Works Cited

1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.

2. Gold MS. Drugs of Abuse: A Comprehensive Series for Clinicians: Tobacco. New York, NY: Plenum Medical Book Co.; 1995.

3. Goldsmid E (ed). The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Counter-Blaste to Tobacco, by King James I. Available at http://www.gutenberg.org/files/17008/17008-h/17008-h.htm. Last accessed March 29, 2019.

4. Kluger R. Ashes to Ashes: America's Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris. New York, NY: Vintage Books; 1997.

5. Cummings KM. Programs and policies to discourage the use of tobacco products. Oncogene. 2002;21(48):7349-7364.

6. Proctor RN. The Nazi war on tobacco: ideology, evidence, and possible cancer consequences. Bull Hist Med. 1997;71(3):435-488.

7. Bachinger E, McKee M. Tobacco policies in Austria during the Third Reich. Int K Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007;11(9):1033-1037.

8. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. 1964. Available at https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/NN/B/B/M/Q/_/nnbbmq.pdf. Last accessed March 29, 2019.

9. General Services Administration Public Building Service. Ask a RAM: What are the Changes in Federal Workplace Smoking Regulations? Available at https://www.gsa.gov/graphics/regions/FocusNewsletter_Spring2009.pdf. Last accessed March 29, 2019.

10. GovTrack.us. H.R. 1256: Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act: 111th Congress 2009. Available at https:// www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/111/hr1256. Last accessed March 29, 2019.

11. American Heart Association. Comments on the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Available at http:// www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@wcm/@adv/documents/downloadable/ucm_312249.pdf. Last accessed March 29, 2019.

12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking and Tobacco Use. Fast Facts. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/fast_facts/. Last accessed March 29, 2019.

13. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed Tables. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2017.

14. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General; 2014.

15. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2012.

16. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. Toll of Tobacco in the United States of America. Available at https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/research/factsheets/pdf/0072.pdf. Last accessed April 1, 2019.

17. Perlman SE, Chernoy C, Farley SM, et al. Exposure to secondhand smoke among nonsmokers in New York City in the context of recent tobacco control policies: current status, changes over the past decade, and national comparisons. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016;18(11):2065-2074.

18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smokeless Tobacco Use in the United States. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/smokeless/use_us/index.htm. Last accessed April 1, 2019.

19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Secondhand Smoke. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/secondhand_smoke/index.htm. Last accessed April 1, 2019.

20. Ellis JA, Gwynn C, Garg RK, et al. Secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmokers nationally and in New York City. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009;11(4):362-370.

21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Consumption of cigarettes and combustible tobacco—United States, 2000–2015. MMWR. 2016;65(48):1357-1363.

22. United States Government Accountability Office. Tobacco Taxes: Disparities in Rates for Similar Smoking Products Continue to Drive Market Shifts to Lower-Taxed Options. Available at https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-811T. Last accessed April 1, 2019.

23. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. State Cigarette Tax Rates and Rank, Date of Last Increase, Annual Pack Sales and Revenues, and Related Data. Available at https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/assets/factsheets/0099.pdf. Last accessed April 1, 2019.

24. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Hookah Tobacco (Shisha or Waterpipe Tobacco). Available at https://www.fda.gov/tobaccoproducts/labeling/productsingredientscomponents/ucm482575.htm#references. Last accessed April 2, 2019.

25. Lipari RN, Van Horn SL. Trends in Smokeless Tobacco Use and Initiation: 2002 to 2014. Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2017.

26. U.S. Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Tobacco-Subpart B. Definitions of cigars. Federal Register. 1996;141-143.

27. Baker F, Ainsworth SR, Dye JT, et al. Health risks associated with cigar smoking. JAMA. 2000;284(6):735-740.

28. Henningfield JE, Hariharan M, Kozlowski LT. Nicotine content and health risks of cigars. JAMA. 1996;276(23):1857-1858.

29. Boffetta P, Pershagen G, Jöckel KH, et al. Cigar and pipe smoking and lung cancer risk: a multicenter study from Europe.J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91(8):697-701.

30. Jolly DH. Exploring the use of little cigars by students at a historically black university. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5(3):A82.

31. Delnevo C. Smokers' choice: what explains the steady growth of cigar use in the U.S.? Public Health Rep. 2006;121(2):116-119.

32. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. The Rise of Cigars and Cigar-Smoking Harms. Available at https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/research/factsheets/pdf/0333.pdf. Last accessed April 2, 2019.

33. Kann L, Kinchen S, Shanklin SL, et al. Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2017. MMWR. 2018;67(8):1-479.

34. Nasim A, Blank MD, Berry BM, Eissenberg T. Cigar use misreporting among youth: data from the 2009 Youth Tobacco Survey, Virginia. Prev Chronic Dis. 2012;9:E42.

35. Malson JL, Sims K, Murty R, Pickworth WB. Comparison of the nicotine content of tobacco used in bidis and conventional cigarettes. Tob Control. 2001;10(2):181-183.

36. Venable MJ. Bidis booming/hip cigarette cheaper, but not risk free. The Richmond Times-Dispatch. June 11, 1999.

37. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. Bidis. Available at https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/assets/global/pdfs/en/IW_facts_products_bidis_overview.pdf. Last accessed April 2, 2019.

38. California State Department of Health Services. Evaluation of the health hazard of clove cigarettes. JAMA. 1988;260(24): 3641-3644.

39. Malson JL, Lee EM, Murty R, Moolchan ET, Pickworth WB. Clove cigarette smoking: biochemical, physiological, and subjective effects. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;74(3):739-745.

40. Knishkowy B, Amitai Y. Water-pipe (narghile) smoking: an emerging health risk behavior. Pediatrics. 2005;116(1):e113-e119.

41. Kiter G, Uçan ES, Ceylan E, Kilinç O. Water-pipe smoking and pulmonary functions. Respir Med. 2000;94(9):891-894.

42. World Health Organization, Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking: Health Effects, Research Needs and Recommended Actions by Regulators. Available at https://www.who.int/tobacco/global_interaction/tobreg/Waterpipe%20recommendation_Final.pdf. Last accessed April 2, 2019.

43. Ward KD, Eissenberg T, Gray JN, Srinivas V, Wilson N, Maziak W. Characteristics of U.S. waterpipe users: a preliminary report. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9(12):1339-1346.

44. Sepetdjian E, Shihadeh A, Saliba NA. Measurement of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in narghile waterpipe tobacco smoke. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46(5):1582-1590.

45. Saleh R, Shihadeh A. Elevated toxicant yields with narghile waterpipes smoked using a plastic hose. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46(5):1461-1466.

46. Lewin T. Collegians smoking hookahs…filled with tobacco. The New York Times. April 19, 2006.

47. Smackware. A Sketch Describing the Structure of the Hookah [Adapted]. Available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hookah-lookthrough.jpg. Last accessed April 2, 2019.

48. Hoffmann D, Hoffman I, El-Bayoumy K. The less harmful cigarette: a controversial issue: a tribute to Ernst L. Wynder. Chem Res Toxicol. 2001;14(7):767-790.

49. Haag HB, Larson PS, Finnegan JK. Effect of filtration on the chemical and irritating properties of cigarette smoke. AMA Arch Otolaryngol. 1959;69(3):261-265.

50. Brunnemann KD, Yu L, Hoffman D. Assessment of carcinogenic volatile N-nitrosamines in tobacco and in mainstream and sidestream smoke from cigarettes. Cancer Res. 1977;37(9):3218-3222.

51. Tiggelbeck D. Vapor phase modification: an underutilized technology. Proc. 3rd World Conference on Smoking and Health: Modifying the risk for the smoker. 1976 DHEW Publication No. (NIH) 76-1221:507-514.

52. Valavanidis A, Vlachogianni T, Fiotakis K. Tobacco smoke: involvement of reactive oxygen species and stable free radicals in mechanisms of oxidative damage, carcinogenesis and synergistic effects with other respirable particles. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009;6(2):445-462.

53. Federal Trade Commission. "Tar," Nicotine, and Carbon Monoxide of Smoke of 1294 Varieties of Domestic Cigarettes for the Year 1998. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission; 2000.

54. Federal Trade Commission. Federal Trade Commission Cigarette Report for 2016. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission; 2018.

55. Thun MJ, Heath CW. Changes in mortality from smoking in two American Cancer Society prospective studies since 1959. Prev Med. 1997;26(4):422-426.

56. Kozlowski LT, Pillitteri JL, Sweeney CT. Misuse of "light" cigarettes by means of vent blocking. J Subst Abuse. 1994;6(3):333-336.

57. Kozlowski LT, Pope MA, Lux JE. Prevalence of the misuse of ultra-low-tar cigarettes by blocking filter vents. Am J Public Health. 1988;78(6):694-695.

58. Kozlowski LT, Frecker RC, Khouw V, Pope MA. The misuse of "less-hazardous" cigarettes and its detection: hole blocking of ventilated filters. Am J Public Health. 1980;70(11):1202-1203.

59. Byrd GD, Robinson JH, Caldwell WS, deBethizy JD. Comparison of measured and FTC-predicted nicotine uptake in smokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1995;122(2):95-103.

60. Adams JD, Lee SJ, Hoffmann D. Carcinogenic agents in cigarette-smoke and the influence of nitrate in their formation. Carcinogenesis. 1984;5(2):221-223.

61. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Smoking and Health. The Health Consequences of Smoking: The Changing Cigarette. A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General; 1981.

62. Wong LS, Green HM, Feugate JE, Yadav M, Nothnangel EA, Martins-Green M. Effects of "second-hand" smoke on structure and function of fibroblasts, cells that are critical for tissue repair and remodeling. BMC Cell Biol. 2004;5(1):13.

63. Yuan H, Wong LS, Bhattacharya M. The effects of second-hand smoke on biological processes important in atherogenesis.BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2007;7:1.

64. Joad JP, Sekizawa S, Chen CY, Bonham AC. Air pollutants and cough. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2007;20(4):347-354.

65. Meeker JD, Missmer SA, Cramer DW, Hauser R. Maternal exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke and pregnancy outcome among couples undergoing assisted reproduction. Hum Reprod. 2007;22(2):337-345.

