Works Cited

1. American Psychological Association Committee on Lesbian and Gay Concerns. Avoiding Heterosexual Bias in Language. Available at http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbt/resources/language.aspx. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

2. American Psychological Association. Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality. Available at http://www.apa.org/topics/lgbt/orientation.aspx. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

3. Meleis AI. Culturally competent care. J Transcultural Nurs. 1999;10(1):12.

4. Baker K, Beagan B. Making assumptions, making space: an anthropological critique of cultural competency and its relevance to queer patients. Med Anthropol Q. 2014;28(4):578-598.

5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health. Cultural and Linguistic Competency. Available at https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=1&lvlid=6. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

6. Blando JA. Twice hidden: older gay and lesbian couples, friends, and intimacy. Generations. 2001;25(2):87-89.

7. Ryan C, Futterman D, Stine K. Helping our hidden youth. Am J Nurs. 1998;98(12):37-41.

8. Dean L, Meyer IH, Robinson K, et al. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health: findings and concerns. J Gay Lesbian Med Assoc. 2000;4(3):102-151.

9. Meyer IH. Why lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender public health? Am J Public Health. 2001;91(6):856-859.

10. Jones BE, Hill MJ. Mental Health Issues in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Communities. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2002.

11. Giger J, Davidhizar RE, Purnell L, et al. American Academy of Nursing Expert Panel report: developing cultural competence to eliminate health disparities in ethnic minorities and other vulnerable populations. J Transcult Nurs. 2007;18(2):95-102.

12. Institute of Medicine. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Health Issues and Research Gaps and Opportunities. Available at http://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/Activities/SelectPops/LGBTHealthIssues.aspx. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

13. American Medical Association. AMA Policy H-160.991, Health Care Needs of the Homosexual Population. Available at https://policysearch.ama-assn.org/policyfinder/detail/transgender?uri=%2FAMADoc%2FHOD.xml-0-805.xml. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

14. National Institute of Health. Behavioral, Social, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Research with Diverse Populations. PA Number: PA-01-096 (Reissued as PA-06-218). Available at https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-06-218.html. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

15. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2020: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health. Available at https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-health. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

16. Sears JT, Williams WL (eds). Overcoming Heterosexism and Homophobia: Strategies That Work. 1st ed. New York, NY: Columbia University Press; 1997.

17. Centers for disease Control and prevention. The State of Aging and Health in America 2013. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services; 2013.

18. Williamson IR. Internalized homophobia and health issues affecting lesbians and gay men. Health Education Research. 2000;15(1):97-107.

19. Greenberg JS, Bruess CE, Conklin SC. Sexual orientation. In: Greenberg JS, Bruess CE, Conklin SC. Exploring the Dimensions of Human Sexuality. 4th ed. Sudberry, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2011:352-356.

20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adolescent and School Health: Health Risks Among Sexual Minority Youth. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/disparities/smy.htm. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

21. National Center for Transgender Equality. Understanding Transgender People: The Basics. Available at https://transequality.org/issues/resources/understanding-transgender-people-the-basics. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

22. Kitzinger C. Speaking of oppression: psychology, politics, and the language of power. In: Rothblum ED, Bond LA (eds). Preventing Heterosexism and Homophobia. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 1996.

23. Doyle DM, Molix L. Social stigma and sexual minorities' romantic relationship functioning: a meta-analytic review. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2015;41(10):1363-1381.

24. Messner MA, Sabo DF. Sex, Violence and Power in Sports: Rethinking Masculinity. Freedom, CA: Crossing Press; 1994.

25. Smith I, Oades LG, McCarthy G. Homophobia to heterosexism: constructs in need of re-visitation. Gay Lesbian Issues Psychology Rev. 2012;8(1):34-44.

26. Herek GM, Gillis JR, Cogan JC. Internalized stigma among sexual minority adults: insights from a social psychology perspective.J Couns Psychol. 2009;56:32-43.

