Works Cited

1. National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases. Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2013.

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. General Information About MRSA in Healthcare Settings. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/mrsa/healthcare/index.html. Last accessed August 25, 2017.

3. Hitt E. C. difficile Surpasses MRSA as the Leading Cause of Nosocomial Infections in Community Hospitals. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/719053. Last accessed August 25, 2017.

4. Rebelo K. Virulent Strain of C. difficile on the Rise in Hospital and Community Settings. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/711769. Last accessed August 25, 2017.

5. Rebelo K. SHEA 2009: Common Hand-Hygiene Products Ineffective at Killing Clostridium difficile. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/589984. Last accessed August 25, 2017.

6. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology. 2013 Clostridium difficilePace of Progress Survey: Results of an Online Poll of Infection Preventionists. Washington, DC: APIC; 2013.

7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vital signs: preventing Clostridium difficile infection. MMWR. 2012;61(09):157-162.

8. Walker AS, Eyre DW, Wyllie, DH, et al. Characterisation of Clostridium difficile hospital ward-based transmission using extensive epidemiological data and molecular typing. PLoS Medicine. 2012;9:1001172.

9. Cohen S, Gerding N, Johnson S, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults: 2010 update by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010;31(5):431-455.

10. Berrie D. Current Clostridium difficile Strains May Be Less Susceptible to Metronidazole. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/573411. Last accessed August 25, 2017.

11. Reagan J, Herzig CTA, Pogorzelska-Maziarz M, Dick AW, Stone PW, Srinath JD. State law mandates reporting of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infections in hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2015;36(3):350-352.

12. Lessa FC, Mu Y, Bamberg WM, et al. Burden of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States. New Engl J Med. 2015;372: 825-834.

13. Zhang S, Palazuelos-Munoz, S, Balsells EM, Nair H, Chit A, Kyaw MH. Cost of hospital management of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States—a meta-analysis and modelling study. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16(1):447.

14. O'Connor JR, Johnson S, Gerding DN. Clostridium difficile infection caused by the epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strain. Gastroenterol. 2009;136(6):1913-1924.

15. Faten N Aberra, Craig A Gronczewski, Jonathan P Katz. Clostridium difficile Colitis. Available at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/186458-overview. Last accessed August 25, 2017.

16. Olson MM, Shanholtzer CJ, Lee JT Jr, Gerding DN. Ten years of prospective Clostridium difficile-associated disease surveillance and treatment at the Minneapolis VA Medical Center, 1982–1991. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1994;15(6):371-381.

17. Carrico RM, Archibald LK, Bryant K, et al. Guide to the Elimination of Clostridium difficile in Healthcare Settings. Washington, DC: Association for Infection Control Professionals; 2008.

18. Leclair M-A, Allard C, Lesur O, Pépin J. Clostridium difficile infection in the intensive care unit. J Intensive Care Med. 2010;25: 23-30.

19. Simor AE, Bradley SF, Strausbaugh LJ, Crossley K, Nicolle LE, the SHEA Long-Term Care Committee. Clostridium difficile in long-term care facilities for the elderly. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002;23(11)696-703.

20. Sivapalasingam S, Blaser MJ. Bacterial diarrhea in HIV-infected patients: why Clostridium difficile, and why now? Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41(11):1628-1630.

21. Dalton BR, Lye-MacCannell T, Henderson EA, MacCannell DR, Louie TJ. Proton pump inhibitors increase significantly the risk of Clostridium difficile infection in a low-endemicity, non-outbreak hospital setting. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009;29(6):626-634.

22. Howell MD, Novack V, Grgurich P, et al. Iatrogenic gastric acid suppression and the risk of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(9):784-790.

23. Barletta JF, El-Ibiary SY, Davis LE, Nguyen B, Raney CR. Proton pump inhibitors and the risk for hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013;88(10):1085-1090.

24. Tariq R, Singh S, Gupta A, Pardi DS, Khanna S. Association of gastric acid suppression with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2017;177(6):784-791.

25. Stoesser N, Eyre DW, Quan TP, et al. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile in infants in Oxfordshire, UK: risk factors for colonization and carriage, and genetic overlap with regional C. difficile infection strains. PLoS One. 2017;12(8):e0182307.