66. Zhong L, Goldberg MS, Parent ME, Hanely JA. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and the risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis. Lung Cancer. 2000;27(1):3-18.

67. Invernizzi G, Ruprecht A, Mazza R, et al. Particulate matter from tobacco versus diesel car exhaust: an educational perspective. Tobacco Control. 2004;13(3):219-221.

68. Preston AM, Rodriguez C, Rivera CE, Sahai H. Influence of environmental tobacco smoke on vitamin C status in children.Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(1):167-172.

69. Tsai HT, Tsai YM, Yang SF, et al. Lifetime cigarette smoke and second-hand smoke and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm— a community-based case-control study. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;105(1):181-188.

70. Lans C, Harper T, Georges K, Bridgewater E. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2001;1:10.

71. Sandler RS, Sandler DP, McDonnell CW, Wurzelmann JI. Childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and the risk of ulcerative colitis. Am J Epidemiol. 1992;135(6):603-8.

72. McCormick AA, Kumagai MH, Hanley K, et al. Rapid production of specific vaccines for lymphoma by expression of the tumor-derived single-chain Fv epitopes in tobacco plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999;96(2):703-708.

73. Ma S, Huang Y, Yin Z, Menassa R, Brandle JE, Jevnikar AM. Induction of oral tolerance to prevent diabetes with transgenic plants requires glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and IL-4. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004;101(15):5680-5685.

74. Webster DE, Cooney ML, Huang Z, et al. Successful boosting of a DNA measles immunization with an oral plant-derived measles virus vaccine. J Virol. 2002;76(15):7910-7912.

75. Muir DC. Tobacco smoke inhalation. Scand J Respir Dis Suppl. 1974;91:44-46.

76. Pearson MG, Chamberlain MJ, Morgan WK, Vinitski S. Regional deposition of particles in the lung during cigarette smoking in humans. J Appl Physiol. 1985;59(6):1828-1833.

77. Adams L, Lee C, Rawbone R, Guz A. Patterns of smoking: measurement and variability in asymptomatic smokers. Clin Sci (Lond). 1983;65(4):383-392.

78. Darby TD, McNamee JE, van Rossum JM. Cigarette smoking pharmacokinetics and its relationship to smoking behaviour. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1984;9(5):435-449.

79. Grant SG, Woodman G, Newman SP, Pavia D, Clarke SW. Sensory mechanisms in the upper respiratory tract affect the inhalation of cigarette smoke in man. Clin Sci (Lond). 1986;71(1):117-119.

80. Ferron GA. The size of soluble aerosol particles as a function of the humidity of the air: application to the human respiratory tract.J Aerosol Sci. 1977;8(4):251-267.

81. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NIOSH Spirometry Training Guide. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2004-154c/pdfs/2004-154c.pdf. Last accessed April 4, 2019.

82. Lunell E, Bergström M, Antoni G, Långström B, Nordberg A. Nicotine deposition and body distribution from a nicotine inhaler and a cigarette studied with positron emission tomography. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996;59(5):593-594.

83. Jarvis MJ. Why people smoke. BMJ. 2004;328(7434):277-279.

84. Le Houezec J. Role of nicotine pharmacokinetics in nicotine addiction and nicotine replacement therapy: a review. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2003;7(9):811-819.

85. Bandura A. Influence of models' reinforcement contingencies on the acquisition of imitative responses. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1965;1(6):589-595.

86. Turner L, Mermelstein R, Flay B. Individual and contextual influences on adolescent smoking. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004;1021: 175-197.

87. Carmelli D, Swan GE, Robinette D, Fabsitz R. Genetic influence on smoking: a study of male twins. N Engl J Med. 1992;327(12):829-833.

88. Swan GE. Implications of genetic epidemiology for the prevention of tobacco use. Nicotine Tob Res. 1999;1(Suppl 1):S49-S56.

89. Rose JE, Behm FM, Westman EC, Bates JE, Salley A. Pharmacologic and sensorimotor components of satiation in cigarette smoking. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;76(2):243-250.

90. Mekemson C, Glantz SA. How the tobacco industry built its relationship with Hollywood. Tob Control. 2002;11(Suppl 1):181-191.

91. Pierce JP, Choi WS, Gilpin EA, Farkas AJ, Berry CC. Tobacco industry promotion of cigarettes and adolescent smoking. JAMA. 1998;279(7):511-515.

92. Glantz SA. Smoking in movies: a major problem and a real solution. Lancet. 2003;362(9380):258-259.

93. Dalton MA, Tickle JJ, Sargent JD, Beach ML, Ahrens MB, Heatherton TF. The incidence and context of tobacco use in popular movies from 1988 to 1997. Prev Med. 2002;34(5):516-523.

94. Dalton MA, Sargent JD, Beach ML, et al. Effect of viewing smoking in movies on adolescent smoking initiation: a cohort study. Lancet. 2003;362(9380):281-285.

95. Tickle JJ, Sargent JD, Dalton MA, Beach ML, Heatherton TF. Favourite movie stars, their tobacco use in contemporary movies, and its association with adolescent smoking. Tob Control. 2001;10(1):16-22.

96. Glantz SA, Kacirk KW, McCulloch C. Back to the future: smoking in movies in 2002 compared with 1950 levels. Am J Public Health. 2004;94(2):261-263.

97. Associated Press. MPAA Makes Smoking Bigger Factor in Ratings. Available at https://www.today.com/id/18601051#.UXF_GEoVTyM. Last accessed April 4, 2019.

98. Pomerleau CS. Co-factors for smoking and evolutionary psychobiology. Addiction. 1997;92(4):397-408.

99. Heath AC, Martin NG. Genetic models for the natural history of smoking: evidence for a genetic influence on smoking persistence. Addict Behav. 1993;18(1):19-34.

100. Madden PA, Heath AC, Pedersen NL, Kaprio J, Koskenvuo MJ, Martin NG. The genetics of smoking persistence in men and women: a multicultural study. Behav Genet. 1999;29(6):423-431.

101. True WR, Heath AC, Scherrer JF, et al. Genetic and environmental contributions to smoking. Addiction. 1997;92(10):1227-1287.

102. Madden PA, Pedersen NL, Kaprio J, Koskenvuo MJ, Martin NG. The epidemiology and genetics of smoking initiation and persistence: crosscultural comparisons of twin study results. Twin Res. 2004;7(1):82-97.

103. Heath AC, Cates R, Martin NG, et al. Genetic contribution to risk of smoking initiation: comparisons across birth cohorts and across cultures. J Subst Abuse. 1993;5(3):221-246.

104. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: Nicotine Addiction: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: Office on Smoking and Health; 1988.

105. Silagy C, Lancaster T, Stead L, Mant D, Fowler G. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(4):CD000146.

106. Stead LF, Perera R, Bullen C, Mant D, Lancaster T. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(1):CD000146.

107. Stead LF, Perera R, Bullen C, et al. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;11:CD000146.

108. Russell MA, Feyerabend C. Cigarette smoking: a dependence on high-nicotine boli. Drug Metab Rev. 1978;8(1):29-57.

109. United States of America v. Philip Morris USA Inc., f/k/a Philip Morris Inc., et al. Civil Action No. 99-2496 (GK), Filed September 01, 2005.

110. Edwards JA, Warburton DM. Smoking, nicotine and electrocortical activity. Pharmacol Ther. 1982;19(2):147-164.

111. Domino EF, Ni L, Xu Y, Koeppe RA, Guthrie S, Zubieta JK. Regional cerebral blood flow and plasma nicotine after smoking tobacco cigarettes. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2004;28(2):319-327.

112. Domino EF, Minoshima S, Guthrie SK, et al. Effects of nicotine on regional cerebral glucose metabolism in awake resting tobacco smokers. Neuroscience. 2000;101(2):277-282.

113. Pidoplichko VI, DeBiasi M, Williams JT, Dani JA. Nicotine activates and desensitizes midbrain dopamine neurons. Nature. 1997;390(6658):401-404.

114. Corrigall WA, Coen KM, Adamson KL. Self-administered nicotine activates the mesolimbic dopamine system through the ventral tegmental area. Brain Res. 1994;653(1-2):278-284.

115. Ota A, Yasuda N, Okamoto Y, et al. Relationship of job stress with nicotine dependence of smokers—a cross-sectional study of female nurses in a general hospital. J Occup Health. 2004;46(3):220-224.

116. Moller AM, Maaløe R, Pedersen T. Postoperative intensive care admittance: the role of tobacco smoking. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2001;45(3):345-348.

117. Mayo Clinic. COPD. Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/copd/symptoms-causes/syc-20353679. Last accessed April 5, 2019.

118. Berndt A, Leme AS, Shapiro SD. Emerging genetics of COPD. EMBO Mol Med. 2012;4(11):1144-1155.

119. Wiencke JK, Thurston SW, Kelsey KT, et al. Early age at smoking initiation and tobacco carcinogen DNA damage in the lung.J Natl Cancer Institute. 1999;91(7):614-619.

120. Patel BD, Luben RN, Welch AA, et al. Childhood smoking is an independent risk factor for obstructive airways disease in women. Thorax. 2004;59(8):682-686.

121. Arcavi L, Benowitz NL. Cigarette smoking and infection. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(20):2206-2216.

122. Kark JD, Lebiush M, Rannon L. Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for epidemic a(H1N1) influenza in young men. N Engl J Med. 1982;307(17):1042-1046.

123. Almirall J, González CA, Balanzó X, Bolíbar I. Proportion of community-acquired pneumonia cases attributable to tobacco smoking. Chest. 1999;116(2):375-379.

124. Cecere LM, Williams EC, Sun H, et al. Smoking cessation and the risk of hospitalization for pneumonia. Respir Med. 2012;106(7):1055-1062.

125. Lange P, Vestbo J, Nyboe J. Risk factors for death and hospitalization from pneumonia: a prospective study of a general population. Eur Respir J. 1995;8(10):1694-1698.

126. Charoenca N, Kungskulniti N, Tipayamongkholgul M, et al. Determining the burden of secondhand smoke exposure on the respiratory health of Thai children. Tob Induc Dis. 2013;11(1):7.

