Works Cited

1. American Heart Association. 2019 Heart Disease and Stroke Statistical Update Fact Sheet: Females and Cardiovascular Diseases. Available at https://professional.heart.org/idc/groups/ahamah-public/@wcm/@sop/@smd/documents/downloadable/ucm_495090.pdf. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

2. American Heart Association. Heart Attack and Stroke Symptoms. Available at https://www.heart.org/en/about-us/heart-attack-and-stroke-symptoms. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

3. Benjamin EJ, Muntner P, Alonso A, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2019;139(10):e56-e528.

4. Framingham Heart Study. History of the Framingham Heart Study. Available at https://www.framinghamheartstudy.org/fhs-about/history/. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

5. U.S. Census Bureau. State and County Quick Facts. Available at https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/US/PST045218. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

6. National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2009: With Special Feature on Medical Technology. Hyattsville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2010.

7. PRB. Fact Sheet: Aging in the United States. Available at https://www.prb.org/aging-unitedstates-fact-sheet/. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

8. U.S. Census Bureau. Population Projections. Available at https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/popproj.html. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health Equity: Women's Health. Leading Causes of Death in Females, 2016. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/women/lcod/. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

10. Curtin SC. Trends in Cancer and Heart Disease Death Rates Among Adults Aged 45-64: United States, 1999-2017. National Vital Statistics Reports. Vol 68, No 5. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2019.

11. Packard B. Clinical aspects of coronary heart disease in women. In: Wenger NK, Hellerstein HK (eds). Rehabilitation of the Coronary Patient. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 1991.

12. Kohli P, Gulati M. Exercise stress testing in women: going back to the basics. Circulation. 2010;122(24):2570-2580.

13. Mensah GA, Wei GS, Sorlie PD, et al. Decline in cardiovascular mortality: possible causes and implications. Circ Res. 2017;120(2):366-380.

14. Maas AHEM, Appelman YEA. Gender differences in coronary heart disease. Neth Heart J. 2010;18(12):598-602.

15. Wong Y, Rodwell A, Dawkins S, Livesey SA, Simpson IA. Sex differences in investigation results and treatment in subjects referred for investigation of chest pain. Heart. 2001;85(2):149-152.

16. Ghali WA, Faris PD, Galbraith PD, et al. Sex differences in access to coronary revascularization after cardiac catheterization: importance of detailed clinical data. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136(10):723-732.

17. Romeo KC. The female heart: physiological aspects of cardiovascular disease in women. Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 1995;14(4)170-177.

18. Beery TA. Gender bias in the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease. Heart Lung. 1995;24(6):427-435.

19. Cochrane BL. Acute myocardial infarction in women. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 1992;4(2):279-289.

20. Flavell CM. Women and coronary heart disease. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1994;9(4):18-27.

21. Bairey Merz CN, Shaw LJ, Reis SE, et al. Insights from the NHLBI-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study: part II: gender differences in presentation, diagnosis, and outcome with regard to gender-based pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and macrovascular and microvascular coronary disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47(3 Suppl S):S21-S29.

22. Pepine CJ, Kerensky RA, Lambert CR, et al. Some thoughts on the vasculopathy of women with ischemic heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47(3 Suppl S):S30-S35.

23. Plank F, Beyer C, Friedrich G, Waildauer M, Feuchtner G. Sex differences in coronary artery plaque composition detected by coronary computed tomography: quantitative and qualitative analysis. Neth Heart J. 2019;27(5):272-280.

24. Chung AK, Das SR, Leonard D, et al. Women have higher left ventricular ejection fractions than men independent of differences in left ventricular volume: The Dallas Heart Study. Circulation. 2006;113(12):1597-1604.

25. Judelson DR. Examining the gender bias in evaluating coronary disease in women. Med Gen Med. 1999;1(2).

26. Murdaugh C. Coronary artery disease in women. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 1990;4(4):35-50.

27. Wenger NK. Coronary heart disease in women: a "new" problem. Hosp Pract. 1992;27(11):59-62, 64, 67.

28. Jensen L, King KM. Women and heart disease: the issues. Crit Care Nurse. 1997;17(2):45-53.

29. Hay M, Huxley VH. Sexual dimorphism in hypertension. In: Dipette DJ, Schiffrin EL, Re RN, Sowers JR (eds). Molecular Mechanisms of Hypertension. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor and Francis; 2006.

30. Reis JP, Araneta MR, Wingard DL, Macera CA, Lindsay SP, Marshall SJ. Overall obesity and abdominal adiposity as predictors of mortality in U.S. white and black adults. Ann Epidemiol. 2009;19(2):134-142.

