Works Cited

1. Lawrence RA, Lawrence RM. Breastfeeding: A Guide for the Medical Profession. 8th ed. St Louis, MO: C.V. Mosby; 2015.

2. Wambach K, Riordan J. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation, Enhanced Fifth Edition. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett; 2015.

3. Greiner T. The concept of weaning: definitions and their implications. J Hum Lact. 1996;12(2):123-128.

4. Edwards M. Reclaiming Birth: History and Heroines of American Childbirth Reform. Trumansburg, NY: The Crossing Press; 1984.

5. Dettwyler KA, Stuart-Macadam P (eds). Breastfeeding: Biocultural Perspectives. New York, NY: Aldine De Gruyter; 1995.

6. Baumslag N, Michels DL. Milk, Money, and Madness: The Culture and Politics of Breastfeeding. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey; 1995.

7. Raphael D. The Tender Gift: Breastfeeding. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1973.

8. Wolf JH. The social and medical construction of lactation pathology. Women Health. 2000;30(3):93-110.

9. Eiger MS, Wendkos Olds S, Marks L. The Complete Book of Breastfeeding. 4th ed. New York, NY: Workman Publishing; 2009.

10. Akre J (ed). Infant Feeding: The Physiological Basis. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1989.

11. Newman J. Bottle-feeding as normal. J Hum Lact. 1992;8(1):2-4.

12. Rodriguez-Garcia R, Frazier L. Cultural paradoxes relating to sexuality and breastfeeding. J Hum Lact. 1995;11(2):111-115.

13. Dettwyler KA. A time to wean. Breastfeeding Abstracts. 1994;14(1):3-4.

14. Love SM, Lindsey K. Dr. Susan Love's Breast Book. 6th ed. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press; 2015.

15. National Conference of State Legislatures. Breastfeeding State Laws. Available at http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/breastfeeding-state-laws.aspx. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

16. GovTrack.us. Advanced Search for Legislation: Breastfeeding. Available at https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/browse?q=breastfeeding. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

17. Gartner LM. On the question of the relationship between breastfeeding and jaundice in the first 5 days of life. Semin Perinatol. 1994;18(6):502-509.

18. Arms S. Immaculate Deception II: Myth, Magic and Birth. Berkeley, CA: Celestial Arts; 1994.

19. American Academy of Pediatrics. From the American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement: breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2012;129(3):e827-e841.

20. Gertner LM, Morton J, Lawrence RA, et al. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2005;115(2):496-506.

21. Hoyert DL, Xu J. Deaths: preliminary data for 2011. NVSS. 2012;61(6):1-51.

22. MacDorman MF, Mathews TJ, Mohangoo AD, Zeitlin J. International comparisons of infant mortality and related factors: United States and Europe, 2010. Nat Vital Stat Rep. 2014;63(5):1-7.

23. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2020: Topics and Objectives. Available at https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

24. Scanlon KS, Grummer-Strawn L, Shealy KR, et al. Breastfeeding trends and updated national health objectives for exclusive breastfeeding—United States, birth years 2000–2004. MMWR. 2007;56(30):760-763.

25. Galson SK. Surgeon General's perspectives. The 25th anniversary of the Surgeon General's workshop on breastfeeding and human lactation: the status of breastfeeding today. Public Health Rep. 2009;124:356-358.

26. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Breastfeeding Report Card—United States, 2018. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/data/reportcard.htm. Last accessed January 16, 2019.

27. Spisak S, Gross S (eds). Second Follow-Up Report: The Surgeon General's Workshop on Breastfeeding and Human Lactation. Available at https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/NN/B/C/S/W/segments.html. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

28. Waddell A (ed). The Reports of the Surgeon General: Surgeon General's Workshop on Breastfeeding and Human Lactation. Available at https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/NN/B/C/G/F/. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

29. Womenshealth.gov. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. HHS Blueprints and Breastfeeding Policy Statements. Available at http://www.usbreastfeeding.org/p/cm/ld/fid=222. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

30. Ip S, Chung M, Raman G, et al. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries. Evid Rep Technol Assess. 2007;(153):1-186.

31. DiGirolamo AM, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, et al. Breastfeeding-related maternity practices at hospitals and birth centers—United States, 2007. MMWR. 2008;57(23):621-625.

32. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Business Case for Breastfeeding: Steps for Creating a Breastfeeding Friendly Worksite [Outreach Marketing Guide]. Available at https://www.womenshealth.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-home-work-and-public/breastfeeding-and-going-back-work/business-case. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

33. Fein SB, Mandal B, Roe BE. Success of strategies for combining employment and breastfeeding. Pediatrics. 2008;122:S56-S62.

34. World Health Organization. International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1981.

35. Frank DA. Commercial discharge packs and breastfeeding counseling: summary of a study. J Hum Lact. 1989;5(1):7-10.

36. Southall DP, Burr S, Smith RD, et al. The Child-Friendly Healthcare Initiative (CFHI): healthcare provision in accordance with the UN convention on the rights of the child. Pediatrics. 2000;106(5):1054-1064.

37. Cramton R, Zain-Ul-Abideen M, Whalen B. Optimizing successful breastfeeding in the newborn. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2009;21(3):386-396.

38. DiGirolamo AM, Grummer-Strawn LM, Fein SB. Effect of maternity-care practices on breastfeeding. Pediatrics. 2008;122:S43-S49.