127. Ambrose JA, Barua RS. The pathophysiology of cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: an update. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43(10):1731-1737.

128. Menza MA, Grossman N, Van Horn M, Cody R, Forman N. Smoking and movement disorders in psychiatric patients. Biol Psychiatry. 1991;30(2):109-115.

129. Ong MK, Glantz SA. Cardiovascular health and economic effects of smoke free workplaces. Am J Med. 2004;117(1):32-38.

130. Can A, Castro VM, Ozdemir YH, et al. Association of intracranial aneurysm rupture with smoking duration, intensity, and cessation. Neurology. 2017;89(13):1408-1415.

131. Riise T, Nortvedt MW, Ascherio A. Smoking is a risk factor for multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2003;61(8):1122-1124.

132. Fowler JS, Volkow ND, Wang GJ, et al. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase B in the brains of smokers. Nature. 1996;379(6567): 733-736.

133. Moreno-Gonzalez I, Estrada LD, Sanchez-Mejias E, Soto C. Smoking exacerbates amyloid pathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1495.

134. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lung Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Cancer? Available at https:// www.cdc.gov/cancer/lung/basic_info/risk_factors.htm. Last accessed April 5, 2019.

135. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tobacco Use by Youth is Rising: E-Cigarettes Are the Main Reason. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/youth-tobacco-use. Last accessed April 4, 2019.

136. Davis JL. The Effects of Smoking on Bone Health: Tips to Help You Quit Smoking. Available at https://www.webmd.com/osteoporosis/features/smoking-cigarettes. Last accessed April 25, 2016.

137. Giampietro PF, McCarty C, Mukesh B, et al. The role of cigarette smoking and statins in the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a pilot study utilizing the Marshfield Clinic Personalized Medicine Cohort. Osteoporos Int. 2010;21(3):467-477.

138. Walker LM, Preston MR, Magnay JL, Thomas PB, El Haj AJ. Nicotinic regulation of c-fos and osteopontin expression in human-derived osteoblast-like cells and human trabecular bone organ culture. Bone. 2001;28(6):603-608.

139. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking During Pregnancy. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/health_effects/pregnancy/index.htm. Last accessed May 2, 2019.

140. Tostes RC, Carneiro FS, Lee AJ, et al. Cigarette smoking and erectile dysfunction: focus on NO bioavailability and ROS generation. J Sex Med. 2008;5(6):1284-1295.

141. Pasqualotto FF, Umezu FM, Salvador M, Borges E Jr, Sobreiro BP, Pasqualotto EB. Effect of cigarette smoking on antioxidant levels and presence of leukocytospermia in infertile men: a prospective study. Fertil Steril. 2008;90(2):278-283.

142. Ramlau-Hansen CH, Thulstrup AM, Aggerholm AS, Jensen MS, Toft G, Bonde JP. Is smoking a risk factor for decreased semen quality? A cross-sectional analysis. Hum Reprod. 2007;22(1):188-196.

143. Waylen AL, Metwally M, Jones GL, Wilkinson AJ, Ledger WL. Effects of cigarette smoking upon clinical outcomes of assisted reproduction: a meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2009;15(1):31-44.

144. Lackmann GM, Salzberger U, Töllner U, Chen M, Carmella SG, Hecht SS. Metabolites of a tobacco-specific carcinogen in urine from newborns. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91(5):459-465.

145. Castles A, Adams EK, Melvin CL, Kelsch C, Boulton ML. Effects of smoking during pregnancy: five meta-analyses. Am J Prev Med. 1999;16(3):208-215.

146. Naeye RL. Abruptio placentae and placenta previa: frequency, perinatal mortality, and cigarette smoking. Obstet Gynecol. 1980;55:701-704.

147. Ness RB, Grisso JA, Hirschinger N, et al. Cocaine and tobacco use and the risk of spontaneous abortion. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(5):333-339.

148. Shiverick KT, Salafia C. Cigarette smoking and pregnancy I: ovarian, uterine, and placental effects. Placenta. 1999;20(4):265-272.

149. Bien TH, Burge R. Smoking and drinking: a review of the literature. Int J Addict. 1990;25(12):1429-1454.

150. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. Smoking and Other Drug Use. Available at https://tobaccofreekids.org/research/factsheets/pdf/0106.pdf. Last accessed April 13, 2019.

151. Jackson KM, Sher KJ, Wood PK, Bucholz KK. Alcohol and tobacco use disorders in a general population: short-term and long-term associations from the St. Louis epidemiological catchment area study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003;71(3):239-253.

152. Rohde P, Lewinsohn PM, Kahler CW, Seeley JR, Brown RA. Natural course of alcohol use disorders from adolescence to young adulthood. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001;40(1):83-90.

153. Romberger DJ, Grant K. Alcohol consumption and smoking status: the role of smoking cessation. Biomed Pharmacother. 2004;58(2):77-83.

154. Johnson JG, Cohen P, Pine DS, Klein DF, Kasen S, Brook JS. Association between cigarette smoking and anxiety disorders during adolescence and early adulthood. JAMA. 2000;284(18):2348-2351.

155. Quattrocki E, Baird A, Yurgelun-Todd D. Biological aspects of the link between smoking and depression. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2000;8(3):99-110.

156. Hughes JR, Stead LF, Hartmann-Boyce J, Cahill K, Lancaster T. Antidepressants for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;1:CD000031.

157. Carmody TP. Affect regulation, nicotine addiction, and smoking cessation. J Psychoactive Drugs. 1989;21(3):331-342.

158. Covey LS, Glassman AH, Stetner F. Cigarette smoking and major depression. J Addict Dis. 1998;17(1):35-46.

159. Glassman AH. Cigarette smoking: implications for psychiatric illness. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150(4):546-553.

160. Stage KB, Glassman AH, Covey LS. Depression after smoking cessation: case reports. J Clin Psychiatry. 1996;57(10):467-469.

161. Vázquez FL, Becoña E. Treatment of major depression associated with smoking cessation. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1998;98(6):507-508.

162. Bock BC, Goldstein MG, Marcus BH. Depression following smoking cessation in women. J Subst Abuse. 1996;8(1):137-144.

163. Borrelli B, Niaura R, Keuthen NJ, et al. Development of major depressive disorder during smoking-cessation treatment. J Clin Psychiatry. 1996;57(11):534-538.

164. Amering M, Bankier B, Berger P, Griengl H, Windhaber J, Katschnig H. Panic disorder and cigarette smoking behavior. Compr Psychiatry. 1999;40(1):35-38.

165. Breslau N, Kilbey M, Andreski P. Nicotine dependence, major depression, and anxiety in young adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1991;48(12):1069-1074.

166. Pohl R, Yeragani VK, Balon R, Lycaki H, McBride R. Smoking in patients with panic disorder. Psychiatry Res. 1992;43(3):253-262.

167. Cosci F, Knuts IJ, Abrams K, Griez EJ, Schruers KR. Cigarette smoking and panic: a critical review of the literature. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71(5):606-615.

168. Farris SG, Allan NP, Morales PC, Schmidt NB, Zvolensky MJ. Does successful smoking cessation reduce anxious arousal among treatment-seeking smokers? J Anxiety Disord. 2015;36:92-98.

169. Diwan A, Castine M, Pomerleau CS, Meador-Woodruff JH, Dalack GW. Differential prevalence of cigarette smoking in patients with schizophrenic vs. mood disorders. Schizophr Res. 1998;33(1-2):113-118.

170. Lohr JB, Flynn K. Smoking and schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 1992;8(2):93-102.

171. Ziedonis DM, Kosten TR, Glazer WM, Frances RJ. Nicotine dependence and schizophrenia. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1994;45(3):204-206.

172. Hall RG, Duhamel M, McClanahan R, et al. Level of functioning, severity of illness, and smoking status among chronic psychiatric patients. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1995;183(7):468-471.

173. Brown RW, Maple AM, Perna MK, Sheppard AB, Cope ZA, Kostrzewa RM. Schizophrenia and substance abuse comorbidity: nicotine addiction and the neonatal quinpirole model. Dev Neurosci. 2012;34(2-3):140-151.

174. Boggs DL, Carlson J, Cortes-Briones J, Krystal JH, D'Souza DC. Going up in smoke? A review of nAChRs-based treatment strategies for improving cognition in schizophrenia. Curr Pharm Des. 2014;20(31):5077-5092.

175. Decina P, Caracci G, Sandik R, Berman W, Mukherjee S, Scapicchio P. Cigarette smoking and neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism. Biol Psychiatry. 1990;28(7):502-508.

176. Sandyk R. Cigarette smoking: effects on cognitive functions and drug-induced parkinsonism in chronic schizophrenia.Int J Neurosci. 1993;70(3-4):193-197.

177. Weiser M, Reichenberg A, Grotto I, et al. Higher rates of cigarette smoking in male adolescents before the onset of schizophrenia: a historical-prospective cohort study. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161(7):1219-1223.

178. Tsoi DT, Porwal M, Webster AC. Interventions for smoking cessation and reduction in individuals with schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;2:CD007253.

179. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette Smoking During Pregnancy: United States, 2016. Available at https:// www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db305.htm. Last accessed April 13, 2019.

180. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2010.

181. Dietz PM, England LJ, Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Tong VT, Farr SL, Callaghan WM. Infant morbidity and mortality attributable to prenatal smoking in the United States. Am J Prev Med. 2010;39(1):45-52.

182. Buka SL, Shenassa ED, Niaura R. Elevated risk of tobacco dependence among offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy: a 30-year prospective study. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160(11):1978-1984.

183. Osler M, Clausen J, Ibsen KK, Jensen G. Maternal smoking during childhood and increased risk of smoking in young adulthood.Int J Epidemiol. 1995;24(4):710-714.

184. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking and Tobacco Use: Smoking in the Movies. Available at https://www.cdc. gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/youth_data/movies/index.htm. Last accessed April 4, 2019.

185. Ohida T, Kaneita Y, Osaki Y, et al. Is passive smoking associated with sleep disturbance among pregnant women? Sleep. 2007;30(9):1155-1161.