26. Nicholson MR, Thomsen IP, Edwards KM. Controversies surrounding Clostridium difficile infection in infants and young children. Children (Basel). 2014;1(1):40-47.

27. Bryant K, McDonald C. Clostridium difficile infections in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28(2):145-146.

28. Cózar-Llistó A, Ramos-Martinez A, Cabo J. Clostridium difficile infection in special high-risk populations. Infect Dis Ther. 2016;5(3):253-269.

29. Unger JA, Whimbey E, Gravett MG, Eschenbach DA. The emergence of Clostridium difficile infection among peripartum women: a case-control study of a C. difficile outbreak on an obstetrical service. Am J Infect Control. 2011;39(3):206-211.

30. McDonald LC, Coignard B, Dubberke E, et al. Recommendations for surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007;28:140-145.

31. Alam MJ, Walk ST, Endres BT, et al. Community environmental contamination of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017;4(1):ofx018.

32. Alam MJ, Anu A, Walk ST, Garey KW. Investigation of potentially pathogenic Clostridium difficile contamination in household environs. Anaerobe. 2014;27:31-33.

33. Esfandiari Z, Weese S, Ezzatpanah H, Jalali M, Chamani M. Occurrence of Clostridium difficile in seasoned hamburgers and seven processing plants in Iran. BMC Microbiol. 2014;14:283.

34. Furuya-Kanamori L, Riley TV, Paterson DL, et al. Comparison of Clostridium difficile ribotypes circulating in Australian hospitals and communities. J Clin Microbiol. 2016;55(1):216-225.

35. Songer JG, Trinh HT, Killgore GE, Thompson AD, McDonald LC, Limbago BM. Clostridium difficile in retail meat products, USA, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):819-821.

36. Kwon JH, Lanzas C, Reske KA, et al. An evaluation of food as a potential source for Clostridium difficile acquisition in hospitalized patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2016;37(12):1401-1407.

37. Gerding DN, Johnson S, Peterson LR, Mulligan ME, Silva Jr J. SHEA Position Paper: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1995;16(8):459-477.

38. Grant TH, Rosen MP, Fidler JL, et al. for the Expert Panel on Gastrointestinal Imaging. ACR Appropriateness Criteria: Acute Abdominal Pain and Fever or Suspected Abdominal Abscess. Reston, VA: American College of Radiology (ACR); 2008.

39. Manthey CF, Eckmann L, Fuhrmann V. Therapy for Clostridium difficile infection—any news beyond metronidazole and vancomycin? Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2017;11:1-12.

40. Slayton ET, Hay AS, Babcock CK, Long TE. New antibiotics in clinical trials for Clostridium difficile. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2016;25:1-12.

41. Bassères E, Endres BT, Dotson KM, Alam MJ, Garey KW. Novel antibiotics in development to treat Clostridium difficile infection. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2017;33(1):1-7.

42. McFarland LV, Probiotics for the primary and secondary prevention of C. difficile infections: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Antibiotics (Basel). 2015;4(2):160-178.

43. Cornely OA, Miller MA, Louie TJ, et al. Treatment of first recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection: fidaxomicin versus vancomycin. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55(Suppl 2):S154.

44. Chilton CH, Crowther GS, Ashwin H, Longshaw CM, Wilcox MH. Association of fidaxomicin with C. difficile spores: effects of persistence on subsequent spore recovery, outgrowth and toxin production. PLoS One. 2016;11(8):e0161200.

45. Seigal JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello L, Healthcare Infection Control Practice Advisory Committee. 2007 Guidelines for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2007.

46. Rutala WA, Weber DJ, Healthcare Infection Control Practice Advisory Committee. Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities, 2008. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2008.

47. Larson EL, Quiros D, Lin SX. Dissemination of the CDC's hand hygiene guideline and impact on infection rates. Am J Infect Control. 2007;35(10):666-675.

48. Johnson PDR, Rhea M, Burrell LJ, et al. Efficacy of an alcohol/chlorhexidine hand hygiene program in a hospital with high rates of nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. Med J Aust. 2005;183(10):509-514.

