both good and evil spirits that can affect health [148]. According to the doctrine of Espiritismo, spirits are reincarnated in order to progress spiritually and all humans have benevolent spirits that guide them through the daily activities of life. However, evil spirits may be encountered, which can have adverse and negative influence [108]. One of the goals in Espiritismo is to achieve harmony and balance in relation to self, others, and the spirits [108]. Some have termed these belief systems as "healing cults" [157].

NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURES

There are 565 federally recognized Native American nations, and as such, the concept of Native American spirituality does not capture the diversity represented among all these groups [110]. However, there is a set of core values that serves as the foundation for Native American spirituality, including an emphasis on community, sharing, harmony, extended family, attention to nature, relationships, and respect for elders [102,111]. Locust summarized the following tenets as being central to Native American spirituality [112,158]:

  • There is a higher being or power, referred to as Creator, Great Spirit, or the Great One.

  • Spirits exist, but they are considered "lesser" than the higher being.

  • Humans are a part of creation, and all living things (e.g., people, animals, plants, nature) are related.

  • All living things, such as plants, animals, and humans, are part of the spirit world, which exists side by side with the physical world. Humans are comprised of three interconnected elements: spirit, mind, and body.

  • Physical and emotional well-being are the result of harmony of the body, mind, and spirit.

  • When illness occurs, it is believed that there has been a disruption within the natural order or interaction with those with evil motives (i.e., "witchcraft").

  • Every human is responsible for maintaining harmony with the self, others, the environment, and the universe.

CLINICAL ASSESSMENT AND INTERVENTIONS

ASSESSMENTS

There are a variety of assessments for spirituality and religion. The National Cancer Institute recommends that healthcare providers consider the following before selecting an assessment method [43]:

  • The focus of the evaluation (e.g., religious practice, spiritual well-being/distress)

  • The purpose of the assessment (e.g., screening for distress)

  • The modality of the assessment (e.g., interview or questionnaire)

  • The feasibility of the assessment (e.g., staff, patient burden)

Quantitative assessments entail a questionnaire with closed-ended questions, whereby the question items are predetermined and do not allow for diversity of experience or practice [23]. On the other hand, qualitative approaches to measuring spirituality are similar to taking a personal history. The qualitative approaches are generally considered more useful and comprehensive, although incorporation into daily practice may be difficult.

The Joint Commission, which evaluates and accredits healthcare organizations in the United States, mandates that practitioners in health organizations and agencies conduct an initial, brief assessment about spirituality. They require that, at a minimum, three areas be explored: denomination or faith, spiritual beliefs, and spiritual practices [113]. It may be that the practitioner merely conducts this initial assessment and finds that neither spirituality nor religiosity plays a dominant role in a patient's life. If the practitioner finds that either spirituality or religiosity is a key dimension, a more comprehensive assessment would be required. However, The Joint Commission has not developed clear guidelines as to the extent of an appropriate comprehensive assessment [114].

The Joint Commission provides the following questions that may be included in an assessment of spirituality; however, discussion need not be limited to these questions [113]:

  • Who or what provides the patient with strength and hope?

  • Does the patient use prayer in their life?

  • How does the patient express their spirituality?

  • How would the patient describe their philosophy of life?

  • What type of spiritual/religious support does the patient desire?

  • What is the name of the patient's clergy, ministers, chaplains, pastor, rabbi?

  • What does suffering mean to the patient?

  • What does dying mean to the patient?

  • What are the patient's spiritual goals?

  • Is there a role of church/synagogue/mosque in the patient's life?

  • How does faith help the patient cope with illness?

  • How does the patient keep going day after day?

  • What helps the patient get through this healthcare experience?

  • How has illness affected the patient and his/her family?

The rationale in conducting an initial, brief assessment is to determine if the patient's spiritual beliefs will serve as a barrier to service delivery [114]. An individual may be reluctant to participate in certain interventions, and understanding the patient's spiritual or religious background would contextualize the patient's responses and behaviors. For example, a Muslim patient or Hasidic Jew might be reluctant to participate in mixed-gender groups or be treated by members of the opposite sex [114].

Koenig and Pritchett assert that it is vital to provide patients with the opportunity to engage in a dialogue about the role of spirituality and religion in their lives [115]. For example, they urge clinicians to ask: Is religion or faith an important part of your life? How has faith influenced your past and present? Are you part of a spiritual or faith community? Are there any spiritual needs you would like to explore or discuss? These questions are similar in many respects to those provided by The Joint Commission.

Curtis and Davis offer a slightly different approach [116]. They suggest an initial closed-ended question, such as: "Do you have any spiritual or religious beliefs?" With such a question, the patient can simply answer yes or no. If the patient indicates a simple "no," the practitioner can then move on without the patient feeling guilty or uncomfortable [116]. Curtis and Davis assert that if practitioners initially inquire regarding patients' spiritual or religious views with an open-ended question, then patients may feel pressured to indicate that they do have spiritual or religious beliefs, even if they do not consider them important [116]. Practitioners can respond by encouraging the patient to express any thoughts or questions related to spiritual or religious matters during the session. Such statements convey to patients that while the practitioner is receptive to talking about such matters, it is acceptable not to talk about them as well. If the patient responds in the affirmative to the initial closed-ended question, then the practitioner can continue with more open-ended questions.

Inclusive language should be employed and is viewed more favorably by patients [159]. Instead of asking if a patient goes to church, ask if he or she is part of a faith community. It is also important to distinguish between explicit and implicit assessments of spirituality and religion [160]. Some patients prefer not to touch on spirituality and religiosity until they are comfortable with the practitioner's level of competence. In such cases, the practitioner may assess spirituality and religiosity indirectly by inquiring about beliefs or ideas that give meaning (or purpose) to the patient's life.