186. Mosier HD Jr, Jansons RA. Distribution and fate of nicotine in the rat fetus. Teratology. 1972;6(3):303-311.

187. Suzuki K, Horiguchi T, Comas-Urrutia AC, Mueller-Heubach E, Morishima HO, Adamsons K. Placental transfer and distribution of nicotine in the pregnant rhesus monkey. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1974;119(2):253-262.

188. Pastrakuljic A, Schwartz R, Simone C, Derewlany LO, Knie B, Koren G. Transplacental transfer and biotransformation studies of nicotine in the human placental cotyledon perfused in vitro. Life Sci. 1998;63(26):2333-2342.

189. Luck W, Nau H, Hansen R, Steldinger R. Extent of nicotine and cotinine transfer to the human fetus, placenta and amniotic fluid of smoking mothers. Dev Pharmacol Ther. 1985;8(6):384-395.

190. Sastry BV. Placental toxicology: tobacco smoke, abused drugs, multiple chemical interactions, and placental function. Reprod Fertil Dev. 1991;3(4):355-372.

191. Demir R, Demir AY, Yinanc M. Structural changes in placental barrier of smoking mother: a quantitative and ultrastructural study. Pathol Res Pract. 1994;190(7):656-667.

192. Aubard Y, Magne I. Carbon monoxide poisoning in pregnancy. BJOG. 2000;107(7):833-838.

193. Klebanoff MA, Levine RJ, Clemens JD, DerSimonian R, Wilkins DG. Serum cotinine concentration and self-reported smoking during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;148(3):259-262.

194. Jauniaux E, Gulbis B, Acharya G, Thiry P, Rodeck C. Maternal tobacco exposure and cotinine levels in fetal fluids in the first half of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;93(1):25-29.

195. Dempsey D, Jacob P III, Benowitz NL. Nicotine metabolism and elimination kinetics in newborns. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000;67(5):458-465.

196. Loebstein R, Lalkin A, Koren G. Pharmacokinetic changes during pregnancy and their clinical relevance. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1997;33(5):328-343.

197. Dempsey D, Jacob P III, Benowitz NL. Accelerated metabolism of nicotine and cotinine in pregnant smokers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;301(2):594-598.

198. Muneoka K, Ogawa T, Kamei K, et al. Prenatal nicotine exposure affects the development of the central serotonergic system as well as the dopaminergic system in rat offspring: involvement of route of drug administrations. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1997;102(1):117-126.

199. Slotkin TA. Fetal nicotine or cocaine exposure: which one is worse? J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998;285(3):931-945.

200. Slotkin TA, Lappi SE, McCook EC, Lorber BA, Seidler FJ. Loss of neonatal hypoxia tolerance after prenatal nicotine exposure: implications for sudden infant death syndrome. Brain Res Bull. 1995;38(1):69-75.

201. Kinney HC, O'Donnell TJ, Kriger P, White WS. Early developmental changes in (3H) nicotine binding in the human brainstem. Neuroscience. 1993;55(4):1127-1130.

202. Lewis KW, Bosque EM. Deficient hypoxia awakening response in infants of smoking mothers: possible relationship to sudden infant death syndrome. J Pediatr. 1995;127(5):691-696.

203. Roy TS, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. Prenatal nicotine exposure evokes alterations of cell structure in hippocampus and somatosensory cortex. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;300(1):124-133.

204. Stick S. Pediatric origins of adult lung disease. 1. The contribution of airway development to paediatric and adult lung disease. Thorax. 2000;55(7):587-594.

205. Sekhon HS, Proskocil BJ, Clark JA, Spindel ER. Prenatal nicotine exposure increases connective tissue expression in foetal monkey pulmonary vessels. Eur Respir J. 2004;23(6):906-915.

206. Collins MH, Moessinger AC, Kleinerman J, et al. Fetal lung hypoplasia associated with maternal smoking: a morphometric analysis. Pediatr Res. 1985;19(4):408-412.

207. Maritz GS, Windvogel S. Chronic maternal nicotine exposure during gestation and lactation and the development of the lung parenchyma in the offspring: response to nicotine withdrawal. Pathophysiology. 2003;10(1):69-75.

208. Economides D, Braithwaite J. Smoking, pregnancy and the fetus. J R Soc Health. 1994;114(4):198-201.

209. Philipp K, Pateisky N, Endler M. Effects of smoking on uteroplacental blood flow. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1984;17(4):179-182.

210. Tolson CM, Seidler FJ, McCook EC, Slotkin TA. Does concurrent or prior nicotine exposure interact with neonatal hypoxia to produce cardiac cell damage? Teratology. 1995;52(5):298-305.

211. Navarro HA, Mills E, Seidler FJ, et al. Prenatal nicotine exposure impairs beta-adrenergic function: persistent chronotropic subsensitivity despite recovery from deficits in receptor binding. Brain Res Bull. 1990;25(2):233-237.

212. Slotkin TA, Saleh JL, McCook EC, Seidler FJ. Impaired cardiac function during postnatal hypoxia in rats exposed to nicotine prenatally: implications for perinatal morbidity and mortality, and for sudden infant death syndrome. Teratology. 1997;55(3): 177-184.

213. Hafström O, Milerad J, Sandberg KL, Sundell HW. Cardiorespiratory effects of nicotine exposure during development. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2005;149(1-3):325-341.

214. Tomaselli GF, Marbán E. Electrophysiological remodeling in hypertrophy and heart failure. Cardiovasc Res. 1999;42(2):270-283.

215. Sartiani L, Cerbai E, Lonardo G, et al. Prenatal exposure to carbon monoxide affects postnatal cellular electrophysiological maturation of the rat heart: a potential substrate for arrhythmogenesis in infancy. Circulation. 2004;109(3):419-423.

216. Lampl M, Kuzawa CW, Jeanty P. Prenatal smoke exposure alters growth in limb proportions and head shape in the midgestation human fetus. Am J Hum Biol. 2003;15(4):533-546.

217. Lampl M, Kuzawa CW, Jeanty P. Growth patterns of the heart and kidney suggest inter-organ collaboration in facultative fetal growth. Am J Hum Biol. 2005;17(2):178-194.

218. DiFranza JR, Aligne CA, Weitzman M. Prenatal and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health. Pediatrics. 2004;113(4 Suppl):1007-1015.

219. Simpson WJ. A preliminary report on cigarette smoking and the incidence of prematurity. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1957;73(4): 807-815.

220. Bernstein IM, Mongeon JA, Badger GJ, Solomon L, Heil SH, Higgins ST. Maternal smoking and its association with birth weight. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106(5 Pt 1):986-991.

221. Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, Ventura SJ, Menacker F, Munson ML. Births: final data for 2002. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2003;52(10):1-113.

222. Ontario Medical Association. Rethinking stop-smoking medications: treatment myths and medical realities (update 2008).Medical Rev. 2008;75:22-34.

223. Aagaard-Tillery KM, Porter TF, Lane RH, Varner MW, Lacoursiere DY. In utero tobacco exposure is associated with modified effects of maternal factors on fetal growth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198(1):66.e1-66.e6.

224. Akalin-Sel T, Campbell S. Understanding the pathophysiology of intra-uterine growth retardation: the role of the "lower limb reflex" in redistribution of blood flow. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1992;46(2-3):79-86.

225. Hammarén-Malmi S, Tarkkanen J, Mattila PS. Analysis of risk factors for childhood persistent middle ear effusion. Acta Otolaryngol. 2005;125(10):1051-1054.

226. Stathis SL, O'Callaghan DM, Williams GM, Najman JM, Andersen MJ, Bor W. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is an independent predictor for symptoms of middle ear disease at five years' postdelivery. Pediatrics. 1999;104(2):e16.

227. Hecht SS, Hoffmann D. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines, an important group of carcinogens in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Carcinogenesis. 1988;9(6):875-884.

228. Shopland DR (ed). The Health Consequences of Smoking: Cancer: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Public Health Service Office on Smoking and Health; 1982.

229. Myers SR, Spinnato JA, Pinorini-Godly MT, Cook C, Boles B, Rodgers GC. Characterization of 4-aminobiphenyl-hemoglobin adducts in maternal and fetal blood-samples. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1996;47(6):553-566.

230. Hofhuis W, de Jongste JC, Merkus PJ. Adverse health effects of prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure on children.Arch Dis Child. 2003;88(12):1086-1090.

231. Boffetta P, Trédaniel J, Greco A. Risk of childhood cancer and adult lung cancer after childhood exposure to passive smoke: a meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2000;108(1):73-82.

232. Cooper C, Harvey N, Cole Z, Hanson M, Dennison E. Developmental origins of osteoporosis: the role of maternal nutrition.Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;646:31-39.

233. Fried PA, Watkinson B. 12- and 24-month neurobehavioural follow-up of children prenatally exposed to marijuana, cigarettes and alcohol. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1988;10(4):305-313.

234. Kristjansson B, Fried PA, Watkinson B. Maternal smoking during pregnancy affects children's vigilance performance. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1989;24(1):11-19.

235. Naeye RL, Peters EC. Mental development of children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1984;64(5): 601-607.

236. Streissguth AP, Barr HM, Martin DC, Herman CS. Effects of maternal alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine use during pregnancy on infant mental and motor development at eight months. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1980;4(2):152-164.

237. Kotimaa AJ, Moilanen I, Taanila A, et al. Maternal smoking and hyperactivity in 8-year-old children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003;42(7):826-833.

238. Thapar A, Fowler T, Rice F, et al. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in offspring. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160(11):1985-1989.

239. Orlebeke JF, Knol DL, Verhulst FC. Child behavior problems increased by maternal smoking during pregnancy. Arch Environ Health. 1999;54(1):15-19.

240. Brook JS, Brook DW, Whiteman M. The influence of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the toddler's negativity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154(4):381-385.

241. Brennan PA, Grekin ER, Mednick SA. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult male criminal outcomes. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999;56(3):215-219.

242. Ferguson DM, Woodward LJ, Horwood LJ. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and psychiatric adjustment in late adolescence. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55:721-727.

243. Hellström-Lindahl E, Nordberg A. Smoking during pregnancy: a way to transfer the addiction to the next generation? Respiration. 2002;69(4):289-293.