39. Baby-Friendly USA. The Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Available athttps://www.babyfriendlyusa.org/for-facilities/practice-guidelines/10-steps-and-international-code. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

40. Labbok MH. Global baby-friendly hospital initiative monitoring data: update and discussion. Breastfeed Med. 2012;7:210-222.

41. Baby-Friendly USA. Find Facilities. Available at https://www.babyfriendlyusa.org/for-parents/find-a-baby-friendly-facility/. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

42. Philipp BL, Malone KL, Cimo S, Merewood MA. Sustained breastfeeding rates at a U.S. baby-friendly hospital. Pediatrics. 2003;112(3):e234-e236.

43. Forster DA, McLachlan HL. Breastfeeding initiation and birth setting practices: a review of the literature. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2007;52(3):273-280.

44. Broadfoot M, Britten J, Tappin DM, MacKenzie JM. The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative and breast feeding rates in Scotland. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005;90(2):F114-F116.

45. Merten S, Dratva J, Ackermann-Liebrich U. Do baby-friendly hospitals influence breastfeeding duration on a national level? Pediatrics. 2005;116(5):e702-e708.

46. DiGirolamo AM, Grummer-Strawn LM, Fein S. Maternity care practices: implications for breastfeeding. Birth. 2001;28(2):94-100.

47. Cattaneo A, Buzzetti R. Effect on rates of breast feeding of training for the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative. BMJ. 2001;323(7325):1358-1362.

48. Powers NG, Slusser W. Breastfeeding update 2: clinical lactation management. Pediatr Rev. 1997;18(5):147-161.

49. DiGirolamo AM, Grummer-Strawn LM, Fein SB. Do perceived attitudes of physicians and hospital staff affect breastfeeding decisions? Birth. 2003;30(2):94-100.

50. Powers NG, Naylor AJ, Wester RA. Hospital policies: crucial to breastfeeding success. Semin Perinatol. 1994;18(6):517-524.

51. Kotz D. All Massachusetts Maternity Hospitals Now Ban Infant Formula Gift Bags. Available at https://www.boston.com/uncategorized/noprimarytagmatch/2012/07/12/all-massachusetts-maternity-hospitals-now-ban-infant-formula-gift-bags. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

52. DelawarePublicMedia. Delaware Bans Hospital Gift Bags of Baby Formula. Available at https://www.delawarepublic.org/post/delaware-bans-hospital-gift-bags-baby-formula. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

53. Dodgson JE, Tarrant M. Outcomes of a breastfeeding educational intervention for baccalaureate nursing students. Nurse Educ Today. 2007;27(8):856-867.

54. Brown LP, Bair AH, Meier PP. Does federal funding for breastfeeding research target our national health objectives? Pediatrics. 2003;111(4):e360-e364.

55. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Breastfeeding: Research Projects Underway. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/index.htm. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

56. United States Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service. USDA Announces Grants to Support State Breastfeeding Programs. Available at https://www.fns.usda.gov/pressrelease/2014/fns-0001-14. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

57. Barness LA. History of infant feeding practices. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987;46:168-170.

58. Carlson SE. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in pregnancy and lactation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:678S-684S.

59. van Goor SA, Dijck-Brouwer DAJ, Hadders-Algra M, et al. Human milk arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents increase following supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009;80(1):65-69.

60. Koletzko B, Lien E, Agostoni C, et al. The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations. J Perinat Med. 2008;36:5-14.

61. Koletzko B, Cetin I, Brenna JT, for the Perinatal Lipid Intake Working Group. Consensus Statement: dietary fat intakes for pregnant and lactating women. Br J Nutr. 2007;98(5):873-877.

62. Benisek D, Shabert J, Skornik R. Dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids by pregnant or lactating women in the United States. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95:S77-S78.

63. Frithsen I, Goodnight W. Awareness and implications of fish consumption advisories in a women's health setting. J Reprod Med. 2009;54:267-272.

64. Bloomingdale A, Guthrie LB, Price S, et al. A qualitative study of fish consumption during pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:1234-1240.

65. Vallaeys C. Replacing Mother—Imitating Human Breast Milk in the Laboratory. Available at https://www.cornucopia.org/DHA/DHA_FullReport.pdf. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

66. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Questions and Answers for Consumers Concerning Infant Formula. Available at https://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/PeopleAtRisk/ucm108079.htm. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

67. AAP Committee on Nutrition. New infant formula additives approved by FDA. AAP News. 2002;20(5):209-210.

68. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Committee on the Evaluation of the Addition of Ingredients New to Infant Formula, Food and Nutrition Board. Infant Formula: Evaluating the Safety of New Ingredients. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2004.

69. Stuebe AM, Schwarz EB. The risks and benefits of infant feeding practices for women and their children. J Perinatol. 2010;30(3):155-162.

70. Estrada B. Infections Associated with Powdered Infant Formula. Available at https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/441218. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

71. Himelright I, Harris E, Lorch V, et al. Enterobacter sakazakii infections associated with the use of powdered infant formula—Tennessee, 2001. MMWR. 2002;51(14):298-300.

72. Bhalla V, Grimm PC, Chertow GM, Pao AC. Melamine nephrotoxicity: an emerging epidemic in an era of globalization. Kidney Int. 2009;75(8):774-779.

73. Blackwell AG, Salisbury L. Administrative petition to relieve the health hazards of promotion of infant formulas in the U.S. Birth. 2007;8(4):287-296.