Spiritual histories, genograms, and life maps may also be useful assessment tools. A spiritual history consists of an open-ended interview that explores the patient's and his/her family's religious and spiritual beliefs, practices, and traditions. The public and private experiences of religion and spirituality are explored along a developmental life cycle [23]. Spiritual genograms are family trees that focus on religious and spiritual traditions, events, experiences, family orientation, and rituals that shape the patient's worldview and spirituality [23]. Spiritual life maps are pictorial illustrations of the patient's spiritual journey. Like a road map, the life map indicates where the patient has come from, where the patient is now, and what the patient is moving toward [117]. When creating this map, Hodge encourages practitioners to ask patients to "highlight the trials they have encountered and the spiritual resources they have used to cope in the course of their journey" [117].

Practitioners should also be in tune with the terminology and language patients use that may indicate that he or she is receptive to incorporating religiosity or spirituality into the conversation. For example, if a patient says "it is in God's hands" or "counting my blessings," this may suggest a spiritual worldview and an openness to discussing the role of spirituality in one's health and wellness [161].

INTERVENTIONS

Studies show that practitioners who use spiritual interventions, such as prayer, discussing religious concepts, and forgiveness, tend to combine them with traditional therapeutic frameworks [118]. Richards and Potts highlight several practice guidelines for those considering the use of spiritual interventions [119]:

  • A trusting relationship between the patient and practitioner should exist before using spiritual interventions.

  • Obtaining the patient's permission to discuss spiritual or religious issues is crucial. This is the heart of informed consent and self-determination.

  • The practitioner should assess the patient's understanding of his/her religious doctrines or spiritual beliefs before utilizing spiritual interventions.

  • Spiritual interventions should be used within the patient's value system, not universally.

  • Spiritual interventions should be used carefully, with much thought and planning.

  • It is important to assess the patient's mental status, as there is some concern that spiritual interventions may not be amenable with psychotic patients.

  • Spiritual interventions should be employed cautiously, particularly if spiritual issues are at the heart of the patient's problems.

Practitioners who adopt a relational posture that reflects an ethics of care and apply Rogerian tenets of unconditional positive regard, authenticity, and empathy will be able to develop trust with their patients. At that point, patients will feel comfortable enough to disclose to the practitioner when and how to incorporate religion and spirituality into their care [162].

Tanyi offers the following general guidelines to facilitate spiritually based interventions for individuals and families in the following areas [120]:

  • Spiritual support: Practitioners convey respect and support to promote an atmosphere of exploration and include an individual or family's spiritual beliefs, practices, and need for spiritual growth.

  • Spiritual well-being: Practitioners help individuals and families access spiritual resources within their community, sustaining discussion and desire for harmony and peace and affirming patients' desire for spiritual maturity.

  • Spiritual distress: Practitioners assist patients and families to find reasons for their distress and examine their spirituality and religiosity, providing research-based evidence about the role of spirituality in health and mental health.

Lawrence and Smith introduced the EBQT paradigm, a framework that includes four principles to help practitioners determine whether they should address and incorporate spirituality in the treatment or care of a patient. These four principles are [121]:

  • Evidence: What evidence dictates the use of a spiritual adjunct to therapy with this particular patient?

  • Beliefs: Does sufficient congruence exist between the patient's belief, the practitioner's belief, and the relevance of therapy?

  • Quality of Care: Will the spiritual adjunct to treatment improve the quality of care for the patient? Maximum quality of care is achieved when the desired outcomes are accomplished and the patient's values are preserved.

  • Time: Can this intervention be implemented within the time constraints of the clinical encounter, respecting the time committed to other patients?

Part of this paradigm is based on the belief that when both the practitioner and the patient believe that an intervention can work, this is a strong component of success. In other words, if both the patient and the practitioner believe in the importance and effectiveness of the spiritual adjunct to therapy, then success is maximized. This does not necessarily mean that the practitioner adheres to the patient's spiritual or religious value system, only that both have faith in the efficacy of the intervention.

Asking about the effectiveness of interventions is part of the ethical mandate; practitioners should only practice what is expected to produce positive outcomes. If a practitioner wishes to add a spiritual component to interventions with a depressed patient who identifies as a Christian, the empirical literature should be considered. This is the essence of the first principle of the EBQT paradigm.

Hodge conducted a systematic review of 14 studies examining the efficacy of cognitive and cognitive-behavioral interventions that included a spiritual or religious component [122]. These studies addressed seven different conditions: anxiety disorder, neurosis, obsessive-compulsive disorder, perfectionism, schizophrenia, stress, and depression. Hodge's analysis found that spiritually and cognitively based interventions within an individual or group setting can be used to address a range of problems targeted at diverse groups, such as Christians, Muslims, and Taoists [122]. These interventions have been used in a range of geographic locations, including China, Malaysia, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, and the United States. Researchers specifically found that spiritually and cognitively based interventions were effectively used in the treatment of depression in Christian patients. In addition, there was limited evidence that spiritually and cognitively based interventions might also be effective for depression in Muslim patients [122]. However, it is important to examine the criteria for "well-established, validated interventions," as not all of the evaluated studies utilized a true random experimental design (i.e., clinical trials) with a minimum of 30 subjects in each of two groups.

A scale to determine the suitability and the usefulness of including a spiritual adjunct to therapy has been developed. The scale ranges from appropriate to inappropriate based upon the number of principles upheld in the EBQT paradigm. An intervention is considered appropriate if the practitioner endorses all four principles. Endorsement of all four principles indicates that a spiritual adjunct might be useful and would likely be ethical given the patient's circumstances. Potential recommendations are those interventions supported by only 2 to 3 principles; the appropriateness of the action is limited to special circumstances and may not be useful for all practitioners [121]. Finally, a recommendation is inappropriate if the practitioner endorses only one or none of the principles; in these cases, a spiritual adjunct to therapy is unlikely to be useful and may not be ethical [121].