244. Chan-Yeung M, Dimich-Ward H. Respiratory health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Respirology. 2003;8(2):131-139.

245. Cook DG, Strachan DP. Health effects of passive smoking-10: summary of effects of parental smoking on the respiratory health of children and implications for research. Thorax. 1999;54(4):357-366.

246. Miller T, Rauh VA, Glied SA, et al. The economic impact of early life environmental tobacco smoke exposure: early intervention for developmental delay. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114(10):1585-1588.

247. Ueda Y, Stick SM, Hall G, Sly PD. Control of breathing in infants born to smoking mothers. J Pediatr. 1999;135(2 Pt 1):226-232.

248. Samet JM, Yang G. Passive smoking, women and children. In: Samet JM, Yoon SY (eds). Women and the Tobacco Epidemic: Challenges for the 21st Century. Geneva: The World Health Organization in collaboration with the Institute for Global Tobacco Control and the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health; 2001.

249. Johansson A, Hermansson G, Ludvigsson J. How should parents protect their children from environmental tobacco-smoke exposure in the home? Pediatrics. 2004;113(4):e291-e295.

250. Law KL, Stroud LR, LaGasse LL, Niaura R, Liu J, Lester BM. Smoking during pregnancy and newborn neurobehavior. Pediatrics. 2003;111(6 Pt 1):1318-1323.

251. Abou-Donia MB, Abdel-Rahman A, Goldstein LB, et al. Sensorimotor deficits and increased brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors following exposure to chlorpyrifos and/or nicotine in rats. Arch Toxicol. 2003;77(8):452-458.

252. Gospe SM Jr, Zhou SS, Pinkerton KE. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in utero and/or postnatally on brain development. Pediatr Res. 1996;39(3):494-498.

253. Navarro HA, Seidler FJ, Schwartz RD, Baker FE, Dobbins SS, Slotkin TA. Prenatal exposure to nicotine impairs nervous system development at a dose which does not affect viability or growth. Brain Res Bull. 1989;23(3):187-192.

254. Slotkin TA. Cholinergic systems in brain development and disruption by neurotoxicants: nicotine, environmental tobacco smoke, organophosphates. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004;198(2):132-151.

255. Hutchinson S, Glantz S, Zhu BQ, et al. In-utero and neonatal exposure to secondhand smoke causes vascular dysfunction in newborn rats. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998;32(5):1463-1467.

256. Török J, Gvozdjáková A, Kucharská J, et al. Passive smoking impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated rabbit arteries. Physiol Res. 2000;49(1):135-141.

257. Kallio K, Jokinen E. Tobacco smoke exposure is associated with attenuated endothelial function in 11-year-old healthy children. Circulation. 2007;115(25):3205-3212.

258. Simko F, Braunova Z, Kucharska J, Bada V, Kyselovic J, Gvozdjakova A. Passive smoking induced hypertrophy of the left ventricle: effect of captopril. Pharmamazie. 1999;54(4):314.

259. Neufeld EJ, Mietus-Snyder M, Beiser AS, Baker AL, Newburger JW. Passive cigarette smoking and reduced HDL cholesterol levels in children with high risk lipid profiles. Circulation. 1997;96(5):1403-1407.

260. Moskowitz WB, Schwartz PF, Schieken RM. Childhood passive smoking, race and coronary artery disease: the MCV Twin Study. Medical College of Virginia. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999;153(5):446-453.

261. Feldman J, Shenker IR, Etzel RA, et al. Passive smoking alters lipid profiles in adolescents. Pediatrics. 1991;88(2):259-264.

262. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sudden Unexpected Infant Death and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Data and Statistics. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/sids/data.htm. Last accessed April 13, 2019.

263. Klonoff-Cohen HS, Edelstein SL, Lefkowitz ES, et al. The effect of passive smoking and tobacco exposure through breast milk on sudden infant death syndrome. JAMA. 1995;273(10):795-798.

264. Matturri L, Ottaviani G, Lavezzi AM. Maternal smoking and sudden infant death syndrome: epidemiological study related to pathology. Virchows Arch. 2006;449(6):697-706.

265. Zhang K, Wang X. Maternal smoking and increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome: a meta-analysis. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2013;15(3):115-121.

266. Milerad J, Rajs J, Gidlund E. Nicotine and cotinine levels in pericardial fluid in victims of SIDS. Acta Paediatr. 1994;83(1):59-62.

267. Dunn A, Zeise L (eds). Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Sacramento, CA: California Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment; 1997.

268. Tsimoyianis GV, Jacobson MS, Feldman JG, et al. Reduction in pulmonary function and increased frequency of cough associated with passive smoking in teenage athletes. Pediatrics. 1987;80(1):32-36.

269. Lynn WR (ed). The Health Consequences of Involuntary Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General, 1986. Rockville, MD: United States Public Health Service Office on Smoking and Health; 1986.

270. U.S. Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health. Smoking and Health. Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service, 1964. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; 1964.

271. Hanrahan JP, Tager IB, Segal MR, et al. The effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on early infant lung function. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992;145(5):1129-1135.

272. Chhabra D, Sharma S, Kho AT, et al. Fetal lung and placental methylation is associated with in utero nicotine exposure. Epigenetics. 2014;9(11):1473-1484.

273. Etzel RA. How environmental exposures influence the development and exacerbation of asthma. Pediatrics. 2003;112(1 Pt 2): 233-239.

274. Institute of Medicine Committee on the Assessment of Asthma and Indoor Air. Clearing the Air: Asthma and Indoor Air Exposures. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2000.

275. Spahn JD, Szefler SJ. The etiology and control of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in children. Curr Opin Pediatr. 1996;8(6):591-596.

276. Conboy-Ellis K. Asthma pathogenesis and management. Nurse Pract. 2006;31(11):24-37.

277. Karadag B, Karakoç F, Ceran O, Ersu R, Inan S, Dagli E. Does passive smoke exposure trigger acute asthma attack in children? Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2003;31(6):318-323.

278. Aligne CA, Moss ME, Auinger P, Weitzman M. Association of pediatric dental caries with passive smoking. JAMA. 2003;289(10):1258-1264.

279. Wilson KM, Finkelstein JN, Blumkin AK, Best D, Klein JD. Micronutrient levels in children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011;13(9):800-808.

280. David GL, Koh WP, Lee HP, Yu MC, London SJ. Childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and chronic respiratory symptoms in non-smoking adults: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Thorax. 2005;60(12):1052-1058.

281. Sandler DP, Everson RB, Wilcox AJ, Browder JP. Cancer risk in adulthood from early life exposure to parents' smoking. Am J Public Health. 1985;75(5):487.

282. Peppone LJ, Piazza KM, Mahoney MC, et al. Associations between adult and childhood secondhand smoke exposures and fecundity and fetal loss among women who visited a cancer hospital. Tob Control. 2009;18(2):115-120.

283. Strohsnitter WC, Hatch EE, Hyer M, et al. The association between in utero cigarette smoke exposure and age at menopause.Am J Epidmiol. 2008;167(6):727-733.

284. Collishaw NE, Kirkbride J, Wigle DT. Tobacco smoke in the workplace: an occupational health hazard. Can Med Assoc J. 1984;131(10):1199-1204.

285. Navas-Acien A, Peruga A, Breysse P, et al. Secondhand tobacco smoke in public places in Latin America, 2002–2003. JAMA. 2004;291(22):2741-2745.

286. Castellan RM, Chosewood LC, Trout D, et al. Current Intelligence Bulletin 67: Promoting Health and Preventing Disease and Injury Through Workplace Tobacco Policies. Morgantown, WV: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; 2015.

287. Samet JM, Spengler JD. Indoor environments and health: moving into the 21st century. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(9):1489-1493.

288. Fichtenberg CM, Glantz SA. Effect of smoke-free workplaces on smoking behavior: systematic review. BMC. 2002;325:188-191.

289. Bauer JE, Hyland A, Li Q, Steger C, Cummings KM. A longitudinal assessment of the impact of smoke-free worksite policies on tobacco use. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(6):1024-1029.

290. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Evaluating the effectiveness of smoke-free polices. In: IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention, Tobacco Control. Vol. 13. Lyon: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2009.

291. Hopkins DP, Razi S, Leeks KD, Priya Kalra G, Chattopadhyay SK, Soler RE. Smokefree policies to reduce tobacco use: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2010;38(2 Suppl):S275-S289.

292. Callinan JE, Clarke A, Doherty K, Kelleher C. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;4:CD005992.

293. Eisner MD, Smith AK, Blanc PD. Bartenders' respiratory health after establishment of smokefree bars and taverns. JAMA. 1998;280(22):1909-1914.

294. Lambert WE, Samet JM, Spengler JD. Environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in no-smoking and smoking sections of restaurants. Am J Public Health. 1993;83(9):1339-1341.

295. Chang C, Leighton J, Mostashari F, McCord C, Frieden TR. The New York City Smoke-free Air Act: second-hand smoke as a worker health and safety issue. Am J Ind Med. 2004;46(2):188-195.

296. Fujishiro K, Hinckley Stukovsky KD, Diez Roux A, Landsbergis P, Burchfiel C. Occupational gradients in smoking behavior and exposure to workplace environmental tobacco smoke: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). J Occup Environ Med. 2012;54(2):136-145.

297. Repace J. Flying the smoky skies: secondhand smoke exposure of flight attendants. Tob Control. 2004;13(Suppl 1):i8-i19.

298. Enstrom JE, Kabat GC. Environmental tobacco smoke and coronary heart disease mortality in the United States: a meta-analysis and critique. Inhal Toxicol. 2006;18(3):199-210.

299. Glantz SA, Parmley WW. Passive smoking and heart disease: epidemiology, physiology, and biochemistry. Circulation. 1991;83(1): 1-12.

300. Institute of Medicine Committee on Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Acute Coronary Events. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Effects: Making Sense of the Evidence. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2010.

301. Glantz SA, Parmley WW. Even a little secondhand smoke is dangerous. JAMA. 2001;286(4):462-463.

302. Sargent RP, Shepard RM, Glantz SA. Reduced incidence of admissions for myocardial infarction associated with public smoking ban: before and after study. BMJ. 2004;328(7446):977-980.