74. Walker M. A fresh look at the risks of artificial infant feeding. J Hum Lact. 1993;9(2):97-107.

75. Kent G. WIC's promotion of infant formula in the United States. Int Breastfeeding J. 2006;1:8.

76. Cerrato PL. Does milk cause juvenile diabetes? RN. 1993;56(1):69-101.

77. Bernshaw NJ. Does breastfeeding protect against sudden infant death syndrome? J Hum Lact. 1991;7(2):73-79.

78. Gribble KD. Mechanisms behind breastmilk's protection again, and artificial baby milk's facilitation of, diarrhoeal illness.Breastfeed Rev. 2011;19(2):19-26.

79. Oddy WH. Breastfeeding protects against illness and infection in infants and children: a review of evidence. Breastfeed Rev. 2001;9(2):11-18.

80. Gigliotti E. When women decide not to breastfeed. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 1995;20(6):315-321.

81. Mercola.com. World's Fastest Growing Functional Food? Infant Formula. Available athttps://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2013/11/13/breastfeeding-vs-formula-feeding.aspx#_edn1. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

82. Bartick M, Reinhold A. The burden of suboptimal breastfeeding in the United States: a pediatric cost analysis. Pediatrics. 2010;125(5):e1048-e1056.

83. Bartick M. Breastfeeding and the U.S. economy. Breastfeed Med. 2011;6:313-318.

84. Greer FR, Apple RD. Physicians, formula companies, and advertising: a historical perspective. Am J Dis Child. 1991;145(3): 282-286.

85. Starling S. World's Fastest Growing Functional Food in 2013: Infant Formula (By a Mile). Available at https://www.dairyreporter.com/Article/2013/10/30/Infant-formula-is-world-s-fastest-growing-functional-food-in-2013. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

86. U.S. Government Accountability Office. Report to Congressional Addressees. Breastfeeding. Some Strategies Used to Market Infant Formula May Discourage Breastfeeding; State Contracts Should Better Protect Against Misuse of WIC Name. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office; 2006.

87. Arias D. Infant formula marketing can discourage U.S. breastfeeding: low-income moms are at higher risk. Nations Health. 2006;36(3).

88. Riordan JM. The cost of not breastfeeding: a commentary. J Hum Lact. 1997;13(2):93-97.

89. Hetzner NM, Razza RA, Malone LM, Brooks-Gunn J. Associations among feeding behaviors during infancy and child illness at two years. Maternal Child Health J. 2009;13(6):795-805.

90. Hill DJ, Heine RG, Cameron DJ, et al. Role of food protein intolerance in infants with persistent distress attributed to reflux esophagitis. J Pediatr. 2000;136(5):641-647.

91. Kamer B, Chilarski A, Lange A, Piaseczna-Piotrowska A. Gastroesophageal reflux in infants with food allergy. Med Sci Monit. 2000;6(2):348-352.

92. Ravelli, AM, P. Tobanelli, S. Volpi, AG Ugazio. Vomiting and gastric motility in infants with cow's milk allergy. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2001;32(1):59-64.

93. Schach B, Haight M. Colic and food allergy in the breastfed infant: is it possible for an exclusively breastfed infant to suffer from food allergy? J Hum Lact. 2002;18(1):50-52.

94. Moneret-Vautrin DA. Cow's milk allergy. Allergy Immunol (Paris). 1999;31(6):201-210.

95. Greer FR, Sicherer SH, Burks AW, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition, American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Allergy and Immunology. Effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic disease in infants and children: the role of maternal dietary restriction, breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and hydrolyzed formulas. Pediatrics. 2008;121(1):183-191.

96. Reda SM. Gastrointestinal manifestations of food allergy. Pediatr Health. 2009;3(3):217-229.

97. Garza C, Schanler RJ, Butte NF, Motil KJ. Special properties of human milk. Clin Perinatol. 1987;14(1):11-32.

98. Kennell J, Klaus M, McGrath S, Robertson S, Hinkley C. Continuous emotional support during labor in a U.S. hospital: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1991;265(17):2197-2201.

99. Lucas A, Morley R, Cole TJ, Lister G, Leeson-Payne C. Breast milk and subsequent intelligence quotient in children born preterm. Lancet. 1992;339(8788):261-264.

100. Deoni SCL, Dean DC III, Piryatinsky I, et al. Breastfeeding and early white matter development: a cross-sectional study. Neurolimage. 2013;82:77-86.

101. Baker RD, Greer FR, ; American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition. Diagnosis and prevention of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children (0–3 years of age). Pediatrics. 2010;126(5):1040–1050.

102. Schanler RJ, Feldman-Winter L, Landers S, Noble L, Szucs KA, Viehmann, on behalf of the AAP Section on Breastfeeding. Concerns with early universal iron supplementation of breastfeeding infants. Pediatrics. 2011;127(4):e1097.

103. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vitamin D Supplementation. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/diet-and-micronutrients/vitamin-d.html. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

104. Cohen SM. Jaundice in the full-term newborn. Pediatr Nurs. 2006;32(3):202-208.

105. American Pregnancy Association. Breastfeeding: Overview. Available at https://americanpregnancy.org/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-overview/. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

106. Humenick SS. The clinical significance of breastmilk maturation rates. Birth. 1987;14(4):174-181.

107. Humenick SS, Mederios D, Wreschner TB, Walton MB, Hill PD. The Maturation Index of Colostrum and Milk (MICAM): a measurement of breast milk maturation. J Nurs Meas. 1994;2(2):169-186.

108. Wagner CL. Human Milk and Lactation. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1835675-overview. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

109. Neville MC, Morton J, Umemura S. Lactogenesis: the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2001;48(1):35-52.