27. Perry B. The sociology of hate: theoretical approaches. In: Levin B, Iganski P, Blazak R, Lawrence FM. Hate Crimes. Volumes 1-5. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.; 2009: 56-57.

28. Herek GM. The context of anti-gay violence: notes on cultural and psychological heterosexism. J Interpersonal Violence. 1990;5(3):316-333.

29. Like RC, Steiner RP, Rubel AJ. Society of Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM) Core Curriculum Guidelines: recommended core curriculum guidelines on culturally sensitive and competent health care. Fam Med. 1996;28(4):291-297.

30. O'Hanlan KA, Cabaj RP, Schatz B, Lock J, Nemrow P. A review of the medical consequences of homophobia with suggestions for resolution. J Gay Lesbian Med Assoc. 1997;1(1):25-39.

31. Matthews CR, Adams EM. Using a social justice approach to prevent the mental health consequences of heterosexism. J Prim Prev. 2009;30(1):11-26.

32. Hong JS, Woodford MR, Long LD, Renn KA. Ecological covariates of subtle and blatant heterosexist discrimination among LGBQ college students. J Youth Adolesc. 2016;45(1):117-131.

33. Woodford MR, Kulick A, Sinco BR, Hong JS. Contemporary heterosexism on campus and psychological distress among LGBQ students. The mediating role of self-acceptance. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2014;84(5):519-529.

34. Misener TR, Sowell RL, Phillips KD, Harris C. Sexual orientation: a cultural diversity issue for nursing. Nurs Outlook. 1997;45(4):178-181.

35. Kirk HW, Weisbrod JA, Ericson KA. Psychosocial and Behavioral Aspects of Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2002.

36. Human Rights Foundation. Demystifying Homosexuality: A Teaching Guide About Lesbians and Gay Men. Irvington Publishers; 1984.

37. Meyer IH, Schwartz S. Social issues as public health: promise and peril. Am J Public Health. 2000;90(8):1189-1191.

38. Smith DM, Gates G. Gay and Lesbian Families in the United States: Same-Sex Unmarried Partner Households. Available at https://www.urban.org/research/publication/gay-and-lesbian-families-united-states. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

39. U.S Census Bureau, Lofquist D. Same-Sex Couple Households: American Community Survey Briefs. Available at https://www2.census.gov/library/publications/2011/acs/acsbr10-03.pdf. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

40. Savin-Williams RC. Mom, Dad. I'm Gay: How Families Negotiate Coming Out. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2000.

41. Rosenfeld D. Identity work among lesbian and gay elderly. J Aging Stud. 1999;13(2):121-144.

42. Sieber JE, Stanley B. Ethical and professional dimensions of socially sensitive research. Am Psychol. 1988;43(1):49-55.

43. Lee RM. Doing Research on Sensitive Topics. London: Sage Publications; 1993.

44. McInroy LB. Pitfalls, potentials, and ethics of online survey research: LGBTQ and other marginalized and hard-to-access youths. Soc Work Res. 2016;40(2):83-94.

45. Allen LB, Glicken AD, Beach RK, Naylor KE. Adolescent health care experience of gay, lesbian, and bisexual young adults.J Adolesc Health. 1998;23(4):212-220.

46. Carter D. Stonewall: The Riots that Sparked the Gay Revolution. 2nd ed. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press; 2010.

47. Cass VC. Homosexual identity formation: a theoretical model. J Homosex. 1979;4(3):219-235.

48. Troiden RR. The formation of homosexual identities. J Homosex. 1989;17(1-2):43-73.

49. Di Angi PR. Grieving and the acceptance of the homosexual identity. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 1982;4(2):101-113.