303. Mitka M. Secondhand smoke an acute heart risk? JAMA. 2004;291(2):2688-2689.

304. Benjamin EJ, Muntner P, Alonso A, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016;139:e56-e528.

305. Lusis AJ. Atherosclerosis. Nature. 2000;407(6801):233-241.

306. Abraham D, Distler O. How does endothelial cell injury start? The role of endothelin in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2007;9(Suppl 2):S2.

307. Okamoto Y, Kihara S, Ouchi N, et al. Adiponectin reduces atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Circulation. 2002;106(22):2767-2770.

308. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing the Health Consequences of Smoking: 25 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General: 1989 Executive Summary. Washington, D.C.: Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 1989.

309. Whincup PH, Gilg JA, Emberson JR, et al. Passive smoking and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: prospective study with cotinine measurement. BMJ. 2004;329(7459):200-205.

310. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation. A Report of the Surgeon General: 1990. Rockville, MD: U.S. Public Health Service, Office on Smoking and Health; 1990.

311. Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Chrysohoou C, et al. Effect of exposure to secondhand smoke on markers of inflammation: the ATTICA study. Am J Med. 2004;116(3):145-150.

312. Glantz SA, Parmley WW. Passive smoking and heart disease: mechanisms and risk. JAMA. 1995;273(13):1047-1053.

313. He J, Vupputuri S, Allen K, Prerost MR, Hughes J, Whelton PK. Passive smoking and the risk of coronary heart disease— a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(12):920-926.

314. Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, et al. A prospective study of passive smoking and coronary heart disease. Circulation. 1997;95(10):2374-2379.

315. Valkonen M, Kuusi T. Passive smoking induces atherogenic changes in low-density lipoprotein. Circulation. 1998;97(20): 2012-2016.

316. Burghuber OC, Punzengruber C, Sinzinger H, Haber P, Silberbauer K. Platelet sensitivity to prostacyclin in smokers and non-smokers. Chest. 1986;90(1):34-38.

317. Benowitz NL, Fitzgerald GA, Wilson M, Zhang Q. Nicotine effects on eicosanoid formation and hemostatic function: comparison of transdermal nicotine and cigarette smoking. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993;22(4):1159-1167.

318. California Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. National Cancer Institute, Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs. Monograph 10: Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Available at https://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/brp/tcrb/monographs/10/index.html. Last accessed May 2, 2019.

319. Scientific Committee on Tobacco and Health. Report of the Scientific Committee on Tobacco and Health. Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/report-of-the-scientific-committee-on-tobacco-and-health. Last accessed May 2, 2019.

320. Taylor AE, Johnson DC, Kazemi H. Environmental tobacco smoke and cardiovascular disease: a position paper from the Council on Cardiopulmonary and Critical Care, American Heart Association. Circulation. 1992;86(2):699-702.

321. Glymour MM, Defries TB, Kawachi I, Avendano M. Spousal smoking and incidence of first stroke: the Health and Retirement Study. Am J Prev Med. 2008;35(3):245-248.

322. Janson C. The effect of passive smoking on respiratory health in children and adults. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2004;8(5):510-516.

323. Leuenberger P, Schwartz J, Ackerman-Liebrich U, et al. Passive smoking exposure in adults and chronic respiratory symptoms (SAPALDIA study). Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994;150(5 Pt 1):1222-1228.

324. Eisner MD, Balmes J, Katz PP, Trupin L, Yelin EH, Blanc PD. Lifetime environmental tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Environ Health. 2005;4(1):7.

325. Schick S, Glantz S. Philip Morris toxicological experiments with fresh sidestream smoke: more toxic than mainstream smoke.Tob Control. 2005;14(6):396-404.

326. Jaakkola MS, Piipari R, Jaakkola N, Jaakkola JJ. Environmental tobacco smoke and adult-onset asthma: a population-based incident case-control study. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(12):2055-2060.

327. Dahms TE, Bolin JF, Slavin RG. Passive smoking: effects on bronchial asthma. Chest. 1981;80(5):530-534.

328. Zhong L, Goldberg MS, Gao YT, Jin F. A case-control study of lung cancer and environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmoking women living in Shanghai, China. Cancer Causes Control. 1999;10(6):607-616.

329. Murphy TD. Passive Smoking and Lung Disease. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1005579-overview. Last accessed April 13, 2016.

330. Khuder SA. Effect of cigarette smoking on major histological types of lung cancer: a meta-analysis. Lung Cancer. 2001;31(2-3): 139-148.

331. HealthCommunities.com. Lung Cancer. Available at http://www.healthcommunities.com/lung-cancer/types.shtml. Last accessed April 13, 2019.

332. Ketterer B, Harris JM, Talaska G, et al. The human glutathione S-transferase supergene family, its polymorphism, and its effects on susceptibility to lung cancer. Environ Health Perspect. 1992;98:87-94.

333. Kihara M, Kihara M, Noda K. Risk of smoking for squamous and small cell carcinomas of the lung modulated by combinations of CYP1A1 and GSTM1 gene polymorphisms in a Japanese population. Carcinogenesis. 1995;16(10):2331-2336.

334. McWilliams JE, Sanderson BJ, Harris EL, Richert-Boe KE, Henner WD. Glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) deficiency and lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1995;4(6):589-594.

335. Saarikoski ST, Voho A, Reinikainen M, et al. Combined effect of polymorphic GST genes on individual susceptibility to lung cancer. Int J Cancer. 1998;77(4):516-521.

336. Seidegård J, Vorachek WR, Pero RW, Pearson WR. Hereditary differences in the expression of the human glutathione transferase active on trans-stilbene oxide are due to a gene deletion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1988;85(19):7293-7297.

337. Bennett WP, Alavanja MC, Blomeke B, et al. Environmental tobacco smoke, genetic susceptibility, and risk of lung cancer in never-smoking women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91(23):2009-2014.

338. Rebbeck TR. Molecular epidemiology of the human glutathione S-transferase genotypes GSTM1 and GSTT1 in cancer susceptibility. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997;6(9):733-743.

339. Tang DL, Rundle A, Warburton D, et al. Associations between both genetic and environmental biomarkers and lung cancer: evidence of a greater risk of lung cancer in women smokers. Carcinogenesis. 1998;19(11):1949-1953.

340. Kelsey KT, Spitz MR, Zuo ZF, Wiencke JK. Polymorphisms in the glutathione S-transferase class mu and theta genes interact and increase susceptibility to lung cancer in minority populations (Texas, United States). Cancer Causes Control. 1997;8(4):554-559.

341. Kawajiri K, Nakachi K, Imai K, Watanabe J, Hayashi S. The CYP1A1 gene and cancer susceptibility. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 1993;14(1):77-87.

342. Kawajiri K, Nakachi K, Imai K, Hayashi S, Watanabe J. Individual differences in lung cancer susceptibility in relation to polymorphisms of P-450IA1 gene and cigarette dose. Princess Takamatsu Symp. 1990;21:55-61.

343. Yokota J, Shiraishi K, Kohno T. Genetic basis for susceptibility to lung cancer: recent progress and future directions. Adv Cancer Res. 2010;109:51-72.

344. Trunog T, Hung RJ, Amos CI, et al. Replication of lung cancer susceptibility loci at chromosomes 15q25, 5p15, and 6p21: a pooled analysis from the International Lung Cancer Consortium. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102(13):959-971.

345. Walsh KM, Gorlov IP, Hansen HM et al. Fine-mapping of the 5p15.33, 6p22.1-p21.31, and 15q25.1 regions identifies functional and histology-specific lung cancer susceptibility loci in African-Americans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013;22(2): 251-260.

346. Houston TK, Person SD, Pletcher MJ, Liu K, Iribarren C, Kiefe CI. Active and passive smoking and development of glucose intolerance among young adults in a prospective cohort: CARDIA study. BMJ. 2006;332(7549):1064-1069.

347. Pan A, Wang Y, Talaei M, Hu FB, Wu T. Relation of active, passive, and quitting smoking with incident type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015;3(12):958-967.

348. Setty AR, Curhan G, Choi HK. Smoking and the risk of psoriasis in women: Nurses' Health Study II. Am J Med. 2007;120(11): 953-959.

349. Khan JC, Thurlby DA, Shahid H, et al. Smoking and age related macular degeneration: the number of pack years of cigarette smoking is a major determinant of risk for both geographic atrophy and choroidal neovascularisation. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90(1):75-80.

350. World Health Organization. Cervical Cancer. Available at https://www.who.int/cancer/prevention/diagnosis-screening/cervical-cancer/en. Last accessed April 13, 2019.

351. Yu AS, Keeffe EB. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Rev Gastroenterol Disord. 2002;2(1):11-19.

352. Messina ES, Tyndale RF, Sellers EM. A major role for CYP2A6 in nicotine C-oxidation by human liver microsomes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997;282(3):1608-1614.

353. Benowitz NL, Jacob P III. Metabolism of nicotine to cotinine studied by a dual stable isotope method. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1994;56(5):483-493.

354. Lambers DS, Clark KE. The maternal and fetal physiologic effects of nicotine. Semin Perinatol. 1996;20(2):115-126.

355. Benowitz NL. Biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 1999;107(Suppl 2):349-355.

356. Mulcahy M, Evans DS, Hammond SK, Repace JL, Byrne M. Secondhand smoke exposure and risk following the Irish smoking ban: an assessment of salivary cotinine concentrations in hotel workers and air nicotine levels in bars. Tob Control. 2005;14(6):384-388.

357. Gordon SM, Wallace LA, Brinkman MC, Callahan PJ, Kenny DV. Volatile organic compounds as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110(7):689-698.

358. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft of Toxicological Profile for 1, 3-butadiene. Available at https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp28-c1.pdf. Last accessed April 22, 2019.

359. Levine AJ. p53, the cellular gatekeeper for growth and division. Cell. 1997;88(3):323-331.

360. Husgafvel-Pursiainen K, Boffetta P, Kannio A, et al. p53 mutations and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in a multicenter study on lung cancer. Cancer Res. 2000;60(11):2906-2911.