ETHICAL ISSUES

Respect is the heart of many health and mental health professions' codes of ethics. Because patients are seeking help for health, mental health, psychological, or social problems, they are already vulnerable when they meet practitioners. Consequently, patients come into the clinical process with some degree of trust that practitioners will offer remedies to their problems [123]. Therefore, the issue of trust and respect is key to the provision of care that guarantees patients' autonomy and self-determination.

The issue of patient autonomy and self-determination touches upon the concept of informed consent. Informed consent refers to the communication process between the patient and the practitioner during which information about an intervention is conveyed. One main aspect of informed consent is an understanding of the information that allows the patient to make an informed decision to either voluntarily participate or not participate in the intervention [124,125]. When addressing spirituality, the ethical question is whether an initial signed consent covers spiritual interventions (e.g., prayer, meditation) when patients may not necessarily classify spiritual interventions as treatments or interventions [31].

Incorporating spirituality into assessments and interventions is often assumed to be beneficial, without any inherent risk. Many believe that spirituality is a crucial dimension of life and ignoring it can be a detriment [163]. However, having patients discuss spirituality and religiosity either as part of the assessment process or during an intervention may exacerbate their already vulnerable state and cause additional distress [31]. The possibility of this occurrence should be discussed with the patient. In addition, practitioners should work within their professional boundaries. Is a nurse or counselor, when working in a healthcare or mental health agency, first and foremost a nurse or counselor or is he/she a pastoral caregiver [126]? The professional role of the practitioner to the employing organization or agency, particularly if the organization is not faith-based or religiously oriented, should guide decisions about conducting spiritual interventions. Practitioners should not practice outside their bounds of competence. If a practitioner does not feel capable of handling a patient's spiritual or religious concerns, appropriate referrals should be made [127]. Therefore, it is important to collaborate and network with clergy and religious leaders in the community. However, it remains part of ethical practice for practitioners to become familiar with the basics of the spiritual and religious beliefs of the populations they serve, as ultimately, this is a sign of respect [126,128,129].

Working with patients is considered a social experience. As such, practitioners may be confronted with values and beliefs that they do not understand, have conflict with, or have rejected. Practitioners should be aware of their reactions to the diverse or similar values and beliefs that may be presented by patients during interventions [114,163]. Hence, clinical supervision becomes a useful tool. Bracketing, a strategy of deliberately putting aside one's own beliefs or knowledge, is also recommended [164].

Before practitioners decide to incorporate spirituality or religion into practice, they should honestly explore the following questions to gain insight into their own comfort levels and how they might respond to diverse spiritual and religious backgrounds [130]:

  • Are you a spiritual or religious person?

  • What ethical concerns do you have about incorporating spirituality or religion in practice?

  • How knowledgeable are you about different spiritual and religious belief systems outside your own?

  • How do you feel about using prayer with patients?

  • What was your most painful experience with religion or spirituality while growing up? As an adult? How has it affected you?

  • What are your reactions when you meet someone who has a set of spiritual or religious belief systems that are different from your own?

  • What are your thoughts, experiences, and attitudes toward abortion, premarital sex, infidelity, drinking, drugs, gambling, disciplining children, etc.?

CONCLUSION

In order to provide culturally sensitive services to the racially and ethnically diverse population of the United States, it is necessary for practitioners to consider the impact of spirituality and religion on health and mental health care. The relationships between spirituality/religiosity and health and mental health outcomes, although by no means definitive or clear, indicate that practitioners should be educated and sensitive to the subject. It is not possible to be completely spiritually or religiously blind when practicing in such a diverse society. Therefore, practitioners should be prepared to conduct assessments of spirituality and religiosity and to incorporate issues of spirituality into practice in an ethical and culturally competent manner.

RESOURCES

Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling (ASERVIC)
http://www.aservic.org
Association for Spirituality and Mental Health (ASMH)
http://www.spiritualityandmentalhealth.org
Association for Spirituality and Psychotherapy
http://asphealing.org
Association for the Sociology of Religion
813-974-2633
http://www.sociologyofreligion.com
Association of Professional Chaplains
847-240-1014
http://www.professionalchaplains.org
Center for Spirituality and Healing
http://www.csh.umn.edu
International Association for the Psychology of Religion
http://www.psychology-of-religion.com
National Cancer Institute
http://www.cancer.gov
National Alliance on Mental Health
http://www.nami.org
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health
https://nccih.nih.gov
Psychology of Religion, Division 36 of the American Psychological Association
http://www.division36.org
Psychotherapy and Spirituality Institute
212-285-0043
http://www.mindspirit.org
Institute for Religion and Health at the Texas Medical Center
713-797-0600
http://www.ish-tmc.org

Works Cited

1. Newport F. Religious Identity: States Differ Widely. Available at http://www.gallup.com/poll/122075/Religious-Identity-States-Differ-Widely.aspx. Last accessed March 18, 2015.

2. Newport F. Estimating Americans' Worship Behavior. Available at http://www.gallup.com/poll/20701/Estimating-Americans-Worship-Behavior.aspx. Last accessed March 18, 2015.

3. Kosmin BA, Keysar A. American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS 2008): Summary Report. Hartford, CT: Trinity College; 2009.

4. Hage SM. A closer look at the role of spirituality in psychology training programs. Prof Psychol Res Pract. 2006;37(3):303-310.