50. Kübler-Ross E. On Death and Dying. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, Scribner; 1997.

51. Erikson EH. Childhood and Society. New York, NY: WW Norton and Co; 1993.

52. Maylon AK. The homosexual adolescent: developmental issues and social bias. Child Welfare. 1981;60(5):321-330.

53. Ryan C, Futterman D. Lesbian and gay adolescents: identity development. Prev Researcher. 2001;8(1):3-5.

54. Dube EM, Savin-Williams RC. Sexual identity development among ethnic sexual-minority male youths. Dev Psychol. 1999;35(6):1389-1398.

55. Shibutani T, Kwan KM. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York, NY: Macmillan; 1965.

56. Festinger L. Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press; 1957.

57. Taylor B. "Coming out" as a life transition: homosexual identity formation and its implications for health care practice. J Adv Nurs. 1999;30(2):520-525.

58. Burr K. Coming Out, Coming Home: Making Room for Gay Spirituality in Therapy. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Routledge; 2012.

59. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. A Provider's Introduction to Substance Abuse Treatment for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Individuals. Available at https://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA12-4104/SMA12-4104.pdf. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

60. Baker K, Center for American Progress. Gathering Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data in Health IT: Better Information Can Help Close Disparities Gap. Available at https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/lgbt/news/2012/02/09/11146/gathering-sexual-orientation-and-gender-identity-data-in-health-it. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

61. Baker JM. How Homophobia Hurts Children: Nurturing Diversity at Home, at School, and in the Community. New York, NY: Harrington Park Press; 2002.

62. Stevens PE, Morgan S. Health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. J Pediatr Health Care. 2001;15(1):24-34.

63. Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network. The 2015 National School Climate Survey. Available at https://www.glsen.org/article/2015-national-school-climate-survey. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

64. U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. About Hate Crime Statistics, 2016: Incidents and Offenses. Available at https://ucr.fbi.gov/hate-crime/2016. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

65. The National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and HIV-Affected Hate Violence in 2016. Available at http://avp.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/NCAVP_2016HateViolence_REPORT.pdf. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

66. D'Augelli AR. Enhancing the development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. In: Rothblum ED, Bond LA (eds). Preventing Heterosexism and Homophobia: Primary Prevention of Psychopathology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 1996.

67. Roesler T, Deisher RW. Youthful male homosexuality: homosexual experience and the process of developing homosexual identity in males aged 16 to 22 years. JAMA. 1972;219(8):1018-1023.

68. Ryan CC, Futterman D. Lesbian and Gay Youth: Care and Counseling. 1st ed. New York, NY: Columbia University Press; 1998.

69. Telingator CJ, Woyewodzic KT. Sexual Minority Identity Development: A Review of the Process and Effects. Available at http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/child-adolescent-psychiatry/sexual-minority-identity-development?pageNumber=2. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

70. Zera D. Coming of age in a heterosexist world: the development of gay and lesbian adolescents. Adolescence. 1992;27(108):849-854.

71. Benton J. Making schools safer and healthier for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning students. J Sch Nurs. 2003;19(5):251-259.

72. McFarland WP, Martin D. The legal duty to protect gay and lesbian students from violence in school. Professional Sch Counseling. 2001;4(3):171-179.

73. American Association of University Women Educational Foundation. Hostile Hallways: Bullying, Teasing, and Sexual Harassment in School. Available at https://www.aauw.org/files/2013/02/hostile-hallways-bullying-teasing-and-sexual-harassment-in-school.pdf. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

74. Crothers L, Altman C. Bullying of sexually diverse children and adolescents. NASP Communiqué. 2007;35(5):28-30.

75. Remafedi G. Fundamental issues in the care of homosexual youth. Med Clin North Am. 1990;74(5):1169-1179.

76. Krieger N, Sidney S. Prevalence and health implications of anti-gay discrimination: a study of black and white women and men in the CARDIA cohort. Int J Health Serv. 1997;27(1):157-176.

77. Institute of Medicine. The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People: Building a Foundation for Better Understanding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2011.