110. Corenblum B. Pituitary Disease and Pregnancy. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/127650-overview. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

111. Pang WW, Hartmann PE. Initiation of human lactation: secretory differentiation and secretory activation. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2007;12(4):211-221.

112. Ostrom KM. A review of the hormone prolactin during lactation. Prog Food Nutr Sci. 1990;14(1):1-43.

113. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Depo-Provera: Label Information. Available at https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2010/020246s036lbl.pdf. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

114. The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. ABM Clinical Protocol #13: Contraception During Breastfeeding, Revised 2015. Available at https://abm.memberclicks.net/assets/DOCUMENTS/PROTOCOLS/13-contraception-and-breastfeeding-protocol-english.pdf. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

115. World Health Organization. Infant and Young Child Feeding: Model Chapter for Textbooks for Medical Students and Allied Health Professionals. Geneva; 2009.

116. MedlinePlus. Overcoming Breastfeeding Problems. Available at https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002452.htm. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

117. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. Breastfeeding. Available at https://www.womenshealth.gov/breastfeeding. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

118. Pittard WB 3rd, Geddes KM, Pepkowitz SH, Carr R. The immunologic composition of neonatal milk: cellular components.Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1988;46(2):294-298.

119. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. Learning to Breastfeed. Available at https://www.womenshealth.gov/breastfeeding/learning-breastfeed. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

120. Neifert MR, Seacat JM, Jobe WE. Lactation failure due to insufficient glandular development of the breast. Pediatrics. 1985;76(5):823-828.

121. Kumar Y, Chahal A, Garg M, Bhatia A, Mahajan NC, Ganju A. Delayed involution of lactation presenting as a non-resolving breast mass: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2008;2:327.

122. Izatt SD. Breastfeeding counseling by health care providers. J Hum Lact. 1997;13(2):109-113.

123. Shaikh U, Scott BJ. Extent, accuracy, and credibility of breastfeeding information on the Internet. J Hum Lact. 2005;21(2):175-183.

124. Marasco L. Common breastfeeding myths. Leaven. 1998;34(2):21-21.

125. National Cancer Institute. SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Female Breast Cancer. Available at https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

126. Olsen CG, Gordon RE Jr. Breast disorders in nursing mothers. Am Fam Physician. 1990;41(5):1509-1516.

127. Petok ES. Breast cancer and breastfeeding: five cases. J Hum Lact. 1995;11(3):205-209.

128. Andersson TM, Johansson AL, Hsieh CC, Cnattingius S, Lambe M. Increasing incidence of pregnancy-associated breast cancer in Sweden. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114(3):568-572.

129. National Cancer Institute. Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ). Available at https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp/pregnancy-breast-treatment-pdq. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

130. Wagner CL, Greer FR. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2008;122(5).

131. Michalopoulos K. The effects of breast augmentation surgery on future ability to lactate. Breast J. 2007;13(1):62-67.

132. American Academy of Family Physicians. Breastfeeding, Family Physicians Supporting (Position Paper). Available at https://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/breastfeeding-support.html. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

133. Hurst NM. Lactation after augmentation mammoplasty. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;87(1):30-34.

134. Bodley V, Powers D. Patient with insufficient glandular tissue experiences milk supply increase attributed to progesterone treatment for luteal phase effect. J Hum Lact. 1999;15(4):339-343.

135. Thorley V. Breast hypoplasia and breastfeeding: a case history. Breastfeed Rev. 2005;13(2):13-16.

136. Brown SL, Todd JF, Cope JU, Sachs HC. Breast implant surveillance reports to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration: maternal-child health problems. J Long Term Eff Med Implants. 2006;16(4):281-290.

137. Semple JL. Breast-feeding and silicone implants. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120(7 suppl 1):123S-128S.

138. Souto GC, Giugliani ERJ, Giugliani C, Schneider MA. The impact of breast reduction surgery on breastfeeding performance.J Hum Lact. 2003;19(1):43-49.

139. Witte PM, van der Lei B, van der Biezen JJ, Spronk CA. Successful breastfeeding after reduction mammaplasty. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2004;148(26):1291-1293.

140. Zimpelmann A, Kaufmann M. Breastfeeding nursing after breast surgery. Zentralbl Gynakol. 2002;124(11):525-528.

141. Kakagia D, Tripsiannis G, Tsoutsos D. Breastfeeding after reduction mammaplasty: a comparison of 3 techniques. Ann Plast Surg. 2005;55(4):343-345.

142. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diseases and Conditions: When Should a Mother Avoid Breastfeeding? Available at https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/maternal-or-infant-illnesses/index.html. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

143. Zimmerman DR, Bernstein WR. Standing feeding orders in a well-baby nursery: "water, water everywhere..." J Hum Lact. 1996;12(3):189-192.

144. Langer A, Campero L, Garcia C, Reynoso S. Effects of psychosocial support during labor and childbirth on breastfeeding, medical interventions, and mothers' wellbeing in a Mexican public hospital: a randomized clinical trial. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998;105(10):1056-1063.

145. Kennell JH, Klaus MH. Bonding: recent observations that alter perinatal care. Pediatr Rev. 1998;19(1):4-12.

146. Montgomery A, Hale TW, Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee. ABM clinical protocol #15: analgesia and anesthesia for the breastfeeding mother. Breastfeed Med. 2006;1(4):271-277.

147. DONA International. Available at https://www.dona.org. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

148. Gilliland AL. Beyond holding hands: the modern role of the professional doula. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2002;31(6): 762-769.