5. Brown RK, Taylor RJ, Chatters LM. Religious non-involvement among African Americans, Black Carribeans and non-Hispanic Whites: findings from the National survey of American Life. Rev Relig Res. 2013;55(3):435-457.

6. Greenburg N. Can Spirituality Be Defined? Available at http://notes.utk.edu/bio/unistudy.nsf/935c0d855156f9e08525738a006f2417/bdc83cd10e58d14a852573b00072525d?OpenDocument. Last accessed March 18, 2015.

7. Mayers C, Johnston D. Spirituality: the emergence of a working definition for use within healthcare practice. Implicit Religion. 2008;11(3):255-264.

8. Burkhardt MA. Becoming and connecting: elements of spirituality for women. Holist Nurs Pract. 1994;8(4):12-21.

9. Pargament KI, Mahoney A. Spirituality: discovering and conserving the sacred. In: Snyder CR, Lopez SJ (eds). The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2011: 611-620.

10. King JE, Crowther MR. The measurement of religiosity and spirituality: examples and issues from psychology. J Organizational Change Manage. 2004;17(1):83-101.

11. Herrera AP, Lee JW, Nanyonjo RD, Laufman LE, Torres-Vigil I. Religious coping and caregiver well-being in Mexican-American families. Aging Ment Health. 2009;13(1):84-91.

12. Martin T, Kirkcaldy B, Siefen G. Antecedents of adult well-being: adolescent religiosity and health. J Managerial Psychol. 2003;18(5):453-470.

13. Gilbert MC. Spirituality in social work groups: practitioners speak out. Soc Work Groups. 2000;22:67-84.

14. Mattis JS. African American women's definitions of spirituality and religiosity. J Black Psychol. 2000;26(1):101-122.

15. Clews R. Spirituality in an undergraduate social work curriculum: reflective assignments at the beginning and the end of a programme. Curr New Scholarship Hum Services. 2004;3(1).

16. Johnson RW, Tilghman JS, Davis-Dick LR, Hamilton-Faison B. A historical overview of spirituality in nursing. ABNF J. 2006;17(2):60-62.

17. Slife BD, Hope C, Nebeker RS. Examining the relationship between religious spirituality and psychological science. J HumanisticPsychol. 1999;39(2):51-85.

18. Powers R. Counseling and spirituality: a historical review. Counseling Values. 2005;49(3):217-225.

19. Miranti JG. Historical Development of the Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling (ASERVIC). Available at http://www.aservic.org/about/history/. Last accessed March 18, 2015.

20. Gilliat-Ray S. Nursing, professionalism, and spirituality. J Contemp Relig. 2003;18(3):335-349.

21. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.; 2013.

22. Lukoff D, Lu F, Turner R. From spiritual emergency to spiritual problem: the transpersonal roots of the new DSM-IV category.J Humanistic Psychol. 1998;38(2):21-50.

23. Hodge DR. Spiritual assessment: a review of major qualitative methods and a new framework for assessing spirituality. Soc Work. 2001;46(3):203-214.

24. Saleebey D. The Strengths Based Perspective in Social Work Practice. 4th ed. White Plains, NY: Longman; 2005.

25. McEwan W. Spirituality in nursing: what are the issues? Orthop Nurs. 2004;23(5):321-326.

26. Gilligan P, Furness S. The role of religion and spirituality in social work practice: views and experiences of social workers and students. Br J Soc Work. 2006;36(4):617-637.

27. Cervantes JM, Parham TA. Toward a meaningful spirituality for people of color: lessons for the counseling practitioner. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2005;11(1):69-81.

28. Worthington EL, Sandage SJ. Religion and spirituality. Psychother Theory Res Pract Training. 2001;38(4):473-478.

29. Verma S, Broers T, Paterson M, Schroder C, Medves JM, Morrison C. Core competencies: the next generation. Comparison of a common framework for multiple professions. J Allied Health. 2009;38(1):47-53.

30. Greasley P, Chiu LF, Gartland M. The concept of spiritual care in mental health nursing. J Adv Nurs. 2001;33(5):629-637.

31. Connelly R, Light K. Exploring the "new" frontier of spirituality in health care: identifying the dangers. J Relig Health. 2003;42(1):35-46.

32. Lemmer C. Teaching the spiritual dimension of nursing care: a survey of U.S. baccalaureate nursing programs. J Nurs Educ. 2002;41(11):482-490.

33. Callister LC, Bond AE, Matsumura G, Mangum S. Threading spirituality throughout nursing education. Holist Nurs Pract. 2004;18(3):160-166.

34. Baldacchino DR. Teaching on the spiritual dimension in care: the perceived impact on undergraduate nursing students. Nurse Educ Today. 2008;28(4):501-512.

35. Miller WR, Thoresen CE. Spirituality, religion, and health: an emerging research field. Am Psychol. 2003;58(1):24-35.

36. Hill PC, Pargament KI. Advances in the conceptualization and measurement of religion and spirituality: implications for physical and mental health research. Am Psychol. 2003;58(1):64-74.

37. Pargament KI, Krumrei EJ. Clinical assessment of clients' spirituality. In: Aten JD, Leach MM (eds). Spirituality and the Therapeutic Process: A Comprehensive Resource from Intake to Termination. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2009: 93-120.

38. Hall TW, Edwards KJ. The spiritual assessment inventory: a theistic model and measure for assessing spiritual development.J Sci Study Relig. 2002;41(2):341-357.

39. Rose EM, Westefeld JS, Ansley TN. Spiritual issues in counseling: clients' beliefs and preferences. Psychol Relig Spiritual. 2008;S(1):18-33.