361. Hovell MF, Zakarian JM, Wahlgren DR, Matt GE, Emmons KM. Reported measures of environmental tobacco smoke exposure: trials and tribulations. Tob Control. 2000;9(Suppl 3):III22-III28.

362. Haufroid V, Lison D. Urinary cotinine as a tobacco-smoke exposure index: a minireview. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1998;71(3):162-168.

363. Winickoff JP, Friebely J, Tanski SE, et al. Beliefs about the health effects of "thirdhand" smoke and home smoking bans. Pediatrics. 2009;123:e74-e79.

364. Hein HO, Suadicani P, Skov P, Gyntelberg F. Indoor dust exposure: an unnoticed aspect of involuntary smoking. Arch Environ Health. 1991;46(2):98-101.

365. Matt GE, Quintana PJ, Hovell MF, et al. Households contaminated by environmental tobacco smoke: sources of infant exposures. Tob Control. 2004;13(1):29-37.

366. Al-Delaimy WK, Crane J, Woodward A. Passive smoking in children: effect of avoidance strategies, at home as measured by hair nicotine levels. Arch Environ Health. 2001;56(2):117-122.

367. Bonanno LJ, Freeman NCG, Greenberg M, Lioy PJ. Multivariate analysis on levels of selected metals, particulate matter, VOC, and household characteristics and activities from the midwestern states NHEXAS. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 2001;16(9): 859-874.

368. Smith CJ, Perfetti TA, Garg R, Martin P, Hansch C. Percutaneous penetration enhancers in cigarette mainstream smoke.Food Chem Toxicol. 2004;42(1):9-15.

369. Schick SF, Glantz S. Concentrations of the carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in sidestream cigarette smoke increase after release into indoor air: results from unpublished tobacco industry research. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16(8):1547-1553.

370. Ghosh D, Mishra MK, Das S, Kaushik DK, Basu A. Tobacco carcinogen induces microglial activation and subsequent neuronal damage. J Neurochem. 2009;110(3):1070-1081.

371. Oie L, Nafstad P, Botten G, Magnus O, Jaakkola JK. Ventilation in homes and bronchial obstruction in young children. Epidemiology. 1999;10(3):294-299.

372. Matt GE, Quintana PJ, Hovell MF, et al. Residual tobacco smoke pollution in used cars for sale: air, dust, and surfaces. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10(9):1467-1475.

373. Haussmann HJ, Anskeit E, Becker D, et al. Comparison of fresh and room-aged cigarette sidestream smoke in a subchronic inhalation study on rats. Toxicol Sci. 1998;41(1):100-116.

374. Rao SP, Sikora L, Hosseinkhani MR, Pinkerton KE, Sriramarao P. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke induces angiogenesis and leukocyte trafficking in lung microvessels. Exp Lung Res. 2009;35(2):119-135.

375. Schick S, Glantz SA. Sidestream cigarette smoke toxicity increases with aging and exposure duration. Tob Control. 2006;15(6): 424-429.

376. Godoy P, Castilla J, Mayoral JM, et al. Smoking may increase the risk of influenza hospitalization and reduce influenza vaccine effectiveness in the elderly. Eur J Public Health. 2018;28(1):150-155.

377. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Quitting smoking among adults—United States, 2000–2015. MMWR. 2017;65(52):1457-1464.

378. Jorenby DE, Fiore MC. The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research smoking cessation clinical practice guideline: basics and beyond. Prim Care. 1999;26(3):513-528.

379. Heatherton TF, Kozlowski LT, Frecker RC, Fagerström KO. The Fagerström Test for nicotine dependence: a revision of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire. Br J Addict. 1991;86(9):1119-1127.

380. Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC, Norcross JC. In search of how people change: applications to addictive behaviors. Am Psychol. 1992;47(9):1102-1114.

381. Marlow SP, Stoller JK. Smoking cessation. Respir Care. 2003;48(12):1238-1254; discussion 1254-1256.

382. Milch CE, Edmunson JM, Beshansky JR, Griffith JL, Selker HP. Smoking cessation in primary care: a clinical effectiveness trial of two simple interventions. Prev Med. 2004;38(3):284-294.

383. Smith PM, Burgess E. Smoking cessation initiated during hospital stay for patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ. 2009;180(13):1297-1303.

384. Fiore MC, Jaen CR, Baker TB, et al. Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update: Clinical Practice Guideline. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; 2008.

385. Mullen PD, Carbonari JP, Tabak ER, Glenday MC. Improving disclosure of smoking by pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991;165(2):409-413.

386. Ahluwalia JS, Gibson CA, Kenney RE, Wallace DD, Resnicow K. Smoking status as a vital sign. J Gen Intern Med. 1999;14(7): 402-408.

387. Doescher MP, Saver BG. Physicians' advice to quit smoking: the glass remains half empty. J Fam Pract. 2000;49(6):543-547.

388. Brandon TH. Behavioral tobacco cessation treatments: yesterday's news or tomorrow's headlines? J Clin Oncol. 2001;19(18 Suppl):64S-68S.

389. Miller WR. Motivational interviewing with problem drinkers. Behavioural Psychotherapy. 1983;11:147-172.

390. Lai DT, Cahill K, Qin Y, Tang, JL. Motivational interviewing for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(1):CD006936.

391. Lindson-Hawley N, Thompson TP, Begh R. Motivational interviewing for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;3:CD006936.

392. Ruger JP, Weinstein MC, Hammond SK, Kearney MH, Emmons KM. Cost-effectiveness of motivational interviewing for smoking cessation and relapse prevention among low-income pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial. Value Health. 2008;11(2):191-198.

393. Lee E. Cross-cultural communication: therapeutic use of interpreters. In: Lee E (ed). Working with Asian Americans: A Guide for Clinicians. New York, NY: The Guilford Press; 1997: 477-489.

394. Thompson RS, Michnich ME, Friedlander L, Gilson B, Grothaus LC, Storer B. Effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions integrated into primary care practice. Med Care. 1988;26(1):62-76.

395. Maciosek MV, Coffield AB, Flottemesch TJ, Edwards NM, Solberg LI. Greater use of preventive services in U.S. health care could save lives at little or no cost. Health Aff (Milwood). 2010;29(9):1656-1660.

396. Cromwell J, Bartosch WJ, Fiore MC, Hasselblad V, Baker T. Cost-effectiveness of the clinical practice recommendations in the AHCPR guideline for smoking cessation. JAMA. 1997;278(21):1759-1766.

397. Hall S, Rugg D, Tunstall C, Jones RT. Preventing relapse to cigarette smoking by behavioral skill training. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1984;52(3):372-382.

398. Stevens VJ, Hollis JF. Preventing smoking relapse using an individually tailored skills-training technique. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1989;57(3):420-424.

399. Tiffany ST, Martin EM, Baker TB. Treatments for cigarette smoking: an evaluation of the contributions of aversion and counseling procedures. Behav Res Ther. 1986;24(4):437-452.

400. Hajek P, Stead LF. Aversive smoking for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(3):CD000546.

401. Hajek P, Stead LF. Aversive smoking for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000546.

402. Cinciripini PM, Lapitsky LG, Wallfisch A, Mace R, Nezami E, Van Vunakis H. An evaluation of a multicomponent treatment program involving scheduled smoking and relapse prevention procedures: initial findings. Addict Behav. 1994;19(1):13-22.

403. Pfizer Inc. Chantix (Varenicline) Tablets. Available at https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2008/021928s008lbl.pdf. Last accessed April 22, 2019.

404. Stead LF, Perera R, Bullen C, et al. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012:CD000146.

405. Gorsline J, Okerholm RA, Rolf CN, Moos CD, Hwang SS. Comparison of plasma nicotine concentrations after application of nicoderm (nicotine transdermal system) to different skin sites. J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;32(6):576-581.

406. Orleans CT, Resch N, Noll E, et al. Use of transdermal nicotine in a state-level prescription plan for the elderly: a first look at "real-world" patch users. JAMA. 1994;271:601-607.

407. Prochazka AV. New developments in smoking cessation. Chest. 2000;117(4 Suppl 1):169S-175S.

408. Schnoll RA, Patterson F, Wileyto EP, et al. Effectiveness of extended-duration transdermal nicotine therapy: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152(3):144-151.

409. Schnoll RA, Goelz PM, Veluz-Wilkins A, et al. Long-term nicotine replacement therapy: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(4):504-511.

410. Frishman WH, Ky T, Ismail A. Tobacco smoking, nicotine, and nicotine and non-nicotine replacement therapies. Heart Dis. 2001;3(6):365-377.

411. Schneider NG, Jarvik ME, Forsythe AB, Read LL, Elliott ML, Schweiger A. Nicotine gum in smoking cessation: a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Addict Behav. 1983;8(3):253-261.

412. Shiffman S, Di Marino ME, Pillitteri JL. The effectiveness of nicotine patch and nicotine lozenge in very heavy smokers.J Subst Abuse Treat. 2005;28(1):49-55.

413. Hurt RD. New medications for nicotine dependence treatment. Nicotine Tob Res. 1999;1(Suppl 2):S175-S179, S207-S210.

414. Molander L, Lunell E, Fagerström KO. Reduction of tobacco withdrawal symptoms with a sublingual nicotine tablet: a placebo controlled study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2000;2(2):187-191.

415. Tønnesen P, Mikkelsen K, Bremann L. Nurse-conducted smoking cessation in patients with COPD using nicotine sublingual tablets and behavioral support. Chest. 2006;130(2):334-342.

416. Sun H, Guo S, Chen DF, et al. Family support and employment as predictors of smoking cessation success: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nicotine sublingual tablets in Chinese smokers. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2009;35(3):183-188.

417. Molander L, Lunell E. Pharmacokinetic investigation of a nicotine sublingual tablet. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2001;56(11):813-819.

418. Shiffman S. Effect of nicotine lozenges on affective smoking withdrawal symptoms: secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clin Ther. 2008;30(8):1461-1475.

419. Hjalmarson A, Franzon M, Westin A, Wiklund O. Effect of nicotine nasal spray on smoking cessation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154(22):2567-2572.

420. Schneider NG, Olmstead R, Mody FV, et al. Efficacy of a nicotine nasal spray in smoking cessation: a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Addiction. 1995;90(12):1671-1682.