31. Canoy D. Distribution of body fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2008;23(6):591-598.

32. Canoy D, Cairns BJ, Balkwill A, et al. Coronary heart disease incidence in women by waist circumference within categories of body mass index. Eur J Prev Cariol. 2013;20(5):759-762.

33. Page JH, Rexrode KM, Hu F, Albert CM, Chae CU, Manson JE. Waist-height ratio as a predictor of coronary heart disease among women. Epidemiology. 2009;20(3):361-366.

34. Rexrode KM, Carey VJ, Hennekens CH, et al. Abdominal adiposity and coronary heart disease in women. JAMA. 1998;280(21):1843-1848.

35. Wingate S. Women and coronary heart disease: implications for the critical care setting. Focus Crit Care. 1991;18(3):212-214, 216-218, 220.

36. Penckofer S, Holm K. What you should know about women and heart disease. Nursing. 1993;23(6):42-46.

37. Rexrode KM, Manson JE, Lee IM, et al. Sex hormone levels and risk of cardiovascular events in postmenopausal women. Circulation. 2003;108(14):1688-1693.

38. Sesso HD, Lee IM, Gaziano JM, Rexrode KM, Glynn RJ, Buring JE. Maternal and paternal history of myocardial infarction and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women. Circulation. 2001;104(4):393-398.

39. Weijmans M, van der Graaf Y, Reitsma JB, Visseren FL. Paternal or maternal history of cardiovascular disease and the risk of cardiovascular disease in offspring. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2015;179:409-416.

40. Huggins S. The role of the advanced practice nurse in reducing coronary heart disease in African-American women. Top Adv Pract Nurs eJ. 2006;6(2).

41. Vaccarino V, Rathore S, Wenger NK, et al., for the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction Investigators. Sex and racial differences in the management of acute myocardial infarction, 1994 through 2002. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(7):671-682.

42. American Heart Association. Quit Smoking/Tobacco/Vaping. Available at https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-lifestyle/quit-smoking-tobacco. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

43. Hemingway A. Determinants of coronary heart disease risk for women on a low income: literature review. J Adv Nurs. 2007;60(4):359-367.

44. Das BN, Banka VS. Coronary artery disease in women: how it is—and isn't—unique. Postgrad Med. 1992;91(4):197-200, 203-206.

45. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/adult_data/cig_smoking/index.htm. last accessed November 18, 2019.

46. Office on Smoking and Health. Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2001.

47. Bullen C. Impact of tobacco smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular risk and disease. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2008;6(6):883-895.

48. Sarna L, Bialous SA, Jun HJ, Wewers ME, Cooley ME, Feskanich D. Smoking trends in the Nurses' Health Study (1976–2003). Nurs Res. 2008;57(6):374-382.

49. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archive: 2004 Surgeon General's Report Highlights: Smoking Among Adults in the United States. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2004/highlights/heart_disease/index.htm. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

50. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking and Tobacco Use: Tobacco-Related Mortality. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/tobacco_related_mortality/. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

51. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archive: 2001 Surgeon General's Report Highlights: Health Consequences of Tobacco Use Among Women. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2001/highlights/consequences/. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

52. Chasan-Taber L, Stampfer M. Oral contraceptives and myocardial infarction: the search for the smoking gun. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(25):1841-1842.

53. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Archive: Press Release: FDA Approves New Combination Product Oral Contraceptive. Available at https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20170112215800/http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/2010/ucm211176.htm. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

54. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Women and Heart Disease. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/women.htm?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fdhdsp%2Fdata_statistics%2Ffact_sheets%2Ffs_women_heart.htm. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

55. Alexander MR, Madhur MS, Harrison DG. Hypertension. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/241381-overview. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

56. Women's Heart Foundation. Women and Heart Disease Fact Sheet. Available at http://www.womensheart.org/PDFs/FactSheet_WHD.pdf. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

57. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. High Blood Pressure. Available at https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/high-blood-pressure. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

58. American Heart Association. Heart-Health Screenings. Available at https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/consumer-healthcare/what-is-cardiovascular-disease/heart-health-screenings. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

59. Rosendorff C, Lackland DT, Allison M, et al. AHA/ACC/ASH scientific statement: treatment of hypertension in patients with coronary artery disease. A scientific statement from the American heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Society of Hypertension. Hypertension. 2015;65:1372-1407.

60. Riaz K, Ali YS. Hypertensive Heart Disease. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/162449-overview. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

61. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for peripheral artery disease and cardiovascular disease risk assessment with the ankle-brachial index: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2018;320(2):177-183.

62. Hayes SN. Preventing cardiovascular disease in women. Am Fam Physician. 2006;74(8):1331-1340.

63. Heald CL, Fowkes FG, Murray GD, Price JF, Ankle Brachial Index Collaboration. Risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease associated with the ankle-brachial index: systematic review. Atherosclerosis. 2006;189(1):61-69.

