Works Cited

1. Brenner BM (ed). Brenner and Rector's The Kidney. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016.

2. Levine DZ. Caring for the Renal Patient. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 1997.

3. Mandal AK. Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia. Med Clin North Am. 1997;81(3):611-639.

4. Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Hauser S, Longo D, Jameson JL, Fauci AS. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2015.

5. Barker LR, Fiebach NH, Kern DE, et al (eds). Principles of Ambulatory Medicine. 7th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2007.

6. MedlinePlus. Potassium Test. Available at https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003484.htm. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

7. Merck Manual. Hypokalemia. Available at https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine-and-metabolic-disorders/electrolyte-disorders/hypokalemia. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

8. Garth D. Hypokalemia in Emergency Medicine. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/767448-overview. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

9. Lederer E, Alsauskas ZC, Mackelaite L, Nayak V. Hyperkalemia. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/240903-overview. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

10. Juurlink DN, Mamdani MM, Lee DS, et al. Rates of hyperkalemia after publication of the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(6):543-551.

11. Abbas S, Ihle P, Harder S, Schubert I. Risk of hyperkalemia and combined use of spironolactone and long-term ACE inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker therapy in heart failure using real-life data: a population- and insurance-based cohort. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2015;24(4):406-413.

12. Vardeny O, Claggett B, Anand I, et al. Incidence, predictors, and outcomes related to hypo- and hyperkalemia in patients with severe heart failure treated with a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Circ Heart Fail. 2014;7(4):573-579.

13. Desai AS, Liu J, Pfeffer MA, et al. Incident hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, and clinical outcomes during spironolactone treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: analysis of the TOPCAT trial. J Card Fail. 2018; [Epub ahead of print].

14. Greenberg A. Primer on Kidney Diseases. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2009.

15. Velickovic-Radovanovic RM, Mitic B, Kitic D, Kostic S, Cvetkovic T, Djordjevic V. Acute renal failure after licorice ingestion: a case report. Cent Eur J Med. 2010;6(1):113-116.

16. Lehnhardt A, Kemper MJ. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of hyperkalemia. Pediatr Nephrol. 2011;26(3):377-384.

17. Tamargo J. New Drugs for the Treatment of Hyperkalemia in Patients Treated with Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors: Hype or Hope? Available at http://www.discoverymedicine.com/Juan-Tamargo/2014/11/new-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-hyperkalemia-in-patients-treated-with-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-inhibitors-hype-or-hope. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

18. Frassetto LA, Lo LJ. Bartter Syndrome. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/238670-overview#a0104. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

19. Dunn RL. Exposure to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is associated with hospitalisation for hyperkalemia in older people with spironolactone. Evid Based Med. 2012;17(4):130-131.

20. Raebel MA. Hyperkalemia associated with use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers. Cardiovasc Ther. 2012;30(3):e156-e166.

21. Lexicomp Online. Available at http://online.lexi.com. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

22. Kruse JA, Carlson RW. Rapid correction of hypokalemia using concentrated intravenous potassium chloride infusion. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150(3):613-617.

23. Weinberger MH, White WB, Ruilope LM, et al. Effects of eplerenone versus losartan in patients with low-renin hypertension.Am Heart J. 2005;150(3):426-433.

24. Sterns RH, Rojas M, Bernstein P, Chennupati S. Ion-exchange resins for the treatment of hyperkalemia: are they safe and effective? J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21(5):733-735.

25. Parham WA, Mehdirad AA, Biermann KM, Fredman CS. Hyperkalemia revisited. Tex Heart Inst J. 2006;33(1):40-47.

26. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Approves New Drug to Treat Hyperkalemia. Available at https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20170111160809/http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm468546.htm. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

27. Kovesdy CP. Management of hyperkalemia: an update for the internist. Am J Med. 2015;128(12):1281-1287.

28. Bakris GL, Pitt B, Weir MR, et al. Effect of patiromer on serum potassium level in patients with hyperkalemia and diabetic kidney disease: the AMETHYST-DN randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015;314(2):151-161.

29. Wie MR, Mayo MR, Garza D, et al. Effectiveness of patiromer in the treatment of hyperkalemia in chronic kidney disease patients with hypertension on diuretics. J Hypertens. 2017;(Suppl 1):S57-S63.

30. Montaperto AG, Gandhi MA, Gashlin LZ, Symoniak MR. Patiromer: a clinical review. Curr Med Res Opin. 2016;32(1):155-164.

31. Meaney CJ, Beccari MV, Yang Y, Zhao J. Systematic review and meta-analysis of patiromer and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate: a new armamentarium for the treatment of hyperkalemia. Pharmacotherpy. 2017;37(4):401-411.

32. Sarafidis PA, Georgianos PI, Bakris GL. Advances in treatment of hyperkalemia in chronic kidney disease. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2015;16(14):2205-2215.

33. Hollander-Rodriguez JC, Calvert JF. Hyperkalemia. Am Fam Physician. 2006;73(2):283-290.

34. Family Practice Notebook. Hyperkalemia Management. Available at https://fpnotebook.com/Renal/Potassium/HyprklmMngmnt.htm. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

35. Griffing GT, Odeke S, Nagelberg SB. Addison Disease. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/116467-overview. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

36. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Renal Tubular Acidosis. Available at https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/kidney-disease/renal-tubular-acidosis. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

37. Rodríguez Soriano J. Renal tubular acidosis: the clinical entity. JASN. 2002;13(8):2160-2170.

38. Chrousos GP, Sertedaki A, Kyritsi EM. Hyperaldosteronism. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/920713-overview. Last accessed April 23, 2018.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. Management of Chronic Kidney Disease Working Group. VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary Care. Washington, DC: Department of Veterans Affairs, Department of Defense; 2014. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at https://www.guideline.gov/summaries/summary/48951. Last accessed May 11, 2018.


Copyright © 2018 NetCE, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.