78. Fontaine JH, Hammond NL. Counseling issues with gay and lesbian adolescents. Adolescence. 1996;31(124):817-830.

79. National LGBTQ Task Force. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth: An Epidemic of Homelessness. Available at http://www.thetaskforce.org/lgbt-youth-an-epidemic-of-homelessness. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

80. Legal Momentum. Nabozny v. Podlesny. Available at https://www.legalmomentum.org/legal-cases/nabozny-v-podlesny. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

81. Holland and Knight LLP. New Laws in Massachusetts to Protect Students from Bullying, Harassment and Other Harm: What Schools Must Do Now to Comply. Available at https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=bcda8ff0-0f0d-429e-ae68-44ceae6046ef. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

82. Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network. Safe Schools Improvement Act (S. 311/H.R. 2902). Available at https://www.glsen.org/article/safe-schools-improvement-act-s-311hr-2902. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

83. Savin-Williams RC, Frankel LB. Personal and sexual identity. Handout accompanying: Savin-Williams R. Lives of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths: From First Attractions to a Positive Identity. Understanding Sexual Identity: Strategies to Support Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Questioning Youth. Speech presented at a conference coordinated by the Charleston Area Medical Center Education and Research Division and St. John's Episcopal Church, Charleston, WV. March 2002.

84. Bakker LJ, Cavender A. Promoting culturally competent care for gay youth. J Sch Nurs. 2003;19(2):65-72.

85. Stablein T, Hall JL, Nissenbaum H, Anthony D. Gay Males and Electronic Health Records: Privacy Perceptions, Age, and Negotiating Stigma. Available at http://sharps.org/wp-content/uploads/STABLEIN-ESS-Annual-Meeting.pdf. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

86. American Psychological Association. Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality. Available at http://www.apa.org/topics/lgbt/orientation.aspx. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

87. Cole SW. Social threat, personal identity, and physical health in closeted gay men. In: Omoto AM, Kurtzman HS (eds). Sexual Orientation and Mental Health: Examining Identity and Development in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual People. Washington DC: APA Books; 2006: 245-267.

88. Ross MW, Rosser BRS, Neumaier ER, Positive Connections Team. The relationship of internalized homonegativity to unsafe sexual behavior in HIV seropositive men who have sex with men. AIDS Educ Prev. 2008;20(6):547-557.

89. Burke SE, Dovidio JF, Przedworski JM, et al. Do contact and empathy mitigate bias against gay and lesbian people among heterosexual first-year medical students? A report from the Medical Student CHANGE Study. Acad Med. 2015;90(5):645-651.

90. Sabin JA, Riskind RG, Nosek BA. Health care providers' implicit and explicit attitudes toward lesbian women and gay men. Am J Public Health. 2015;105(9):1831-1841.

91. Michigan State Legislature. House Bill 4660. Available at http://www.legislature.mi.gov/documents/2007-2008/billintroduced/House/pdf/2007-HIB-4660.pdf. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

92. Georgia State Board of Pharmacy. 480-5-.03 Code of Professional Conduct. Available at http://rules.sos.ga.gov/gac/480-5. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

93. Lambda Legal. Health Care Providers Must Treat Gay Patients Equally Under Civil Rights Laws, State Appeals Court Says. Available at https://www.lambdalegal.org/news/ca_20030304_health-care-providers-must-treat-gay-patients-equally. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

94. U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Health Care Coverage Options for Same-Sex Couples. Available at https://www.healthcare.gov/married-same-sex-couples-and-the-marketplace. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

95. San Francisco Human Rights Commission LGBT Advisory Committee. Bisexual Invisibility: Impacts and Recommendations. Available at https://sf-hrc.org//sites/default/files/Documents/HRC_Publications/Articles/Bisexual_Invisiblity_Impacts_and_Recommendations_March_2011.pdf. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

96. Miller M, Andre A, Ebin J, Bessonova L. Bisexual Health: An Introduction and Model Practices for HIV/STI Prevention Programming. Available at http://www.thetaskforce.org/bisexual-health-an-introduction-and-model-practices-for-hivsti-prevention-programming. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

97. Movement Advancement Project. Understanding Issues Facing Transgender Americans. Movement Advancement Project: Denver, CO: 2015.