40. Borneman T, Ferrell B, Puchalski CM. Evaluation of the FICA Tool for Spiritual Assessment. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2010;40(2):163-173.

41. Pargament KI, Koenig HG, Perez LM. The many methods of religious coping: development and initial validation of the RCOPE.J Clin Psychol. 2000;56(4):519-543.

42. Clarke TC, Black LI, Stussman BJ, Barnes PM, Nahin RL. Trends in the use of complementary health approaches among adults: United States, 2002–2012. Natl Health Stat Report. 2015;79:1-15.

43. National Cancer Institute. Spirituality in Cancer Care (PDQ). Available at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/supportivecare/spirituality/HealthProfessional. Last accessed March 18, 2015.

44. Galanter M, Dermatis H, Talbot N, McMahon C, Alexander MJ. Introducing spirituality into psychiatric care. J Relig Health. 2011;50(1):81-91.

45. Ben-Arye E, Bar-Sela G, Frenkel M, et al. Is a biopsychosocial-spiritual approach relevant to cancer treatment? A study of patients and oncology staff members on issues of complementary medicine and spirituality. Support Care Cancer. 2006;14(2):147-152.

46. Sadiq A. Managing the fasting patient: sacred ritual, modern challenges. In: Sheikh A, Gatrad AR (eds). Caring for Muslim Patients. 2nd ed. Abingdon: Radcliffe Publishing Ltd; 2008: 73-79.

47. Gatrad AR, Sheikh A. Hajj and risk of blood borne infections. Arch Dis Child. 2001;84(4):375.

48. Masters KS, Hill RD, Kircher JC, Lenseqrav Benson TL, Fallon JA. Religious orientation, aging, and blood pressure reactivity to interpersonal and cognitive stressors. Ann Behav Med. 2004;28(3):171-178.

49. Roberts L, Ahmed I, Hall S, Davison A. Intercessory prayer for the alleviation of ill health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(2):CD000368.

50. Harris WS, Gowda M, Kolb JW, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of the effects of remote, intercessory prayer on outcomes in patients admitted to the coronary care unit. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(19):2273-2278.

51. Bernardi L, Porta C, Spicuzza L, Sleight P. Cardiorespiratory interactions to external stimuli. Arch Ital Biol. 2005;143(3-4):215-221.

52. Bernardi L, Sleight P, Bandinelli G, et al. Effect of rosary prayer and yoga mantras on autonomic cardiovascular rhythms: comparative study. BMJ. 2001;323(7327):144-1449.

53. Chiesa A. Zen meditation: an integration of current evidence. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15(5):585-592.

54. Turner-Musa JO, Wilson SA. Religious orientation and social support on health-promoting behaviors of African American college students. J Community Psychol. 2006;34(1):105-115.

55. McCullough ME, Hoyt WT, Larson DB, Koenig HG, Thoresen C. Religious involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review. Health Psychol. 2000;19(3):211-222.

56. Oman D, Kurata JH, Strawbridge WJ, Cohen RD. Religious attendance and cause of death over 31 years. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2002;32(1):69-89.

57. Powell LH, Shahabi L, Thoresen CE. Religion and spirituality: linkages to physical health. Am Psychol. 2003;58(1):36-52.

58. Lorenz KA, Hays RD, Shapiro MF, Cleary PD, Asch SM, Wenger NS. Religiousness and spirituality among HIV-infected Americans. J Palliat Med. 2005;8(4):774-781.

59. Ironson G, Stuetzle R, Fletcher MA. An increase in religiousness/spirituality occurs after HIV diagnosis and predicts slower disease progression over 4 years in people with HIV. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21(suppl 5):S62-S68.

60. Somlai AM, Heckman TG. Correlates of spirituality and well-being in a community sample of people living with HIV disease.Ment Health Religion Cult. 2000;3(1):57-70.

61. Trevino KM, Pargament KI, Cotton S, et al. Religious coping and physiological, psychological, social, and spiritual outcomes in patients with HIV/AIDS: cross-sectional and longitudinal findings. AIDS Behav. 2010;14(2):379-389.

62. Litwinczuk KM, Groh CJ. The relationship between spirituality, purpose in life, and well-being in HIV-positive persons. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2007;18(3):13-22.

63. McCormick DP, Holder B, Wetsel MA, Cawthon TW. Spirituality and HIV disease: an integrated perspective. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2001;12(3):58-65.

64. Simon CE, Crowther M, Higgerson HK. The stage-specific role of spirituality among African American Christian women throughout the breast cancer experience. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2007;13(1):26-34.

65. Sloan RP, Bagiella E. Claims about religious involvement and health outcomes. Ann Behav Med. 2002;24(1):14-21.

66. Seeman TE, Dubin LF, Seeman M. Religiosity/spirituality and health: a critical review of the evidence for biological pathways.Am Psychol. 2003;58(1):53-63.

67. Sinclair S, Pereira J, Raffin S. A thematic review of the spirituality literature within palliative care. J Palliat Med. 2006;9(2):464-479.

68. Foss LL, Warnke MA. Fundamentalist Protestant Christian women: recognizing cultural and gender influences on domestic violence. Counseling Values. 2003;48(1):14-23.

69. Yick AG. A metasynthesis of qualitative findings on the role of spirituality and religiosity among culturally diverse domestic violence survivors. Qual Health Res. 2008;18(9):1289-1306.

70. Hassouneh-Phillips DS. "Marriage is half of faith and the rest is fear of Allah:" marriage and spousal abuse among American Muslims. Violence Against Women. 2001;7(8):927-946.

71. Watlington CG, Murphy CM. The roles of religion and spirituality among African American survivors of domestic violence.J Clin Psychol. 2006;62(7):837-857.