149. Klaus MH, Kennell JH, Klaus PH. Mothering the Mother: How a Doula Can Help You Have a Shorter, Easier, and Healthier Birth. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley; 1993.

150. Gordon NP, Walton D, McAdam E, Derman J, Gallitero G, Garrett L. Effects of providing hospital-based doulas in health maintenance organization hospitals. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;93(3):422-426.

151. Atherton MJ, Feeg VD, El-Adham AF. Race, ethnicity, and insurance as determinants of epidural use: analysis of a national sample survey. Nurs Econ. 2004;22(1):6-13.

152. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. ACOG practice bulletin: obstetric analgesia and anesthesia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2002;78(3):321-325.

153. Howie WO, McMullen PC. Breastfeeding problems following anesthetic administration. J Perinat Educ. 2006;15(3):50-57.

154. Anim-Somuah M, Smyth RM, Jones L. Epidural versus non-epidural or no analgesia in labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;7(12):CD000331.

155. Faculty of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care. Contraceptive choices for breastfeeding women. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2004;30(3):181-189.

156. Lexicomp Online. Available at http://online.lexi.com. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

157. Sinusas K, Gagliardi A. Initial management of breastfeeding. Am Fam Physician. 2001;64(6):981-988.

158. Chang ZM, Heaman MI. Epidural analgesia during labor and delivery: effects on the initiation and continuation of effective breastfeeding. J Hum Lact. 2005;21(3):305-314.

159. Torvaldsen S, Roberts CL, Simpson JM, Thompson JF, Ellwood DA. Intrapartum epidural analgesia and breastfeeding: a prospective cohort study. Int Breastfeeding J. 2006;1:24.

160. Wilson MJ, MacArthur C, Cooper GM, et al. Epidural analgesia and breastfeeding: a randomized controlled trial of epidural techniques with and without fentanyl and a non-epidural comparison group. Anaesthesia. 2009;65(2):145-153.

161. Jordan S, Emery S, Watkins A, Evans JD, Storey M, Morgan G. Associations of drugs routinely given in labour with breastfeeding at 48 hours: analysis of the Cardiff Births Survey. BJOG. 2009;116(12):1622-1632.

162. Baumgarder DJ, Muehl P, Fischer M, Pribbenow B. Effect of labor epidural anesthesia on breast-feeding of healthy full-term newborns delivered vaginally. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2003;16:7-13.

163. Leighton BL, Halpern SH. The effects of epidural analgesia on labor, maternal, and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186(5 suppl nature):S69-S77.

164. Devroe S, De Coster J, Van de Velde M. Breastfeeding and epidural analgesia during labor. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2009;22(3): 327-329.

165. Jordan S, Emery S, Bradshaw C, Watkins A, Friswell W. The impact of intrapartum analgesia on infant feeding. BJOG. 2005;112:927-934.

166. Wiklund I, Norman M, Uvnäs-Moberg K, Ransjö-Arvidson A-B, Andolf E. Epidural analgesia: breast-feeding success and related factors. Midwifery. 2009;25(2):e31-e38.

167. Alexander JM, Sharma SK, McIntire DD, Leveno KJ. Epidural analgesia lengthens the Friedman active phase of labor. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100(1):46-50.

168. Lieberman E, Cohen A, Lang J, Frigoletto F, Goetzl L. Maternal intrapartum temperature elevation as a risk factor for cesarean delivery and assisted vaginal delivery. Am J Pub Health. 1999;89(4):506-510.

169. Lieberman E, Lang JM, Frigoletto F Jr, Richardson DK, Ringer SA, Cohen A. Epidural analgesia, intrapartum fever, and neonatal sepsis evaluation. Pediatrics. 1997;99(3):415-419.

170. Zhang J, Yancey MK, Klebanoff MA, Schwarz J, Schweitzer D. Does epidural analgesia prolong labor and increase risk of cesarean delivery? A natural experiment. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;185(1):128-134.

171. Anim-Somuah M, Smyth R, Jones L. Epidural versus non-epidural or no analgesia in labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(4):CD000331.

172. Lieberman E, Davidson K, Lee-Parritz A, Shearer E. Changes in fetal position during labor and their association with epidural analgesia. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105(5 pt 1):974-982.

173. Russell R. Combined spinal epidural analgesia is the preferred technique for labour analgesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg. 2002;53(4):331-334.

174. Simmons SW, Taqhizadeh N, Dennis AT, Hughes D, Cyna AM. Combined spinal-epidural versus epidural analgesia in labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;10:CD003401.

175. Hughes D, Simmons SW, Brown J, Cyna AM, Dennis AT. Combined spinal-epidural versus epidural analgesia in labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(3):CD003401.

176. Aneiros F, Vazquez M, Valiño C, et al. Does epidural versus combined spinal-epidural analgesia prolong labor and increase the risk of instrumental and cesarean delivery in nulliparous women? J Clin Anesth. 2009;21(2):94-97.

177. Moore ER, Anderson GC. Randomized controlled trial of very early mother-infant skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding status.J Midwifery Womens Health. 2007;52(2):116-125.

178. Vaglio S. Chemical communication and mother-infant recognition. Commun Integr Biol. 2009;2(3):279-281.

179. Vaglio S. Minicozzi P, Bonometti E, Mello G, Chiarelli B. Volatile signals during pregnancy: a possible chemical basis for mother-infant recognition. J Chem Ecol. 2009;35(1):131-139.

