Works Cited

1. Harvard Medical School. Thyroid Disease: Understanding Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism. Harvard Health Publications. Boston, MA: Harvard Health Publications; 2015.

2. American Thyroid Association. General Information/Press Room. Available at https://www.thyroid.org/media-main/press-room. Last accessed August 18, 2018.

3. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Hypothyroidism. Available at https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/hypothyroidism. Last accessed August 18, 2018.

4. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Hyperthyroidism. Available at https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/hyperthyroidism. Last accessed August 18, 2018.

5. Cooper DS. Subclinical hypothyroidism. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(4):260-265.

6. Stathatos N, Wartofsky L. Managing subclinical thyroid disease in women. Womens Health Primary Care. 2002;5:239-246.

7. Rosenthal MS. The Thyroid Sourcebook. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional; 2009.

8. Davies L, Welch HG. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the United States, 1973–2002. JAMA. 2006;295(18):2164-2167.

9. Kiwanis International. History of the First Worldwide Service Project: A Vital Partner in Eliminating Iodine Deficiency. Available at http://sites.kiwanis.org/Kiwanis/en/theELIMINATEproject/MNT/history/idd.aspx. Last accessed August 20, 2018.

10. Iodine Global Network. FAQ About Iodine Nutrition. Available at http://ign.org/p142002130.html. Last accessed August 20, 2018.

11. Bath SC, Steer CD, Golding J, Emmett P, Rayman MP. Effect of inadequate iodine status in UK pregnant women on cognitive outcomes in their children: results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Lancet. 2014;382(9889):331-337.

12. Daniel MS, Postellon DC. Congenital Hypothyroidism: Frequency. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/919758-overview. Last accessed August 20, 2018.

13. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Congenital Hypothyroidism: Screening. Available at https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Home/GetFile/1/770/conhyprs/pdf. Last accessed August 20, 2018.

14. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children. Recommended Uniform Screening Panel. Available at https://www.hrsa.gov/advisory-committees/heritable-disorders/rusp/index.html. Last accessed August 20, 2018.

15. International Union of Nutritional Sciences. Iodine Global Network. Available at http://www.iuns.org/affiliated_bodies/international-council-for-control-of-iodine-deficiency-disorders-iccidd. Last accessed August 20, 2018.

16. California Environmental Protection Agency. State Water Resources Control Board. Perchlorate in Drinking Water. Available at https://www.waterboards.ca.gov/drinking_water/certlic/drinkingwater/Perchlorate.html. Last accessed August 20, 2018.

17. Hanberg A. Management of clients with thyroid and parathyroid disorders. In: Black JM, Hawks JH (eds). Medical Surgical Nursing: Clinical Management for Positive Outcomes. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Co.; 2008.

18. Mayo Clinic. Hypothyroidism (Underactive Thyroid): Definition. Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hypothyroidism/symptoms-causes/syc-20350284. Last accessed August 20, 2018.

19. Orlander PR, Varghese JM, Freeman LM. Hypothyroidism. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/122393-overview. Last accessed August 23, 2018.

20. Schull PD. Nursing Spectrum Drug Handbook, 2010. 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education/Medical; 2013.

21. LexiComp Online. Available at http://online.lexi.com. Last accessed August 23, 2018.

22. The People's Pharmacy. Thyroid Hormones. Durham, NC: The People's Pharmacy; 2015.

23. Nippoldt TB. Hypothyroidism (Underactive Thyroid). Is It Really True That Coconut Oil Can Cure Hypothyroidism? Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hypothyroidism/expert-answers/coconut-oil-thyroid/faq-20058244. Last accessed August 23, 2018.

24. Lee SL, Nagelberg SB, Odeke S. Hashimoto Thyroiditis. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/120937-overview. Last accessed August 23, 2018.

25. Krassas GE, Tziomalos K, Pontikides N, Lewy H, Laron Z. Seasonality of month of birth of patients with Graves' and Hashimoto's diseases differ from that in the general population. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007;156(6):631-636.