72. Gillum TL, Sullivan CM, Bybee DI. The importance of spirituality in the lives of domestic violence survivors. Violence Against Women. 2006;12(3):240-250.

73. Morjaria A, Orford J. The role of religion and spirituality in recovery from drink problems: a qualitative study of Alcoholics Anonymous members and South Asian men. Addict Res Theory. 2002;10(3):225-256.

74. Kelly JF, Stout RL, Magill M, Tonigan JS, Pagano ME. Spirituality in recovery: a lagged meditational analysis of Alcoholics Anonymous' principal theoretical mechanism of behavior change. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35(3):454-463.

75. Neff JA, MacMaster SA. Applying behavior change models to understand spiritual mechanisms underlying change in substance abuse treatment. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2005;31(4):669-684.

76. Vick R. Questioning the use of Alcoholics Anonymous with college students: is an old concept the only alternative for a new generation? J Coll Counseling. 2000;3(2):158-167.

77. Kelly JF, Stout RL, Magill M, Tonigan JS, Pagano ME. Spirituality in recovery: a lagged mediational analysis of alcoholics anonymous' principal theoretical mechanism of behavior change. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35(3):454-463.

78. Galanter M, Dermatis H, Bunt G, Williams C, Trujillo M, Steinke P. Assessment of spirituality and its relevance to addiction treatment. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2007;33(3):257-264.

79. Miller WR. Researching the spiritual dimensions of alcohol and other drug problems. Addiction. 1998;93(7):979-990.

80. Robinson EA, Cranford JA, Webb JR, Brower KJ. Six-month changes in spirituality, religiousness, and heavy drinking in a treatment-seeking sample. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2007;68(2):282-290.

81. Kaskutas LA, Ammon L, Delucchi K, Room R, Bond J, Weisner C. Alcoholics anonymous careers: patterns of AA involvement five years after treatment entry. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005;29(11):1983-1990.

82. Fallot RD. Spirituality and religion in psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery from mental illness. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2001;13(2):110-116.

83. Koenig HG. Research on religion, spirituality, and mental health: a review. Can J Psychiatry. 2009;54(5):283-291.

84. Olatunji BO, Abramowitz JS, Williams NL, Connolly KM, Lohr JM. Scrupulosity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: confirmatory factor analysis and validity of the Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity. J Anxiety Disord. 2007;21(6):771-787.

85. Miller CH, Hedges DW. Scrupulosity disorder: an overview and introductory analysis. J Anxiety Disord. 2008;22(6):1042-1058.

86. Dein S, Cook CCH, Powell A, Eagger S. Religion, spirituality and mental health. Psych Bull. 2010;34:63-64.

87. Sullivan WP. Recoiling, regrouping, and recovering: first-person accounts of the role spirituality in the course of serious mental illness. In: Fallot RD (ed). New Directions for Mental Health Services: Spirituality and Religion in Recovery from Mental Illness. Vol 80. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers; 1998: 25-33.

88. Francis LJ, Robbins M, Lewis CA, Barnes LP. Prayer and psychological health: a study among sixth-form pupils attending Catholic and Protestant schools in Northern Ireland. Ment Health Religion Cult. 2008;11(1):85-92.

89. Corrigan P, McCorkle B, Schell B, Kidder K. Religion and spirituality in the lives of people with serious mental illness. Community Ment Health J. 2003;39(6):487-499.

90. Baetz M, Bowen R, Jones G, Krou-Sengul T. How spiritual values and worship attendance relate to psychiatric disorders in the Canadian population. Can J Psychiatry. 2006;51(10):654-661.

91. Pargament KI, Kennell J, Hathaway W, Grevengoed N, Newman J, Jones W. Religion and the problem-solving process: three styles of coping. J Sci Stud Religion. 1988;27(1):90-104.

92. Hood RW Jr, Hill PC, Spilka B. The Psychology of Religion, Fourth Edition: An Empirical Approach. New York, NY: The Guilford Press; 2009.

93. Rowe MM, Allen RG. Spirituality as a means of coping with chronic illness. Am J Health Stud. 2004;19(1):62-67.

94. Gall TL. Spirituality and coping with life stress among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Child Abuse Negl. 2006;30(7):829-844.

95. Lum D. Culturally Competent Practice: A Framework for Understanding Diverse Groups and Justice Issues. 3rd ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company; 2006.

96. Mattis JS, Jagers RJ. A relational framework for the study of religiosity and spirituality in the lives of African Americans.J Community Psychol. 2001;29(5):519-539.

97. Newlin K, Knafl K, Melkus GD. African-American spirituality: a concept analysis. Adv Nurs Sci. 2002;25(2):57-70.

98. Musgrave CF, Allen CE, Allen GJ. Spirituality and health for women of color. Am J Public Health. 2002;92(4):557-560.

99. Brome DR, Owens MD, Allen K, Vevaina T. An examination of spirituality among African American women in recovery from substance abuse. J Black Psychol. 2000;26(4):470-486.

100. ReligionFacts. Judaism. Available at http://www.religionfacts.com/judaism/index.htm. Last accessed March 18, 2015.

101. Union for Reform Judaism. What is Reform? Available at http://urj.org/about/reform/whatisreform. Last accessed March 18, 2015.

102. Hodge DR, Limb GE. A Native American perspective on spiritual assessment: the strengths and limitations of a complementary set of assessment tools. Health Soc Work. 2010;35(2):121-131.

103. Society for Humanistic Judaism. Available at http://www.shj.org. Last accessed March 24, 2011.

104. Elazar DJ. Jewish Values in the Jewish State. Available at http://www.jcpa.org/dje/articles2/values.htm. Last accessed March 18, 2015.

