Works Cited

1. Beveridge RN. Crossing the Healthcare Chasm: Health Care Trends 2011–2015. Available at http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/2150133510395494. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Aging. Aging Statistics. Available at https://agingstats.gov. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chronic Disease Overview. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/overview. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

4. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. A Profile of Older Americans: 2016. Available at https://www.giaging.org/documents/A_Profile_of_Older_Americans__2016.pdf. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health; 2000.

6. Michigan Department of Community Health. Oral Health Program. Available at http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mdch/Michigan_State_Oral_Health_Plan_FINAL_2_326169_7.pdf. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

7. Arora SA, Ahuja P. Periodontal disease: a possible risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. JIDA. 2011;5(4):552-554.

8. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. The Mouth and Face as a Mirror of Health and Disease. Available at https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/access/nnbbjv.pdf. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

9. World Health Organization. Oral Health, General Health and Quality of Life. Available at http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/83/9/editorial30905html/en. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

10. Barnett ML. The oral-systemic disease connection: an update for the practicing dentist. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006;137(Suppl 2):S5-S6.

11. Mayo Clinic. Periodontitis: Symptoms and Causes. Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/periodontitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20354473. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

12. Pussinen PJ, Alfthan G, Rissanen H, et al. Antibodies to periodontal pathogens and stroke risk. Stroke. 2004;35(9):2020-2023.

13. Veloso TR, Amiquet M, Rousson V, et al. Induction of experimental endocarditis by continuous low-grade bacteremia mimicking spontaneous bacteremia in humans. Infect Immun. 2011;79(5):2006-2011.

14. Misra S, Singh A, Singh N. Periodontal infection as a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Indian J Dent Sci. 2012;1(4):94-96.

15. Meisel P, Kohlmann T, Wallaschofski H, Kroemer HK, Kocher T. Cholesterol, C reactive-proteins, and periodontitis: HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitors (statins) as effect modifiers. ISRN Dent. 2011;2011:125168.

16. Guo Y, Nguyen KA, Potempa J. Dichotomy of gingipains action as virulence factors: from cleaving substrates with the precision of a surgeon's knife to a meat chopper-like brutal degradation of proteins. Periodontol 2000. 2010;54(1):15-44.

17. European Society of Cardiology. Press Release: Periodontal Disease Associated with Cardiovascular Risk in Large Multicentre Study. Available at https://www.escardio.org/The-ESC/Press-Office/Press-releases/Periodontal-disease-associated-with-cardiovascular-risk-in-large-multicentre-stu. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

18. Benjamin EJ, Virani SS, Callaway CW, et al. AHA statistical update: heart disease and stroke statistics—2018 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2018; [Epub ahead of print].

19. Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aranow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017; [Epub ahead of print].

20. James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014;311(5):507-520.

21. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. High Blood Pressure. Available at https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/high-blood-pressure. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

22. Mayo Clinic. Secondary Hypertension. Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/secondary-hypertension/symptoms-causes/syc-20350679. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2012. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_10/sr10_260.pdf. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

24. Kim JY, Kenney EB. Management of Hypertension in Clinical Dentistry. Available at http://www.scribd.com/doc/79055724/Management-of-Hypertension-in-Clinical-Dentistry#scribd. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

25. Wynn RL, Meiller TF, Crossley HL. Drug Information Handbook for Dentistry. 23rd ed. Hudson, OH: Lexi-Comp; 2017.

26. Mayo Clinic. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors. Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/ace-inhibitors/art-20047480. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

27. Benjamin EJ, Blaha MJ, Chiuve SE, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2017 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017;135(10):e146-e603.

28. Heron M. Deaths: leading causes for 2015. National Vital Statistics Reports. 2017;66(5).

29. Olson KR. Warfarin and Superwarfarin Toxicity. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/821038-overview. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

30. Cucchiara BL, Messé SR. Antiplatelet Therapy for Secondary Prevention of Stroke. Available at https://www.uptodate.com/contents/antiplatelet-therapy-for-secondary-prevention-of-stroke. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

31. Taber's Online. International Normalized Ratio. Available at https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/751508/all/international_normalized_ratio. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

32. National Stroke Association. What is TIA? Available at http://www.stroke.org/understand-stroke/what-stroke/what-tia. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

33. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Number of Americans with Diabetes Rises to Nearly 26 Million. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2011/p0126_diabetes.html. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2017. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pdfs/data/statistics/national-diabetes-statistics-report.pdf. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

35. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Deaths and Mortality. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/deaths.htm. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

36. Auluck A. Diabetes Mellitus: An Emerging Risk Factor for Oral Cancer? Available at https://www.cda-adc.ca/jcda/vol-73/issue-6/501.pdf. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

37. American Diabetes Association. Metformin. Available at http://www.diabetesforecast.org/diabetes-101/metformin.html. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

38. Little JW, Rhodus NL. Pharmacologic management of type 2 diabetes: a review for dentistry. Gen Dent. 2007;55(6):564-600.

39. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: Updated Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) to Restrict Access to Rosiglitazone-containing Medicines Including Avandia, Avandamet and Avandaryl. Available at https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm255005.htm. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

40. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA Requires Removal of Some Prescribing and Dispensing Restrictions for Rosiglitazone-Containing Diabetes Medicines. Available at https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm376389.htm. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

41. Topazian RG, Goldberg MH, Hupp JR. Oral and Maxillofacial Infections. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company; 2002.

42. Ship JA. Diabetes and oral health: an overview. JADA. 2003;134(Suppl 1):4S-10S

43. Preshaw PM, Alba AL, Herrera D, et al. Periodontitis and diabetes: a two-way relationship. Diabetologia. 2012;55(1):21-31.

44. Ryan ME. Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for the management of the diabetic patient. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2008;29(1):32-44.

45. Hein C. Scottsdale revisited: the role of dental practitioners in screening for undiagnosed diabetes and the medical co-management of patients with diabetes of those at risk for diabetes. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2008;29(9):540-553.

46. National Academy on an Aging Society. Arthritis: A Leading Cause of Disability in the United States. Available at http://www.civicengagement.org/agingsociety/pdf/arthritis.pdf. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

47. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Arthritis-Related Statistics. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/data_statistics/arthritis-related-stats.htm. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

48. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rheumatoid Arthritis. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/rheumatoid-arthritis.html. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

49. Smith HR, Brown A. Rheumatoid Arthritis. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/331715-overview. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

50. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Methotrexate Tablet. Available at https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8df0780e-0fbd-4ab8-80b0-7a5eaa08ec0a. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

51. Sollecito TP, Abt E, Lockhart PB, et al. The use of prophylactic antibiotics prior to dental procedures in patients with prosthetic joints. JADA. 2015;146(1):11-16.

52. National Institutes of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease. Osteoporosis Overview. Available at https://www.bones.nih.gov/health-info/bone/osteoporosis/overview. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

53. Harvey N, Dennison E, Cooper C. Osteoporosis: impact on health and economics. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2010;6(2):99-105.

54. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Position Statement: Osteoporosis/Bone Health in Adults as a National Public Health Priority. Available at https://www.aaos.org/uploadedFiles/PreProduction/About/Opinion_Statements/position/1113%20Osteoporosis%20Bone%20Health%20in%20Adults%20as%20a%20National%20Public%20Health%20Priority.pdf. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

55. National Osteoporosis Foundation. What Women Need to Know. Available at https://www.nof.org/preventing-fractures/general-facts/what-women-need-to-know. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

56. National Osteoporosis Foundation. 54 Million Americans Affected by Osteoporosis and Low Bone Mass. Available at https://www.nof.org/news/54-million-americans-affected-by-osteoporosis-and-low-bone-mass. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

57. New York State Department of Health. Bone Mineral Density Testing. Available at https://www.health.ny.gov/publications/2045/index.htm. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

58. Bilezikian JP. Efficacy of bisphosphonates in reducing fracture risk in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Am J Med. 2009;122(Suppl 2):14S-21S.

59. American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Position Paper: Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw, 2014 Update. Available at https://www.aaoms.org/docs/govt_affairs/advocacy_white_papers/mronj_position_paper.pdf. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

60. Marx RE, Sawatari Y, Fortin M, Broumand V. Bisphosphonate-induced exposed bone (osteonecrosis/osteopetrosis) of the jaws: risk factors, recognition, prevention, and treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;63(11):1567-1575.

61. Ruggiero SL. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: diagnosis, prevention, and management. Annu Rev Med. 2009;60:85-96.