98. Bolles A. Five of the Most Unsetting Realities for America's Trans Community. Available at https://www.glaad.org/blog/5-most-unsettling-realities-americas-trans-community. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

99. Savin-Williams RC. Verbal and physical abuse as stressors in the lives of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths: associations with school problems, running away, substance abuse, prostitution, and suicide. J Consulting Clin Psychol. 1994;62(2):261-269.

100. Grant JM, Mottet LA, Tanis J, Harrison J, Herman JL, Keisling M. Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. Washington, DC: National Center for Transgender Equality and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force; 2011.

101. Movement Advancement Project. LGBT Equality Maps: Non-Discrimination Laws. Available at http://www.lgbtmap.org/equality-maps/non_discrimination_laws/insurance. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

102. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts for Lesbians and Bisexual Women. Available at https://www.cancer.org/healthy/find-cancer-early/womens-health/cancer-facts-for-lesbians-and-bisexual-women.html. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

103. Dibble SL, Roberts SA. A comparison of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment between lesbian and heterosexual women. J Gay Lesbian Med Assoc. 2002;6(1):9-17.

104. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts for Gay and Bisexual Men. Available at https://www.cancer.org/healthy/find-cancer-early/mens-health/cancer-facts-for-gay-and-bisexual-men.html. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

105. Gay and Lesbian Medical Association. Ten Things Gay Men Should Discuss With Their Healthcare Provider. Available at http://www.glma.org/_data/n_0001/resources/live/top%2010%20forGayMen.pdf. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

106. U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey Briefs: Same-Sex Couple Households. Available at https://www.census.gov/data/tables/time-series/demo/same-sex-couples/ssc-house-characteristics.html. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

107. American Psychological Association. APA on Children Raised by Gay and Lesbian Parents. Available at http://www.apa.org/news/press/response/gay-parents.aspx. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

108. American Psychological Association. APA Policy Statement. Sexual Orientation, Parents, and Children. Available at http://www.apa.org/about/policy/parenting.aspx. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

109. American Medical Association House of Delegates. AMA Archives. House of Delegates Proceedings, Annual Meeting, 2004. Resolution 204 (A-04): Partner Co-Adoption. Available at http://ama.nmtvault.com/jsp/browse.jsp?sort_col=&collection_filter=Digest%20of%20Official%20Actions#. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

110. Nolo Legal Encyclopedia. Same-Sex Marriage: Developments in the Law. Available at https://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/same-sex-marriage-developments-the-law.html. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

111. Joint Commission Resources. Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competence, and Patient- and Family-Centered Care: A Roadmap for Hospitals. Chicago, IL: The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations; 2010.

112. American Medical Association. Medical Student Section (MSS) Advocacy and Policy. Available at https://www.ama-assn.org/about/medical-student-section-mss-advocacy-policy. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

113. National LGBTQ Task Force. Task Force Applauds HHS Announcement of Far-Reaching Policy Protecting Same-Sex Couples in Hospital Settings. Available at https://thetaskforceblog.org/2010/11/17/task-force-applauds-hhs-on-new-policy-protecting-same-sex-couples-in-hospital-settings. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

114. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral Hepatitis and Gay and Bisexual Men. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/featuredtopics/GayAndBisexualMen.htm. last accessed September 12, 2018.

115. Schutten M, de Wit JB, van Steenbergen JE. Why do gay men want to be vaccinated against hepatitis B? An assessment of psychosocial determinants of vaccination intention. Int J STD AIDS. 2002;13(2):86-90.