105. Hanna FJ, Green A. Asian shades of spirituality: implications for multicultural school counseling. Professional Sch Counseling. 2004;7(5):326-333.

106. Shirahama K, Inoue EM. Spirituality in nursing from a Japanese perspective. Holist Nurs Pract. 2001;15(3):63-72.

107. Falicov CJ. Mexican families. In: McGoldrick M, Giordano J, Garcia-Preto N (eds). Ethnicity and Family Therapy. 3rd ed. New York, NY: The Guilford Press; 2005: 229-241.

108. Baez A, Hernandez D. Complementary spiritual beliefs in the Latino community: the interface with psychotherapy. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2001;71(4):408-415.

109. Leonidas C. Introduction to Santería. Available at http://www.education.miami.edu/ep/LittleHavana/Santeria/Leonidas_1/leonidas_1.html. Last accessed March 18, 2015.

110. U.S. Department of the Interior, Indian Affairs. Available at http://www.bia.gov. Last accessed March 18, 2015.

111. Hendry J. Mining the sacred mountain: the clash between the Western dualistic framework and Native American religions. Multicultural Perspect. 2003;5(1):3-10.

112. Locust C. Wounding the spirit: discrimination and traditional American Indian belief systems. Harv Educ Rev. 1988;58(3):315-330.

113. The Joint Commission. Standards FAQ Details: Spiritual Assessment. Available at http://www.jointcommission.org/standards_information/jcfaqdetails.aspx?StandardsFaqId=290&ProgramId=1. Last accessed March 18, 2015.

114. Hodge DR. A template for spiritual assessment: a review of the JCAHO requirements and guidelines for implementation. Soc Work. 2006;51(4):317-326.

115. Koenig HG, Pritchett J. Religion and psychotherapy. In: Koenig HG (ed). Handbook of Religion and Mental Health. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 1998: 323-336.

116. Curtis RC, Davis KM. Spirituality and multimodal therapy: a practical approach to incorporating spirituality in counseling. Couns Values. 1999;43(3):199-210.

117. Hodge DR. Spiritual life maps: a client-centered pictorial instrument for spiritual assessment, planning and intervention. Soc Work. 2005;50(1):77-87.

118. Gonsiorek JC, Richards PS, Pargament KI, McMinn MR. Ethical challenges and opportunities at the edge: incorporating spirituality and religion into psychotherapy. Prof Psych Res Pract. 2009;40(4):385-395.

119. Richards PS, Potts RW. Using spiritual interventions in psychotherapy: practices, successes, failures, and ethical concerns of Mormon psychotherapists. Prof Psychol Res Pract. 1995;26(2):163-170.

120. Tanyi RA. Spirituality and family nursing: spiritual assessment and interventions for families. J Adv Nurs. 2006;53(3):287-294.

121. Lawrence RT, Smith DW. Principles to make a spiritual assessment work in your practice. J Fam Pract. 2004;53(8)625-631.

122. Hodge DR. Spiritually modified cognitive therapy: a review of the literature. Soc Work. 2006;51(2):157-166.

123. Winslow GR, Winslow BW. Examining the ethics of praying with patients. Holist Nurs Pract. 2003;17(4):170-177.

124. Post BC, Wade NG. Religion and spirituality in psychotherapy: a practice-friendly review of research. J Clin Psychol. 2009;65(2):131-146.

125. American Medical Association. AMA Opinion 8.08: Informed Consent. Available at http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/medical-ethics/code-medical-ethics/opinion808.page?. Last accessed March 23, 2015.

126. Post SG, Puchalski CM, Larson DB. Physicians and patient spirituality: professional boundaries, competency, and ethics. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132(7):578-583.

127. Johnson WB, Ridley CR, Nielsen SL. Religiously sensitive rational emotive behavior therapy: elegant solutions and ethical risks. Prof Psychol Res Pract. 2000;31(1):14-20.

128. McLennan NA, Rochow S, Arthur N. Religious and spiritual diversity in counseling. Guid Couns. 2001;16(4):132-137.

129. Koenig HG. Religion, spirituality, and medicine: research findings and implications for clinical practice. South Med J. 2004;97(12):1194-1200.

130. Hoosestraat T, Trammel J. Spiritual and religious discussions in family therapy: activities to promote dialogue. Am J Fam Ther. 2003;31(5):413-426.

131. Project Interfaith. Interfaith Calendars. Available at http://www.projectinterfaith.org/page/interfaith-calendars. Last accessed April 9, 2015.

132. University of Virginia Health System. An Interfaith Department: Religious Beliefs and Practices Affecting Health Care. Available at http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/pub/chaplaincy/clinical-pastoral-education/interfaith.html. Last accessed March 18, 2015.

133. Rady MY, Verheijde JL, Ali MS. Islam and end-of-life practices in organ donation for transplantation: new questions and serious sociocultural consequences. HEC Forum. 2009;21(2):175-205.

134. Gatrad AR, Ray M, Sheikh A. Hindu birth customs. Arch Dis Child. 2004;89(12):1094-1097.

135. Benson H, Dusek JA, Sherwood JB, et al. Study of the Therapeutic Effects of Intercessory Prayer (STEP) in cardiac bypass patients: a multicenter randomized trial of uncertainty on certainty of receiving intercessory prayer. Am Heart J. 2006;151(4):934-942.

136. Sheridan MJ. Ethical issues in the use of spirituality based interventions in social work practice: what are we doing and why. J Relig Spiritual Soc Work. 2009;28:99-126.

137. Barber C. Spirituality and religion: a brief definition. British Journal of Healthcare Assistants. 2012;6(8):378-381.

138. Masters KS, Hooker SA. Religiousness/spirituality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: cultural integration for health research and intervention. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2013;81(2):206-216.