421. Sutherland G, Stapleton JA, Russell MA, et al. Randomised controlled trial of nasal nicotine spray in smoking cessation. Lancet. 1992;340(8815):324-329.

422. Silagy C, Mant D, Fowler G, Lodge M. Meta-analysis on efficacy of nicotine replacement therapies in smoking cessation. Lancet. 1994;343(8890):139-142.

423. Schneider NG, Lunell E, Olmstead RE, Fagerström KO. Clinical pharmacokinetics of nasal nicotine delivery: a review and comparison to other nicotine systems. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1996;31(1):65-80.

424. Schneider NG, Olmstead RE, Franzon MA, Lunell E. The nicotine inhaler: clinical pharmacokinetics and comparison with other nicotine treatments. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2001;40(9):661-684.

425. Rose JE, Behm FM, Westman EC, Johnson M. Dissociating nicotine and nonnicotine components of cigarette smoking. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2000;67(1):71-81.

426. Ascher JA, Cole JO, Colin JN, et al. Bupropion: a review of its mechanism of antidepressant activity. J Clin Psychiatry. 1995;56(9):395-401.

427. Hughes JR, Goldstein MG, Hurt RD, Shiffman S. Recent advances in the pharmacotherapy of smoking. JAMA. 1999;281(1):72-76.

428. Hurt RD, Sachs DP, Glover ED, et al. A comparison of sustained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation. N Engl J Med.1997;337(17):1195-1202.

429. Fiscella K, Franks P. Cost-effectiveness of the transdermal nicotine patch as an adjunct to physicians' smoking cessation counseling. JAMA. 1996;275(16):1247-1251.

430. Lexicomp Online. Available at https://online.lexi.com. Last accessed April 22, 2019.

431. Tonstad S, Tønnesen P, Hajek P, et al. Effect of maintenance therapy with varenicline on smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006;296(1):64-71.

432. Gonzales D, Rennard SI, Nides M, et al. Varenicline, an alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, vs. sustained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006;296(1):47-55.

433. Jorenby DE, Hays JT, Rigotti NA, et al. Efficacy of varenicline, an alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, vs. placebo or sustained-release bupropion for smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006;296(1):56-63.

434. Mills EJ, Wu P, Lockhart I, Thorlund K, Puhan M, Ebbert JO. Comparisons of high-dose and combination nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, and bupropion for smoking cessation: a systematic review and multiple treatment meta-analysis. Ann Med. 2012;44(6):588-597.

435. Chang PH, Chiang CH, Ho WC, Wu PZ, Tsai JS, Guo FR. Combination therapy of varenicline with nicotine replacement therapy is better than varenicline alone: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Public Health. 2015;22:689.

436. Gourlay SG, Stead LF, Benowitz NL. Clonidine for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000058.

437. Lancaster T, Stead LF. Silver acetate for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000191.

438. Lancaster T, Stead LF. Silver acetate for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;9:CD000191.

439. Lancaster T, Stead LF. Mecamylamine (a nicotine antagonist) for smoking cessation (review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001009.

440. Rose JE, Behm FM, Westman EC, Levin ED, Stein RM, Ripka GV. Mecamylamine combined with nicotine skin patch facilitates smoking cessation beyond nicotine patch treatment alone. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1994;56(1):86-99.

441. Bergen AW, Caporaso N. Cigarette smoking. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91(16):1365-1375.

442. Fagerström K. New perspectives in the treatment of tobacco dependence. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2003;60(3):179-183.

443. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Medication Reduces Metabolism of Nicotine, Decreasing Urge to Smoke. Available at https://archives.drugabuse.gov/news-events/news-releases/2000/07/medication-reduces-metabolism-nicotine-decreasing-urge-to-smoke. Last accessed April 22, 2019.

444. Zhang W, Kilicarslan T, Tyndale RF, Sellers EM. Evaluation of methoxsalen, tranylcypromine, and tryptamine as specific and selective CYP2A6 inhibitors in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001;26(6):897-902.

445. Hughes JR, Higgins ST, Bickel WK. Nicotine withdrawal versus other drug withdrawal syndromes: similarities and dissimilarities. Addiction. 1994;89(11):1461-1470.

446. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current cigarette smoking among adults—United States, 2016. MMWR. 2018;67(2);54-59.

447. Josefson D. U.S. flight attendants win settlement over passive smoking. BMJ. 1997;315(7114):968.

448. Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute. Mission Statement. Available at http://www.famri.org/about_famri/mission_statement.html. Last accessed April 22, 2019.

449. Henningfield JE, Benowitz NL, Connolly GN, et al. Reducing tobacco addiction through tobacco product regulation. Tob Control. 2004;13(2):132-135.

450. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. Voters Across the Country Support Significant Increases in Cigarette Taxes. Available athttps://www.tobaccofreekids.org/research/factsheets/pdf/0026.pdf. Last accessed April 22, 2019.

451. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. Raising Tobacco Taxes: A Win-Win-Win. Available at https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/assets/factsheets/0385.pdf. Last accessed April 22, 2019.

452. Cancer Action Network. 94-Cent Federal Cigarette Tax Increase: New Revenue, Public Health Benefits, and Cost Savings. Available at https://www.fightcancer.org/policy-resources/94-cent-federal-cigarette-tax-increase-new-revenue-public-health-benefits-and-cost. Last accessed May 2, 2019.

453. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Trends in State and Federal Cigarette Tax and Retail Price—United States, 1970–2016. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/infographics/economics/index.htm. Last accessed May 2, 2019.

454. Eriksen MP, Gottlieb NH. A review of the health impact of smoking control at the workplace. Am J Health Promot. 1998;13(2): 83-104.

455. Green E, Courage C, Rushton L. Reducing domestic exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a review of attitudes and behaviours. J R Soc Promot Health. 2003;123(1):46-51.

456. Wang TW, Asman K, Gentzke AS, et al. Tobacco product use among adults—United States, 2017. MMWR. 2018;67(44):1225-1232.

457. National Institute on Drug Abuse. DrugFacts: Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes). Available at https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/electronic-cigarettes-e-cigarettes. Last accessed April 2, 2019.

458. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA's Deeming Regulations for E-Cigarettes, Cigars, and All Other Tobacco Products. Available at https://www.fda.gov/tobaccoproducts/labeling/rulesregulationsguidance/ucm394909.htm. Last accessed April 2, 2019.

459. Singh T, Arrazola RA, Corey CG, et al. Tobacco use among middle and high school students—United States, 2011–2015.MMWR. 2016;65(14):361-367.

460. National Center for Health Statistics. Early Release of Selected Estimates Based on Data from January–September 2018 National Health Interview Survey. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/releases/released201903.htm. Last accessed March 29, 2019.

461. Lindson-Hawley N, Banting M, West R, Michie S, Shinkins B, Aveyard P. Gradual versus abrupt smoking cessation: a randomized, controlled noninferiority trial. Ann Intern Med. 2016;164(9):585-592.

462. Scott-Sheldon LA, Lantini R, Jennings EG, et al. Text messaging-based interventions for smoking cessation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JMIR. 2016;4(2).

463. Baker TB, Piper ME, Stein JH, et al. Effects of nicotine patch vs. varenicline vs combination nicotine replacement therapy on smoking cessation at 26 weeks: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;315(4):371-379.

464. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Takes New Steps to Address Epidemic of Youth E-Cigarette Use, Including a Historic Action. Available at https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm620184.htm. Last accessed April 2, 2019.

465. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Youth Tobacco Use: Results from the National Youth Tobacco Survey. Available at https://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/PublicHealthEducation/ProtectingKidsfromTobacco/ucm405173.htm. Last accessed April 1, 2019.

466. Heger A, Sator M, Walch K, Pietrowski D. Smoking decreases endometrial thickness in IVF/ICSI patients. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 2018;78(1):78-82.

467. Mojtabai R, Crum RM. Cigarette smoking and onset of mood and anxiety disorders. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(9):1656-1665.

468. Feng RM, Hu SY, Zhao FH, et al. Role of active and passive smoking in high-risk human papillomavirus infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse. J Gynecol Oncol. 2017;28(5):e47.

469. Min KJ, Lee JK, So KA, Kim MK. Association between passive smoking and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 in Korean women. J Epidemiol. 2018;28(1):48-53.

470. American College of Cardiology. 2018 ACC expert consensus decision pathway on tobacco cessation treatment. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;72(25):3332-3365.

471. Tomko RL, Saladin ME, Baker NL, et al. Sex differences in subjective and behavioral responses to stressful and smoking cues presented in the natural environment of smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2018; [Epub ahead of print].

472. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Announces Comprehensive Regulatory Plan to Shift Trajectory of Tobacco-Related Disease, Death. Available at https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm568923.htm. Last accessed April 23, 2019.

473. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. Raising Cigarette Taxes Reduces Smoking, Especially Among Kids (And the Cigarette Companies Know it). Available at https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/assets/factsheets/0146.pdf. Lat accessed April 22, 2019.

474. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., on Actions to Advance our Comprehensive Plan to Reduce Tobacco-Related Disease and Death, Through New Efforts to Improve the Tobacco Product Application Review Process, Including a Newly Proposed Rule. Available at https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm634652.htm. Last accessed April 23, 2019.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Primary care interventions to prevent tobacco use in children and adolescents: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(8):552-557. Available at http://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/1748857. Last accessed May 13, 2019.

2. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for lung cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.Ann Intern Med. 2014;160(5):330-338. Available at http://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/1809422. Last accessed May 13, 2019.

3. Tobacco exposure. In: Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents. Bethesda, MD: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; 2011. Available at https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/node/80308. Last accessed May 13, 2019.

4. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Behavioral and pharmacotherapy interventions for tobacco smoking cessation in adults, including pregnant women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(8):622-634. Available at http://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2443060. Last accessed May 13, 2019.

5. University of Michigan Health System. Tobacco Treatment. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Health System; 2012. Available at https://www.med.umich.edu/1info/FHP/practiceguides/smoking/smoking.pdf. Last accessed May 13, 2019.


Copyright © 2019 NetCE, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.