Works Cited

1. Pittenger C, Bloch MH. Pharmacological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2014;37(3):375-391.

2. National Institute of Mental Health. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Available at https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd.shtml. Last accessed March 27, 2018.

3. Pinto A, Mancebo MC, Eisen JL, Pagano ME, Rasmussen SA. The Brown Longitudinal Obsessive Compulsive Study: clinical features and symptoms of the sample at intake. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67(5):703-711.

4. Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(6):617-627.

5. Nelson E, Rice J. Stability of diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154(6):826-831.

6. American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2007.

7. Norberg MM, Calamari JE, Cohen RJ, Riemann BC. Quality of life in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an evaluation of impairment and a preliminary analysis of the ameliorating effects of treatment. Depress Anxiety. 2008;25(3):248-259.

8. Eisen JL, Mancebo MA, Pinto A, et al. Impact of obsessive-compulsive disorder on quality of life. Compr Psychiatry. 2006;47(4):270-275.

9. Huppert JD, Simpson HB, Nissenson KJ, Liebowitz SR, Foa EB. Quality of life and functional impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a comparison of patients with and without comorbidity, patients in remission, and healthy controls. Depress Anxiety. 2009;26(1):39-45.

10. Hollander E, Kwon JH, Stein DJ, et al. Obsessive-compulsive and spectrum disorders: overview and quality of life issues. J Clin Psychiatry. 1996;57(Suppl 8):3-6.

11. World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2001—Mental Health: New Understanding, New Hope. Available at http://www.who.int/whr/2001/en/. Last accessed March 27, 2018.

12. Eaton WW, Martins SS, Nestadt G, Bienvenu OJ, Clarke D, Alexandre P. The burden of mental disorders. Epidemiol Rev. 2008;30:1-14.

13. Skoog G, Skoog I. A 40-year follow-up of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999;56(2):121-132.

14. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.; 2013.

15. Foa EB, Kozak MJ, Goodman WK, Hollander E, Jenike MA, Rasmussen SA. DSM-IV field trial: obsessive-compulsive disorder.Am J Psychiatry. 1995;152(1):90-96.

16. Borges G, Angst J, Nock MK, et al. Risk factors for twelve-month suicide attempts in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Psychol Med. 2006;36(12):1747-1757.

17. Foa EB, Huppert JD, Leiberg S, et al. The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory: development and validation of a short version. Psychol Assess. 2002;14(4):485-496.

18. Hettema JM, Neale MC, Kendler KS. A review and meta-analysis of the genetic epidemiology of anxiety disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158(10):1568-1578.

19. Kim SJ, Kim CH. The genetic studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder and its future directions. Yonsei Med J. 2006;47(4):443-454.

20. Stein DJ, Lochner C. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders: a multidimensional approach. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2006;29(2):343-351.

21. Menzies L, Chamberlain SR, Laird AR, Thelen SM, Sahakian BJ, Bullmore ET. Integrating evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder: the orbitofrontal-striatal model revisited. Neurosci Behav Rev. 2008;32(3):525-549.

22. Stanford Medicine. Understanding Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. Available at http://ocd.stanford.edu/about/understanding.html. Last accessed March 27, 2018.

23. Gentile S. Efficacy of antidepressant medications in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic appraisal. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2011;31(5):625-632.

24. Stein DJ. Obsessive compulsive disorder. Lancet. 2002;360(9330):397-405.

25. Kurlan R, Johnson D, Kaplan EL; Tourette Syndrome Study Group. Streptococcal infection and exacerbations of childhood tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a prospective blinded cohort study. Pediatrics. 2008;121(6):1188-1197.

26. Coles ME, Pinto A, Mancebo MC, Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL. OCD with comorbid OCPD: a subtype of OCD? J Psychiatr Res. 2008;42(4):289-296.

27. Dunner DL. Management of anxiety disorders: the added challenge of comorbidity. Depress Anxiety. 2001;1392):57-71.

28. LaSalle VH, Cromer KR, Nelson KN, Kazuba D, Justement L, Murphy DL. Diagnostic interview assessed neuropsychiatric disorder comorbidity in 334 individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder. Depress Anxiety. 2004;19(3):163-173.