139. Fukuyama M, Puig A, Baggs A, Wolf CP. Religion and spirituality. In: Leong FTL, Comas-Díaz L, Nagayama Hall GC, McLoyd VC, Trimble JE (eds). APA Handbook of Multicultural Psychology, Volume 1: Theory and Research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2014: 519-534.

140. Day P. A New History of Social Welfare. 6th ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.; 2009.

141. Lietz CA, Hodge DR. Incorporating spirituality into substance abuse counseling: examining the perspectives of service recipients and providers. J Soc Serv Res. 2013;39(4):498-510.

142. Kersting K. Religion and Spirituality in the Treatment Room. Available at http://www.apa.org/monitor/dec03/religion.aspx. Last accessed March 23, 2015.

143. Senreich E. An inclusive definition of spirituality for social work education and practice. J Soc Work Educ. 2013;49(4):548-563.

144. Reinert KG, Koenig HG. Re-examining definitions of spirituality in nursing research. J Adv Nurs. 2013;69(12):2622-2634.

145. Banerjee A, Boyle M, Anand S, et al. The relationship between religious service attendance and coronary heart disease and related risk factors in Saskatchewan, Canada. J Relig Health. 2014;53(1):141-156.

146. Koenig HG. Religion, spirituality, and health: the research and clinical implications. ISRN Psychiatry. 2012;278730:1-33.

147. Balthip Q, Petchruschatachart U, Piriyakoontorn S, Boddy J. Achieving peace and harmony in life: Thai Buddhists living with HIV/AIDS. Int J Nurs Pract. 2013;4(Suppl):7-14.

148. Austin JL, Falconier MK. Spirituality and common dyadic coping: protective factors from psychological aggression in Latino immigrant couples. J Fam Issues. 2013;34(3):323-346.

149. Giordano AL, Prosek EA, Daly CM, et al. Exploring the relationship between religious coping and spirituality among three types of collegiate substance abuse. J Couns Dev. 2015;93(1):70-79.

150. Shepperd JAM, Smith WA, Tucker C, Algina J. Does religion offer worldviews that dissuade adolescent substance use? Psycholog Relig Spiritual. 2014;6(4):292-301.

151. Kub J, Solari-Twadell PA. Religiosity/spirituality and substance use in adolescence as related to positive development. J Addict Nurs. 2013;24(4):247-262.

152. Bonelli R, Koenig H. Mental disorders, religion, and spirituality 1990 to 2010: a systematic evidence-based review. J Relig Health. 2013;52(2):657-673.

153. Unantenne N, Warren N, Canaway R, Manderson L. The strength to cope: spirituality and faith in chronic disease. J Relig Health. 2013;52(4):1147-1161.

154. McLaughlin B, Yoo W, D'Angelo J, et al. It is out of my hands: how deferring control to God can decrease the quality of life for breast cancer patients. Psychooncology. 2013;22(12):2747-2754.

155. Mattis JS, Grayman-Simpson NA. Faith and the sacred in African American life. In: Pargament KI, Exline JJ, Jones JW (eds).APA Handbook of Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality, Volume 1: Context, Theory, and Research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2013: 547-564.

156. Ai AL, Bjorck JP, Appel HB, Huang B. Asian American spirituality and religion: inherent diversity, uniqueness, and long-lasting psychological influences. In: Pargament KI, Exline JJ, Jones JW (eds). APA Handbook of Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality, Volume 1: Context, Theory, and Research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2013: 581-598.

157. Koss-Chioino J. Religon and spirituality in Latino life in the United States. In: Pargament KI, Exline JJ, Jones JW (eds). APA Handbook of Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality, Volume 1: Context, Theory, and Research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2013: 599-615.

158. King J, Trimble JE, Skawen G, et al. North American Indian and Alaska Native spirituality and psychotherapy. In: Richards PS, Bergin AE (eds). Handbook of Psychotherapy and Religious Diversity. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association;451-472.

159. Hunt J. Bio-psycho-social-spiritual assessment? Teaching the skill of spiritual assessment. Social Work & Christianity. 2014;41(4):373-384.

160. Hodge DR. Implicit spiritual assessment: an alternative approach for assessing client spirituality. Soc Work. 2013;58(3):223-230.

161. Stewart M. Spiritual assessment: a patient-centered approach to oncology social work practice. Soc Work Health Care. 2014;53(1):59-73.

162. Keenan EK. Navigating the ethical terrain of spiritually focused psychotherapy goals: multiple worldviews, affective triggers, and personal practices. Smith Coll Stud Soc Work. 2010;80(2-3):228-247.

163. Yarhouse MA, Johnson V. Value and ethical issues: the interface between psychology and religion. In: Pargament KI, Mahoney A, Shafranske EP (eds). APA Handbook of Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality, Volume 2: An Applied Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2013: 43-70.

164. Chan ZCY, Fung Y, Chien W. Bracketing in phenomenology: only undertaken in the data collection and analysis process?Qual Rep. 2013;18(59):1-9.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. Management of Post-Traumatic Stress Working Group. VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for Management of Post-Traumatic Stress. Washington, DC: Veterans Health Administration, Department of Defense; 2010. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=25628. Last accessed April 10, 2015.

2. McCusker M, Ceronsky L, Crone C, et al. Palliative Care for Adults. Bloomington, MN: Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement; 2013. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=47629. Last accessed April 10, 2015.

3. Turnbull G, Baldassarre F, Brown P, et al. Psychosocial Health Care for Cancer Patients and their Families. Toronto: Cancer Care Ontario; 2010. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=35095. Last accessed April 10, 2015.


Copyright © 2015 NetCE, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.