26. Papanastasiou L, Vatalas IA, Koutras DA, Mastorakos G. Thyroid autoimmunity in the current iodine environment. Thyroid. 2007;17(8):729-739.

27. Mayo Clinic. Hashimoto's Disease: Symptoms. Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hashimotos-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20351855. Last accessed August 23, 2018.

28. Braverman LE, Utiger RD (eds). Werner and Ingbar's The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2012.

29. Wartofsky L. Myxedema coma. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2006;35(4):687-698, vii-viii.

30. Lee SL, Ananthakrishnan S. Hyperthyroidism. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/121865-overview. Last accessed August 23, 2018.

31. Mayo Clinic. Hyperthyroidism (Overactive Thyroid): Definition. Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hyperthyroidism/symptoms-causes/syc-20373659. Last accessed August 23, 2018.

32. Iervasi G, Molinaro S, Landi P, et al. Association between increased mortality and mild thyroid dysfunction in cardiac patients. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(14):1526-1532.

33. Jameson JL, Weetman AP. Disorders of the thyroid gland. In: Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J (eds). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine: Volumes 1 and 2. 18th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2011.

34. The American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Taskforce. Hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid. 2011;21(6):593-646.

35. Sabo E. Thyroid Surgery Gets Easier. Available at https://www.nbcwashington.com/news/health/Thyroid_Surgery_Gets_Easier.html. Last accessed August 23, 2018.

36. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Thyroid Task Force. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Endocr Pract. 2002;8(6):457-469.

37. Jim Yeung S-C, Habra MA, Chiu AC. Graves' Disease. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/120619-overview. Last accessed August 23, 2018.

38. Brent GA. Clinical practice. Graves' disease. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(24):2594-2605.

39. Estcourt S, Vaidya B, Quinn A, Shepherd M. The impact of thyroid eye disease upon patients' well-being: a qualitative analysis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008;68(4):635-639.

40. Dankle SK. Thyroid Nodule. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/127491-overview. Last accessed August 23, 2018.

41. Lee SL, Ananthakrishnan S. Nontoxic Goiter. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/120392-overview. Last accessed August 26, 2018.

42. Mayo Clinic. Goiter: Treatments and Drugs. Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/goiter/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351834. Last accessed August 23, 2018.

43. Rahbari R, Zhang L, Kebebew E. Thyroid cancer gender disparity. Future Oncol. 2010;6(11):1771-1779.

44. Aschebrook-Kilfoy B, Ward MH, Sabra MM, Devesa SS. Thyroid cancer incidence patterns in the United States by histologic type, 1992–2006. Thyroid. 2011;21(2):125-134.

45. National Cancer Institute. SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Thyroid Cancer. Available at https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/thyro.html. Last accessed August 24, 2018.

46. American Cancer Society. Thyroid Cancer. What Are the Key Statistics About Thyroid Cancer? Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/thyroid-cancer/about/key-statistics.html. Last accessed August 24, 2018.

47. Gentile JM. Celebrities with Thyroid Disorders. Available at https://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/thyroid/celebrities-thyroid-disorders. Last accessed August 24, 2018.

48. Mayo Clinic. Thyroid Cancer. Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/thyroid-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20354161. Last accessed August 24, 2018.

49. American Cancer Society. What Are the Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer? Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/thyroid-cancer/causes-risks-prevention/risk-factors.html. Last accessed August 24, 2018.

50. American Cancer Society. Thyroid Cancer. What is Thyroid Cancer? Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/thyroid-cancer/about/what-is-thyroid-cancer.html. Last accessed August 24, 2018.

51. Burman KD, Ringel MD, Wartofsky L. Unusual types of thyroid neoplasms. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1996;25(1):49-68.

52. Sharma PK, Johns MM III. Thyroid Cancer. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/851968-overview. Last accessed August 24, 2018.