62. Broderick JM. Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Related to Antiresorptive Therapy. Available at http://www.onclive.com/publications/oncology-nurse/2011/november-2011/Osteonecrosis-of-the-Jaw-Related-to-Antiresorptive-Therapy. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

63. Hess LM, Jeter JM, Benham-Hutchins M, Alberts DS. Factors associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw among bisphosphonate users. Am J Med. 2008;121(6):475-483.

64. Blanchaert RH. Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1447355-overview. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

65. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Leading Causes of Death. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/leading-causes-of-death.htm. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

66. National Cancer Institute. SEER Cancer Statistics Review (CSR) 1975–Available at https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2014. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

67. National Cancer Institute. SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Oral Cavity and Pharynx Cancer. Available at https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/oralcav.html. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

68. The Oral Cancer Foundation. Cancer Screening Protocols. Available at https://oralcancerfoundation.org/discovery-diagnosis/cancer-screening-protocols. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

69. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures, 2018. Available at https://www.cancer.org/research/cancer-facts-statistics/all-cancer-facts-figures/cancer-facts-figures-2018.html. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

70. Stevenson MM. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Protocols. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2006216-overview. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

71. Baharudin A, Khairuddin A, Nizam A, Samsruddin AR. Evaluation of irradiated salivary gland function in patients with head and neck tumours treated with radiotherapy. J Laryngol Otol. 2009;123(1):108-113.

72. National Cancer Institute. Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation. Oral Mucositis. Available at https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/side-effects/mouth-throat/oral-complications-hp-pdq#section/all. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

73. National Cancer Institute. Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation. Available at https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/side-effects/mouth-throat/oral-complications-hp-pdq#section/all. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

74. Marx RE, Johnson RP. Studies in the radiobiology of osteoradionecrosis and their clinical significance. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1987;64(4):379-390.

75. Treister NS. Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1079570-overview. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

76. Dale RA, Harrison JS, Redding SW. Oral complications in cancer chemotherapy, cancer incidence, and mortality in the U.S.Gen Dent. 2004;52(1):64-72.

77. Treister NS. Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis Treatment and Management. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1079570-treatment. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

78. Holm-Pederson P, Walls A, Ship J (eds). Textbook of Geriatric Dentistry. 3rd ed. Copenhagen: Wiley-Blackwell; 2015.

79. Thornburg JE. Gerontological pharmacology. In: Brody TM, Larner J, Minneman KP (eds). Human Pharmacology: Molecular to Clinical. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 1994: 855-861.

80. Rho JP, Wong FS. Principles of prescribing medications. In: Yoshikawa TT, Cobbs EL, Brummel-Smith K (eds). Practical Ambulatory Geriatrics. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 1998: 19-25.

81. Little JW. Special medical concerns in the dental management of older adults. Gen Dent. 2004;52(2):152-161.

82. Ghezzi EM, Wagner-Lange LA, Schork MA, et al. Longitudinal influence of age, menopause, hormone replacement therapy, and other medication on parotid flow rates in healthy women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000;55(1):M34-M42.

83. Ship JA, Pillemer SR, Baum BJ. Xerostomia and the geriatric patient. J Am Geriatric Soc. 2002;50(3):535-43.

84. Moore PA, Guggenheimer J. Medication-induced hyposalivation: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2008;29(1):50-55.

85. Cassolato SF, Turnbull RS. Xerostomia: clinical aspects and treatment. Gerodontology. 2003;20(2):64-77.

86. Cleveland Clinic. Dementia. Available at https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/9170-dementia. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

87. Anderson HS. Alzheimer Disease. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1134817-overview. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

88. Stein PS, Henry RG. Poor oral hygiene in long-term care. Am J Nurs. 2009;109(6):44-50.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Oral Health for Adults in Care Homes. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; 2016. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at https://www.guideline.gov/summaries/summary/50450. Last accessed May 16, 2018.

2. Cohen EEW, LaMonte SJ, Erb NL, et al. American Cancer Society head and neck cancer survivorship care guideline. CA Cancer J Clin. 2016;66(3):203-239. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at https://www.guideline.gov/summaries/summary/51021. Last accessed May 16, 2018.

3. HealthPartners Dental Group and Clinics. Caries Guideline. Minneapolis, MN: HealthPartners Dental Group; 2013. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at https://www.guideline.gov/summaries/summary/47755. Last accessed May 16,


Copyright © 2018 NetCE, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.