49. Gordin FM, Schultz ME, Huber RA, Gill JA. Reduction in nosocomial transmission of drug-resistant bacteria after introduction of an alcohol-based handrub. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2005;26(7):650-653.

50. Boyce JM, Pittet D. Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings. MMWR. 2002;51(RR16):1-44.

51. Burke JP. Infection control: a problem for patient safety. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(7):651-656.

52. Clark AP, Houston S. Nosocomial infections: an issue of patient safety: part 2. Clin Nurse Spec. 2004;18(2):62-64.

53. Pittet D, Hugonnet S, Harbarth S, et al. Effectiveness of a hospital-wide programme to improve compliance with hand hygiene. Lancet. 2000;356(9238):1307-1312.

54. Jabbar U, Leischner J, Kasper D. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand rubs for removal of Clostridium difficile spores from hands.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010;31(6):565-570.

55. Committee on Health Literacy Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health. Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2004.

56. Kutner M, Greenberg E, Jin Y, Paulsen C, White S. The Health Literacy of America's Adults Results From the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education; 2006.

57. U.S. Census Bureau. Selected Social Characteristics in the United States: 2015. Available at https://factfinder.census.gov. Last accessed August 25, 2017.

58. Sevilla Matir J, Willis DR. Using bilingual staff members as interpreters. Fam Pract Manage. 2004;11(7):34-36.

59. World Health Organization. Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections: A Practical Guide. 2nd ed. Geneva: WHO Press; 2002.

60. Nelson DB, Jarvis WR, Rutala WA, et al. Multi-society guideline for reprocessing flexible gastrointestinal endoscopes. Infect Cont Hosp Epidemiol. 2003;24(7):532-537.

61. Tietjen L, Bossemeyer D, McIntosh N. Infection Prevention. Guidelines for Healthcare Facilities with Limited Resources. Baltimore, MD: JHPIEGO; 2003.

62. Favero MS, Bond WW. Disinfection of medical and surgical materials. In: Block SS (ed). Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001:881-917.

63. Leung JW. Reprocessing of flexible endoscopes. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000;15(Suppl):G73-G77.

64. Nelson DB, Muscarella LF. Current issues in endoscope reprocessing and infection control during gastrointestinal endoscopy.World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12(25):3953-3964.

65. Muscarella LF. Inconsistencies in endoscope-reprocessing and infection-control guidelines: the importance of endoscope drying.Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:2147-2154.

66. Rutala WA, Weber DJ. Reprocessing endoscopes: United States perspective. J Hosp Infect. 2004;56(Suppl 2):S27-S39.

67. Kampf G, Fliss PM, Martiny H. Is peracetic acid suitable for the cleaning step of reprocessing flexible endoscopes? World J Gastrointest Endosc. 2014;6(9):390-406.

68. Facility Guidelines Institute. FGI 2014 Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospitals and Outpatient Facilities. Available at https://www.fgiguidelines.org/guidelines/2014-hospital-outpatient. Last accessed August 25, 2017.

69. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Overview and Evidence to Support Stewardship. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/healthcare/evidence.html. Last accessed August 25, 2017.

70. Dubberke ER. Prevention of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection: what works? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010;31(S1):S38-S41.

71. Pillai A, Nelson R. Probiotics for treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated colitis in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(1):CD004611.

72. McFarland LV. Evidence-based review of probiotics for antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infections. Anaerobe. 2009;15(6):274-280.

73. Hickson M, D'Souza AL, Muthu N, et al. Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. BMJ. 2007;335(7610):80.

74. Kassam Z, Lee CH, Yuan Y, Hunt RH. Fecal microbiota transplantation for Clostridium difficile infection: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108(4):500-508.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. Surawicz CM, Brandt LJ, Binion DG, et al. Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Clostridium difficile infections. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108(4):478-498. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at https://www.guideline.gov/summaries/summary/45139. Last accessed September 18, 2017.

2. Ferrada P, Velopulos CG, Sultan S, et al. Timing and type of surgical treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated disease: a practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014;76(6):1484-1494. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at https://www.guideline.gov/summaries/summary/48870. Last accessed September 18, 2017.


Copyright © 2017 NetCE, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.