116. Vet R, de Wit JBF, Das E. The efficacy of social role models to increase motivation to obtain vaccination against hepatitis B among men who have sex with men. Health Educ Res. 2011;26(2):192-200.

117. Reiter PL, Brewer NT. Hepatitis B vaccination among a national sample of gay and bisexual men. Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38(3):235-238.

118. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. STDs in Men Who Have Sex with Men. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/std/stats16/msm.htm. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

119. Luther VP, Pegram S. Consequences of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In: Talley NJ, Kane SV, Wallace MB (eds). Practical Gastroenterology and Hepatology: Small and Large Intestine and Pancreas. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.

120. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Among Gay and Bisexual Men. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/group/msm/index.html. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

121. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV in the United States: At a Glance. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/statistics/overview/ataglance.html. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

122. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS: Gay and Bisexual Men's Health. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/msmhealth/HIV.htm. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

123. Workowski KA, Bolan GA. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR. 2015;64(RR3):1-137.

124. Johnson WD, Diaz RM, Flanders WD, et al. Behavioral interventions to reduce risk for sexual transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;16(3):CD001230.

125. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Unrecognized HIV infection, risk behaviors, and perceptions of risk among young black men who have sex with men—six U.S. cities, 1994–1998. MMWR. 2002;51(33):733-736.

126. Goparaju L, Warren-Jeanpiere L. African American women's perspectives on 'down low/DL' men: implications for HIV prevention. Cult Health Sex. 2012;14(8):879-893.

127. Gibbs JJ, Goldbach J. Religious conflict, sexual identity, and suicidal behaviors among LGBT young adults. Arch Suicide Res. 2015;19(4):472-488.

128. King M, Semlyen J, Tai SS, et al. A systematic review of mental disorder, suicide, and deliberate harm in lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. BMC Psychiatry. 2008;18;8:70.

129. National Institute of Mental Health. Eating Disorders: About More Than Food. Available at https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/eating-disorders/index.shtml. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

130. Meyer C, Blissett J, Oldfield C. Sexual orientation and eating psychopathology: the role of masculinity and femininity. Int J Eating Disord. 2001;29(3):314-318.

131. Jones BE. Is having the luck of growing old in the gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender community good or bad luck? J Gay Lesbian Soc Services. 2002;13(4):13-14.

132. Cabaj RP, Stein TS (eds). Textbook of Homosexuality and Mental Health. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 1996.

133. American Lung Association. Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community. Available at http://www.lung.org/our-initiatives/research/lung-health-disparities/tobacco-use-lgbt-community.html. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

134. Maitri. Domestic Violence in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgender Relationships. Available at http://maitri.org/domestic-violence-in-lesbian-gay-bisexual-or-transgender-relationships. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

135. Klinger RL, Stein TS. Impact of violence, childhood sexual abuse, and domestic violence and abuse on lesbians, bisexuals, and gay men. In: Cabaj RP, Stein TS (eds). Textbook of Homosexuality and Mental Health. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 2005.

136. Berrill KT. Anti-gay violence and victimization in the United States: an overview. In: Herek GM, Berrill KT (eds). Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 1992.

137. Conyers J. Forward. In: Herek GM, Berrill KT (eds). Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 1992.

138. U.S. Congress. H.R. 1048: Hate Crime Statistics Act. Available at https://www.congress.gov/bill/101st-congress/house-bill/01048. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

139. Frolik C. Gay Seniors Fear Bias. Available at https://www.lgbtagingcenter.org/newsevents/newsArticle.cfm?n=29. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

140. Vaid U. Preface. In: Cahill S, South K, Spade J (eds). Outing Age: Public Policy Issues Affecting Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Elders. New York, NY: The Policy Institute of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Foundation; 2000.