53. American Cancer Society. How is Thyroid Cancer Diagnosed? Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/thyroid-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/how-diagnosed.html. Last accessed August 24, 2018.

54. American Cancer Society. How is Thyroid Cancer Staged? Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/thyroid-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/staging.html. Last accessed August 24, 2018.

55. American Joint Committee on Cancer. Thyroid. In: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Raven; 2017.

56. American Cancer Society. Thyroid Cancer. Thyroid Cancer Survival by Type and Stage. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/thyroid-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/survival-rates.html. Last accessed August 24, 2018.

57. American Cancer Society. Treating Thyroid Cancer. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/thyroid-cancer/treating.html. Last accessed August 24, 2018.

58. American Cancer Society. Thyroid Cancer. Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer. Available at http://www.cancer.org/cancer/thyroidcancer/detailedguide/thyroid-cancer-treating-chemotherapy. Last accessed August 24, 2018.

59. American Cancer Society. Thyroid Cancer. Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy for Thyroid Cancer. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/thyroid-cancer/treating/radioactive-iodine.html. Last accessed August 24, 2018.

60. American Cancer Society. Thyroid Cancer. External Beam Radiation Therapy for Thyroid Cancer. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/thyroid-cancer/treating/external-beam-radiation.html. Last accessed August 24, 2018.

61. AACE Thyroid Awareness: Neck Check. Available at http://www.thyroidawareness.com/neck-check. Last accessed August 24, 2018.

62. American Cancer Society. Thyroid Cancer. Surgery for Thyroid Cancer. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/thyroid-cancer/treating/surgery.html. Last accessed August 24, 2018.

63. Sharma PK, Barr LJ. Complications of Thyroid Surgery. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/852184-overview. Last accessed August 24, 2018.

64. Chandrasekhar S, Randolph G, Seidman M, et al. Clinical practice guidelines; improving voice outcomes after thyroid surgery. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;148(6 suppl):S1-S37.

65. Taylor PN, Albrecht D, Scholz A, et al. Global epidemiology of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2018;14(5):301-316.

66. Vanderpump MPJ. The epidemiology of thyroid disease. Br Med Bull. 2011;99(1): 39-51.

67. Ferrari SM, Fallahi P, Antonelli A, Benvenga S. Environmental issues in thyroid diseases. Front Endocrinol. 2017;8:50.

68. Schraga ED. Hypothyroidism and myxedema coma. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/768053-overview. Last accessed August 23, 2018.

69. Cibas ES, Ali SZ. The 2017 Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. Thyroid. 2017;27(11):1341-1346.

70. Tuttle RM, Haugen B, Perrier ND. Updated American Joint Committee on Cancer/Tumor-Node-Metastasis staging system for differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancer. 8th ed. What changed and why? Thyroid. 2017;27(6):751-756.

71. Sun H, Dionigi G. Endoscopic thyroid surgery requires surgeons, patient candidacy and neural monitoring. Int J Endocr Oncol. 2018;5(1).

72. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Approves First Treatment for Thyroid Eye Disease. Available at https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-treatment-thyroid-eye-disease. Last accessed January 30, 2020.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. Jonklaas J, Bianco AC, Bauer AJ, et al. Guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism: prepared by the American Thyroid Association Task Force on Thyroid Hormone Replacement. Thyroid. 2014;24(12):1670-1751. Available at https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/thy.2014.0028. Last accessed September 14, 2018.

2. Bahn Chair RS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al. Hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Thyroid. 2011;21(6):593-646. Available at https://www.aace.com/files/hyperguidelinesapril2013.pdf. Last accessed September 14, 2018.

3. Haugen BR, Alexander EK, Bible KC, et al. 2015 American Thyroid Association management guidelines for adult patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: the American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Thyroid. 2016;26(1):1-133. Available at https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/thy.2015.0020. Last accessed September 14, 2018.


Copyright © 2018 NetCE, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.