29. Overbeek T, Schruers K, Vermetten E, Griez E. Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression: prevalence, symptom severity, and treatment effect. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63(12):1106-1112.

30. Ivarsson T, Melin K, Wallin L. Categorical and dimensional aspects of co-morbidity in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008;17(1):20-31.

31. Richter MA, Summerfeldt LJ, Antony MM, Swinson RP. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum conditions in obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders. Depress Anxiety. 2003;18(3):118-127.

32. Freeman RD, Fast DK, Burd L, Kerbeshian J, Robertson MM, Sandor P. An international perspective on Tourette syndrome: selected findings from 3,500 individuals in 22 countries. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2000;42(7):436-447.

33. Ferrão YA, Miguel E, Stein DJ. Tourette's syndrome, trichotillomania, and obsessive-compulsive disorder: how closely are they related? Psychiatry Res. 2009;170(1):32-42.

34. Lombroso PJ, Scahill L. Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Brain Dev. 2008;30(4):231-237.

35. Kobak KA, Greist JH, Jefferson JW, Katzelnick DJ, Henk HJ. Behavioral versus pharmacological treatments of obsessive compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis. Psychopharmacology. 1998;136(3):206-216.

36. Simpson HB, Foa EB, Liebowitz MR, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for augmenting pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165(5):621-630.

37. Freyer T, Klöppel S, Tüscher O, et al. Frontostriatal activation in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder before and after cognitive behavioral therapy. Psychol Med. 2011;41(1):207-216.

38. Franklin ME, Sapyta J, Freeman JB, et al. Cognitive behavior therapy augmentation of pharmacotherapy in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study II (POTS II) randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2011;306(11):1224-1232.

39. Greist J, Jefferson JW, Kobak KA, Katzelnick DJ, Serlin RC. Efficacy and tolerability of serotonin transport inhibitors in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;52(1):53-60.

40. Catapano F, Perris F, Masella M, Rossano F, Cigliano M, Magliano L, Maj M. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: a 3-year prospective follow-up study of patients treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors OCD follow-up study. J Psychiatr Res. 2006;40(6):502-510.

41. Soomro GM, Altman D, Rajagopal S, Oakley-Browne M. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) versus placebo for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(1):CD001765.

42. Math SB, Janardhan Reddy YC. Issues in the pharmacological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Int J Clin Pract. 2007;61(7):1188-1197.

43. Andrade C. Augmenting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with clomipramine in obsessive-compulsive disorder: benefits and risks. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013;74(12):e1128-e1133.

44. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Anafranil (Clomipramine Hydrochloride) Capsules USP: Labeling Information. Available at https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2014/019906s039lbl.pdf. Last accessed March 27, 2018.

45. Zohar J, Judge R, OCD Paroxetine Study Investigators. Paroxetine versus clomipramine in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 1996;169(4):468-474.

46. Hollander E, Allen A, Steiner M, et al. Acute and long-term treatment and prevention of relapse of obsessive-compulsive disorder with paroxetine. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64(9):1113-1121.

47. Kamijima K, Murasaki M, Asai M, et al. Paroxetine in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in Japanese patients. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004;58(4):427-433.

48. Hollander E, Koran LM, Goodman WK, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of controlled-release fluvoxamine in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64(6):640-647.

49. Kronig MH, Apter J, Asnis G, et al. Placebo-controlled, multicenter study of sertraline treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999;19(2):172-176.

50. Greist JH, Jefferson JW, Kobak KA, et al. A 1-year double-blind placebo-controlled fixed dose study of sertraline in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1995;10(2):57-65.

51. Montgomery SA, McIntyre A, Osterheider M, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of fluoxetine in patients with DSM-III-R obsessive-compulsive disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1993;3(2):143-152.

52. Tollefson GD, Rampey AH, Potvin JH, et al. A multicenter investigation of fixed-dose fluoxetine in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994;51(7):559-567.