180. Righard L, Alade MO. Effect of delivery room routines on success of first breast-feed. Lancet. 1990;336(8723):1105-1107.

181. Moore ER, Anderson GC, Bergman N. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(3):CD003519.

182. Puig G, Sguassero Y. RHL Commentary: Early Skin-to-Skin Contact for Mothers and Their Healthy Newborn Infants. Available at https://extranet.who.int/rhl/topics/newborn-health/care-newborn-infant/early-skin-skin-contact-mothers-and-their-healthy-newborn-infants. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

183. Bystrova K, Ivanova V, Edhborg M, et al. Early contact versus separation: effects on mother-infant interaction one year later.Birth. 2009;36(2):97-109.

184. Wagner CL. Counseling the Breastfeeding Mother. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/979458-overview. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

185. Renfrew MJ, Craig D, Dyson L, et al. Breastfeeding promotion for infants in neonatal units: a systematic review and economic analysis. Health Technol Assess. 2009;13(40):1-146.

186. Lauwers J, Swisher A. Counseling the Nursing Mother: A Lactation Consultant's Guide. 5th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Barlett; 2010.

187. Mohrbacher N, Stock J. The Breastfeeding Answer Book. 3rd rev. ed. Chicago, IL: La Leche League International; 2003.

188. Newman J. Breastfeeding problems associated with the early introduction of bottles and pacifiers. J Hum Lact. 1990;6(2):59-63.

189. Riordan J. A Practical Guide to Breastfeeding. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Barlett; 1983.

190. Walker M, Driscol JW. Sore nipples: the new mother's nemesis. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 1989;14(4):260-265.

191. Napier D. Hands off technique has many benefits for breastfeeding mothers. BMJ. 2001;322(7291):929-930.

192. Fletcher D, Harris H. The implementation of the HOT program at the Royal Women's Hospital. Breastfeed Rev. 2000;8(1):19-23.

193. American Academy of Pediatrics. Ensuring Proper Latch On. Available at https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/breastfeeding/pages/Ensuring-Proper-Latch-On.aspx. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

194. Mayo Clinic. Infant and Toddler Health: Slide Show: Breastfeeding Positions. Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/infant-and-toddler-health/multimedia/breast-feeding/sls-20076017. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

195. Taylor JS, Kacmar JE, Nothnagle M, Lawrence RA. A systematic review of the literature associating breastfeeding with type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005;24(5):320-326.

196. Hummel S, Winkler C, Schoen S, et al. Breastfeeding habits in families with type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2007;24(6):671-676.

197. Diabetes in pregnancy. In: Mazze RS, Strock E, Simonson GD, Bergenstal RM. Prevention, Detection and Treatment of Diabetes in Adults. 4th ed. Minneapolis, MN: International Diabetes Center; 2007.

198. Chertok IR, Raz I, Shoham I, Haddad H, Wiznitzer A. Effects of early breastfeeding on neonatal glucose levels of term infants born to women with gestational diabetes. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2009;22(2):166-169.

199. Voeten M, Gerrits GP, Voorhoeve PG. Treatment of neonatal hypoglycaemia: more frequent latching onto the breast versus supplementary feeding with formula: retrospective study of patient files. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2008;152(31):1732-1736.

200. Cranmer H. Neonatal Hypoglycemia. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/802334-overview. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

201. World Health Organization. Hypoglycaemia of the Newborn: Review of the Literature. Available at https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/63362/WHO_CHD_97.1.pdf;jsessionid=12F321E2D3C839E6D642DBA8B7E44487?sequence=1. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

202. Straussman S, Levitsky LL. Neonatal hypoglycemia. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2010;17(1):20-24.

203. Cornblath M, Hawdon JM, Williams AF, et al. Controversies regarding definition of neonatal hypoglycemia: suggested operational thresholds. Pediatrics. 2000;105(5):1141-1145.

204. Maisels MJ. What's in a name? Physiologic and pathologic jaundice: the conundrum of defining normal bilirubin levels in the newborn. Pediatrics. 2006;118:805-807.

205. Hansen TWR. Neonatal Jaundice. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/974786-overview. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

206. American Academy of Pediatrics, Subcommittee on Hyperbilirubinemia. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant 35 or more weeks gestation. Pediatrics. 2004;114(1):297-316.

207. Wilkerson N. Treating hyperbilirubinemia. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 1989;14(1):32-36.

208. Brown LP, Arnold L, Allison D, Klein ME, Jacobsen B. Incidence and pattern of jaundice in healthy breast-fed infants during the first month of life. Nurs Res. 1993;42(2):106-110.

209. Hannon PR, Willis SK, Scrimshaw SC. Persistence of maternal concerns surrounding neonatal jaundice: an exploratory study.Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001;155(12):1357-1363.

210. Maisels MJ, Bhutani VK, Bogen D, Newman TB, Stark AR, Watchko JF. Hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant ≥35 weeks' gestation: an update with clarifications. Pediatrics. 2009;124:1193.

211. Muchowski KE. Evaluation and treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Am Fam Physician. 2014;89(11):873-878.

212. Taber's Online. Available at https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

213. Auerbach KG, Gartner LM. Breastfeeding and human milk: their association with jaundice in the neonate. Clin Perinatol. 1987;14(1):89-107.

214. Watchko JF. Identification of neonates at risk for hazardous hyperbilirubinemia: emerging clinical insights. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2009;56(3):671-687.