141. Social Security Administration. Same-Sex Couples. Available at https://www.ssa.gov/people/same-sexcouples. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

142. Shannon JW, Woods WJ. Affirmative psychotherapy for gay men. Counseling Psychol. 1991;19(2):197-215.

143. Milaszewski D, Greto E, Klochkov T, Fuller-Thomson E. A systematic review of education for the prevention of HIV/AIDS among older adults. J Evid Based Soc Work. 2012;9(3):213-230.

144. Williams E, Donnelly J. Older Americans and AIDS: some guidelines for prevention. Soc Work. 2002;47(2):105-111.

145. Oyieng'o DO, Bradley J. HIV in the older adult. Med Health R I. 2010;93(8):252-253.

146. Skiest DJ, Keiser P. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in patients older than 50 years: a survey or primary care physicians' beliefs, practices, and knowledge. Arch Fam Med. 1997;6(3):289-294.

147. Berger RM, Kelly JJ. Gay men and lesbians grown older. In: Cabaj RP, Stein TS (eds). Textbook of Homosexuality and Mental Health. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 1996.

148. Fredriksen-Goldsen KI, Kim H-J, Emlet CA, et al. The Aging and Health Report: Disparities and Resilience Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Older Adults. Seattle, WA: Institute for Multigenerational Health; 2011.

149. Morrow DF. Older gays and lesbians: surviving a generation of hate and violence. J Gay Lesbian Soc Services. 2001;13(1/2):151-169.

150. Hawke M. Just like everyone else. Nurs Spectrum. 2002;3(12):20-22.

151. Pederson P. A Handbook for Developing Multicultural Awareness. 3rd ed. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association; 2000.

152. Cogan J. The prevention of anti-lesbian/gay hate crimes through social change and empowerment. In: Rothblum ED, Bond LA (eds). Preventing Heterosexism and Homophobia. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 1996.

153. Leninger M, McFarland M. Transcultural Nursing: Concepts, Theories, Research and Practice. 3rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional; 2002.

154. Lambda Legal. Disclosing Your Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity to Healthcare Providers: The Effect of New HIPAA Regulations. Available at https://www.lambdalegal.org/publications/disclosing-your-sexual-orientation-or-gender-identity-to-healthcare-providers-the-effect-of-new-hipaa-regulations. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

155. Gay and Lesbian Medical Association. Creating a Safe Clinical Environment for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex (LGBTI) Patients. Available at https://www.healthynativeyouth.org/docs/Guidelines-Safe-Clinical-Space-LGBT-Patients.pdf. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

156. Bakker LJ. Caring for a gay patient: here's how to provide sensitive and knowledgeable care. Nursing. 1998;28(10).

157. Baron A Jr. The challenge: to make homosexuality boring. Counseling Psychol. 1991;19(2):239-244.

158. East JA, El Rayess F. Pediatricians' approach to the health care of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. J Adolesc Health. 1998;23(4): 191-193.

159. American Psychological Association. APA Policy Statements on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Concerns. Available at http://www.apa.org/about/policy/booklet.pdf. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

160. National Institutes of Health. Plans for Advancing LGBT Health Research. Available at https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/who-we-are/nih-director/statements/plans-advancing-lgbt-health-research. Last accessed September 12, 2018.

161. D'Augelli AR, Grossman AH, Hershberger SL, O'Connell TS. Aspects of mental health among older lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Aging Men's Health. 2001;5(2):149-158.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. Adelson SL, American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Committee on Quality Issues. Practice parameter on gay, lesbian, or bisexual sexual orientation, gender nonconformity, and gender discordance in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;51(9):957-974. Available at https://www.jaacap.org/article/S0890-8567(12)00500-X/fulltext. Last accessed September 16, 2018.

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Special populations. In: Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015.MMWR. 2015;64(3):9-16. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/specialpops.htm. Last accessed September 16, 2018.

3. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Suicide Risk in Adolescents, Adults and Older Adults: Screening. Available at https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/suicide-risk-in-adolescents-adults-and-older-adults-screening. Last accessed September 16, 2018.


Copyright © 2018 NetCE, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.