53. Montgomery SA, Kasper S, Stein DJ, Hedegarrd KB, Lemming OM. Citalopram 20 mg, 40 mg, and 60 mg are all effective and well tolerated compared with placebo in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2001;16(2):75-86.

54. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: Abnormal Heart Rhythms Associated With High Doses of Celexa (Citalopram Hydrobromide). Available at https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm269086.htm. Last accessed March 27, 2018.

55. Stein DJ, Andersen EW, Tonnoir B, Fineberg N. Escitalopram in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled, paroxetine-referenced, fixed-dose, 24-week study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007;23(4):701-711.

56. LexiComp Online. Available at http://online.lexi.com. Last accessed March 27, 2018.

57. Greist JH, Bandelow B, Hollander E, et al. WCA recommendations for the long-term treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults. CNS Spectr. 2003;8(S1):7-16.

58. Foa EB, Liebowitz MR, Kozak MJ, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of exposure and ritual prevention, clomipramine, and their combination in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162(1):151-161.

59. Greist JH, Marks IM, Baer L, et al. Behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder guided by a computer or by a clinician compared with relaxation as a control. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63(2):138-145.

60. Gava I, Barbui C, Aguglia E, et al. Psychological treatments versus treatment as usual for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(2):CD005333.

61. Foster PS, Eisler RM. An integrative approach to the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2001;42(1): 24-31.

62. Conlan L, Heyman I. Helping patients to overcome obsessive compulsive disorder. Practitioner. 2007;251(1700):57, 59, 61.

63. Bolton D, Perrin S. Evaluation of exposure with response-prevention for obsessive compulsive disorder in childhood and adolescence. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2008;39(1):11-22.

64. Koran LM, Aboujaoude E, Bullock KD, Franz B, Gamel N, Elliott M. Double-blind treatment with oral morphine in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66(3):353-359.

65. Pallanti S, Quercioli L, Koran LM. Citalopram intravenous infusion in resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63(9):796-801.

66. Lipsman N, Neimat JS, Lozano AM. Deep brain stimulation for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: the search for a valid target. Neurosurgery. 2007;61(1):1-11.

67. Martin JLR, Barbanoj MJ, Pérez V, Sacristán M. Transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(3):CD003387.

68. Blom RM, Figee M, Vulink N, Denys D. Update on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder: different targets. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2011;13(4):289-294.

69. Jaafari N, Rachid F, Rotge JY, et al. Safety and efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2012;13(3):164-177.

70. Berlim MT, Neufeld NH, Van den Eynde F. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): an exploratory meta-analysis of randomized and sham-controlled trials. J Psychiatr Res. 2013;47(8):999-1006.

71. Noh HJ, Tang R, Flannick J, et al. Integrating evolutionary and regulatory information with a multispecies approach implicates genes and pathways in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Nature Communications. 2017;8(774):1-13.

72. Li B, Mody M. Cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry, working memory, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2016;7:78.

73. Fineberg NA, Reghunandanan S, Kolli S, et al. Obsessive-compulsive (anankastic) personality disorder: toward the ICD-11 classification. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2014;36(1):40-50.

74. Stanford Medicine. About OCD. Available at http://ocd.stanford.edu/about. Last accessed March 27, 2018.

75. Attwells S, Setiawan E, Wilson AA, et al. Inflammation in the neurocircuitry of obsessive-compulsive disorder. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017;74(8):833-840.

76. Brakoulias V. Managing obsessive compulsive disorder. Australian Prescriber. 2015;38(4):121-123.

77. Pittenger C, Bloch MH. Pharmacological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2014;37(3):375-391.

78. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: Revised Recommendation for Celexa (Citalopram Hydrobromide) Related to the Potential Risk of Abnormal Heart Rhythms with High Doses. Available at https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm297391.htm. Last accessed March 27, 2018.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2007. Available at https://psychiatryonline.org/pb/assets/raw/sitewide/practice_guidelines/guidelines/ocd.pdf. Last accessed April 5, 2018.


Copyright © 2018 NetCE, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.