215. American Academy of Pediatrics. Practice parameter: management of hyperbilirubinemia in the healthy term newborn. Provisional Committee on Quality Improvement Subcommittee on Hyperbilirubinemia. Pediatrics. 1994;94(4):558-565.

216. Thilo E. Jaundice. In: Thureen PJ, Deacon J, Hernandez JA, Hall D (eds). Assessment and Care of the Well Newborn. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders; 2004.

217. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening of Infants for Hyperbilirubinemia to Prevent Chronic Bilirubin Encephalopathy: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2009.

218. Hansen TW. Kernicterus in term and near-term infants—the specter walks again. Acta Paediatr. 2000;89(10):1155-1157.

219. Dunn P, Bhutani V, Weiner S, Ludomirski A. Care of the neonate with erythroblastosis fetalis. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 1988;17(6):382-386.

220. de Carvalho M, Hall M, Harvey D. Effects of water supplementation on physiologic jaundice in breast-fed babies. Arch Dis Child. 1981;56(7):568-569.

221. MacDorman MF, Mathews TJ. Behind international rankings of infant mortality: how the United States compares with Europe. NCHS Data Brief. 2009;(23):1-8.

222. Buckley KM, Charles GE. Benefits and challenges of transitioning preterm infants to at-breast feedings. Int Breastfeeding J. 2006;1:13.

223. Dougherty D, Luther M. Birth to breast: a feeding care map for the NICU: helping the extremely low birth weight infant navigate the course. Neonatal Netw. 2008;27(6):371-377.

224. Callen J, Pinelli J. A review of the literature examining the benefits and challenges, incidence and duration, and barriers to breastfeeding in preterm infants. Adv Neonatal Care. 2005;5(2):72-88.

225. Schurr P, Perkins EM. The relationship between feeding and necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants. Neonatal Netw. 2008;27(6):397-407.

226. Schanler RJ, Hurst NM. Human milk for the hospitalized preterm infant. Semin Perinatol. 1994;18(6):476-484.

227. Sisk PM, Lovelady Ca, Dillard RG, Gruber KJ. Lactation counseling for mothers of very low birth weight infants: effect on maternal anxiety and infant intake of human milk. Pediatrics. 2006;117(1):e67-e75.

228. Hill PD, Aldag JC, Chatterton RT, Zinaman M. Comparison of milk output between mothers of preterm and term infants: the first 6 weeks after birth. J Hum Lact. 2005;21(1):22-30.

229. Becker GE, McCormick FM, Renfrew MJ. Methods of milk expression for lactating women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;8(4):CD006170.

230. Morton J, Hall JY, Wong RJ, Thairu L, Benitz WE, Rhine WD. Combining hand techniques with electric pumping increases milk production in mothers of preterm infants. J Perinatol. 2009;29(11):757-764.

231. Linden DW, Paroli ET, Doron MW. Preemies: The Essential Guide for Parents of Premature Babies. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Pocket; 2010.

232. Drenckpohl D, Bowers L, Cooper H. Use of the six sigma methodology to reduce incidence of breast milk administration errors in the NICU. Neonatal Netw. 2007;26(3):161-166.

233. Pinelli J, Symington A. Non-nutritive sucking for promoting physiologic stability and nutrition in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;19(4):CD001071.

234. Acheson L. Family violence and breast-feeding. Arch Fam Med. 1995;4(7):650-652.

235. Aney M. "Babywise" advice linked to dehydration, failure to thrive. AAP News. 1998;14(4):21.

236. Nye C. Transitioning premature infants from gavage to breast. Neonatal Netw. 2008;27(1):7-13.

237. Lee TY, Lee TT, Kuo SC. The experiences of mothers in breastfeeding their very low birth weight infants. J Adv Nurs. 2009;65(12):2523-2531.

238. Groh-Wargo S, Sapsford A. Enteral nutrition support of the preterm infant in the neonatal intensive care unit. Nutr Clin Pract. 2009;24(3):363-376.

239. Ben XM. Nutritional management of newborn infants: practical guidelines. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14(40):6133-6139.

240. Senterre T. Practice of enteral nutrition in very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight infants. World Rev Nutr Diet. 2014;110:201-214.

241. Dowling DA, Meier PP, DiFiore JM, Blatz M, Martin RJ. Cup-feeding for preterm infants: mechanics and safety. J Hum Lact. 2002;18(1):13-20.

242. Meier P, Anderson GC. Responses of small preterm infants to bottle- and breast-feeding. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 1987;12(2):97-105.

243. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Medical Devices: Breast Pumps. Available at https://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/HomeHealthandConsumer/ConsumerProducts/BreastPumps. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

244. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. News Release: FDA Warns Consumers Against Using Mommy's Bliss Nipple Cream: Product Can Be Harmful to Nursing Infants [archive]. Available at http://web.archive.org/web/20090618104727/http:// www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/2008/ucm116900.htm. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

245. Parkes K. Nipple shields…friend or foe? Leaven. 2000;36(3):39-41.

246. McKechnie AC, Eglash A. Nipple shields: a review of the literature. Breastfeed Med. 2010;5(6):309-314.

247. Auerbach KG. The effect of nipple shields on maternal milk volume. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 1990;19(5):419-427.

248. Woolridge MW, Baum JD, Drewett RF. Effect of a traditional and of a new nipple shield on sucking patterns and milk flow.Early Human Dev. 1980;4(4):357-364.

249. Llorente AM, Jensen CL, Voigt RG, Fraley JK, Berretta MC, Heird WC. Effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on postpartum depression and information processing. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;188(5):1348-1353.

250. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Obstetric Practice. Committee opinion number 630: screening for perinatal depression. Obstet Gynecol. 2015;125:1268-1271.

251. Righetti-Veltema M, Conne-Perréard E, Bousquet A, Manzano J. Risk factors and predictive signs of postpartum depression.J Affect Disord. 1998;49(3):167-180.

252. Kohnle D. Health Tip: Symptoms of Postpartum Depression. Available at https://abcnews.go.com/Health/Healthday/health-tip-symptoms-postpartum-depression/story?id=9042844. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

253. Coleman BL, Gutmanis I, Larsen LL, Leffley AC, McKillop JM, Rietdyk AE. Introduction of solid foods: do mothers follow recommendations? Can J Diet Pract Res. 2009;70(3):135-140.

254. Anderson AS, Guthrie CA, Alder EM, Forsyth S, Howie PW, Williams FL. Rattling the plate—reasons and rationales for early weaning. Health Educ Research. 2001;16(4):471-479.

255. Sachs HC. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs. The transfer of drugs and therapeutics into human breast milk: an update on selected topics. Pediatrics. 2013;132(3):e796-e809.

256. Briggs GG, Freeman RK, Yaffe SJ. Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation: A Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk. 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2011.

257. Hale TW. Medications and Mother's Milk. 18th ed. Amarillo, TX: Hale Publishing L.P.; 2019.

258. Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee. Protocol 9: use of galactogogues in initiating or augmenting maternal milk supply. Breastfeed Med. 2011;6(1):41-49.

259. Dalvi SS, Nadkarni PM, Gupta KC. Effect of Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) on gastric emptying time in normal healthy volunteers. J Postgrad Med. 1990;36(2):91-94.

260. Madden JM, Soumerai SB, Lieu TA, et al. Effects of a law against early postpartum discharge on newborn follow-up, adverse events, and HMO expenditures. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(25):2031-2038.

261. Laugesen MJ, Paul RR, Luft HS, Aubry W, Ganiats TG. A comparative analysis of mandated benefit laws, 1949–2002. Health Serv Res. 2006;41(3 pt 2):1081-1103.

262. International Lactation Consultant Association. Available at https://www.ilca.org. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

263. La Leche League International. Maternal Nutrition During Breastfeeding. Available at http://llli.net/nb/nbmarapr04p44.html. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

264. American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. The changing concept of sudden infant death syndrome: diagnostic coding shifts, controversies regarding the sleeping environment, and new variables to consider in reducing risk. Pediatrics. 2005;116(5):1245-1255.

265. Mayo Clinic. Colic: Definition. Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/colic/symptoms-causes/syc-20371074. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

266. Pryor K, Pryor G. Nursing Your Baby. 4th ed. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers; 2005.

267. HealthCare.gov. Breastfeeding Benefits. Available at https://www.healthcare.gov/coverage/breast-feeding-benefits. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

268. State of Idaho. Housebill No. 448, 2018. ID law 181. Available at https://legislature.idaho.gov/sessioninfo/2018/legislation/H0448/. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

269. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Infant Mortality. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/infantmortality.htm. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

270. Chen A, Oster E, Williams H. Why is infant mortality higher in the United States than in Europe? Am Econ J Econ Policy. 2016;8(2):89-124.

271. Furman L, Schanler RJ. Breastfeeding. In: Gleason CA, Juul SE (eds). Avery's Diseases of the Newborn. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018.

272. Smalley SM. Breast implants and breast cancer screening. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2003;48(5).

273. March of Dimes. U.S. Preterm Birthrate on the Rise for Second Year in a Row. Available at https://www.marchofdimes.org/news/u-s-preterm-birth-rate-on-the-rise-for-second-year-in-a-row.aspx. Last accessed March 20, 2019.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. Grawey AE, Marinelli KA, Holmes AV, Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. ABM clinical protocol #14: breastfeeding-friendly physician's office: optimizing care for infants and children, revised 2013. Breastfeed Med. 2013;8(2):237-242. Available at https://abm.memberclicks.net/assets/DOCUMENTS/PROTOCOLS/14-breastfeeding-friendly-physicians-office-part-1-protocol-english.pdf. Last accessed April 8, 2019.

2. Holmes AV, Yerdon McLeod A, Bunik M. Peripartum breastfeeding management for the healthy mother and infant at term, revision 2013. Breastfeed Med. 2013;8(6):469-473. Available at https://abm.memberclicks.net/assets/DOCUMENTS/PROTOCOLS/ 5-peripartum-bf-management-protocol-english.pdf. Last accessed April 8, 2019.

3. Boies EG, Vauche YE, Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. ABM clinical protocol #10: breastfeeding the late preterm (34–36 6/7 weeks of gestation) and early term infants (37–38 6/7 weeks of gestation), second revision 2016. Breastfeed Med. 2016;11(10):151-156. Available at https://abm.memberclicks.net/assets/DOCUMENTS/PROTOCOLS/10-breastfeeding-the-late-pre-term-infant-protocol-english.pdf. Last accessed April 8, 2019.

4. Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee. ABM Clinical Protocol #9: Use of galactogoguesin initiating or augmenting maternal milk production, second revision 2018. Breastfeed Med. 2018;13(5):307-314. Available at https://abm.memberclicks.net/assets/DOCUMENTS/PROTOCOLS/9-galactogogues-protocol-english.pdf. Last accessed April 8, 2019.


Copyright © 2019 NetCE, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.