64. Ankle Brachial Index Collaboration, Fowkes FG, Murray GD, et al. Ankle brachial index combined with Framingham Risk Score to predict cardiovascular events and mortality: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2008;300(2):197-208.

65. American Heart Association. Statistical Fact Sheet 2013 Update: High Blood Cholesterol and Other Lipids. Available at https://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@wcm/@sop/@smd/documents/downloadable/ucm_319586.pdf. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

66. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. High Cholesterol Facts. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/cholesterol/facts.htm. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

67. American Heart Association. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean. Available at https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/cholesterol/about-cholesterol/what-your-cholesterol-levels-mean. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

68. Healthy Women. Cholesterol. Available at https://www.healthywomen.org/condition/cholesterol. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

69. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Cardiovascular Disease and Other Chronic Conditions in Women: Recent Findings (Program Brief). Available at https://www.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/publications/files/womheart.pdf. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

70. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: Division of Diabetes Translation. National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2017. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pdfs/data/statistics/national-diabetes-statistics-report.pdf. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

71. Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Xu J, Arias E. Deaths: Final Data for 2017. National Vital Statistics Reports. Vol 68, No 9. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2019.

72. Fransoo RR, Martens PJ, Prior HJ, Burland E, Château D, Katz A. Age difference explains gender difference in cardiac intervention rates after acute myocardial infarction. Healthc Policy. 2010;6(1):88-103.

73. Burkman RT. Strategies for reducing cardiovascular risk in women. J Reprod Med. 1991;36(3):238-246.

74. Wang Y, Beydoun MA. The obesity epidemic in the United States—gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiol Rev. 2007;29(1):6-28.

75. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Overweight and Obesity: Data, Trends and Maps. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/databases.html. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

76. Hales CM, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults and Youth: United States, 2015-2016.NCHS Data Brief, No 288. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db288.pdf. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

77. Hu FB. Overweight and obesity in women: health risks and consequences. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2003;12(2):163-172.

78. Vergnaud AC, Bertrais S, Oppert JM, et al. Weight fluctuations and risk for metabolic syndrome in an adult cohort. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32(2):315-321.

79. Rich-Edwards JW, Manson JE, Hennekens CH, Buring JE. The primary prevention of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med. 1995;332(26):1758-1766.

80. International Diabetes Federation. Consensus Statements: IDF Consensus Worldwide Definition of the Metabolic Syndrome. Available at https://www.idf.org/e-library/consensus-statements/60-idfconsensus-worldwide-definitionof-the-metabolic-syndrome.html. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

81. Aguilar M, Bhuket T, Torres S, et al. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the United States, 2003–2012. JAMA. 2015;313(19):1973-1974.

82. American Heart Association. Metabolic Syndrome. Available at https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/metabolic-syndrome. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

83. Office of the Surgeon General. Physical Activity and Health: The Link Between Physical Activity and Morbidity and Mortality. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/pdf/mm.pdf. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

84. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Psychophysiology: Human Behavior and Physiological Response. Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2005.

85. Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014;129(Suppl 2):S76-S99.

86. Friedman M, Rosenman R. Type A Behavior and Your Heart. New York, NY: Knopf; 1974.

87. Haynes SG, Levine S, Scotch N, Feinleib M, Kannel WB. The relationship of psychosocial factors to coronary heart disease in the Framingham study. Am J Epidemiol. 1978;107(5):362-383.

88. Andreassi JL. Psychophysiology: Human Behavior and Physiological Response. 5th ed. New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2006.

89. Goldsmith MF. Heart research efforts aim at fairness to women in terms of causes, care of cardiac disorders. JAMA. 1990;264(24):3112-3113.

90. Peng HY, Man CF, Xu J, Fan Y. Elevated homocysteine levels and risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2015;16(1):78-86.

91. Mayo Clinic. Heart Disease in Women: Understand Symptoms and Risk Factors. Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-disease/in-depth/heart-disease/art-20046167. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

92. U.S. Department of Labor: Women's Bureau. Data and Statistics. Available at https://www.dol.gov/wb/stats/stats_data.htm. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

93. Lee S, Colditz G, Berkman L, Kawachi I. A prospective study of job strain and coronary heart disease in U.S. women. Intl J Epidemiol. 2002;31(6):1147-1153.

94. Eaker ED, Sullivan LM, Kelly-Hayes M, D'Agostino RB Sr., Benjamin EJ. Does job strain increase the risk for coronary heart disease or death in men and women? The Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159(10):950-958.

95. Peter R, Siegrist J, Hallqvist J, Reuterwall C, Theorell T, the SHEEP Study Group. Psychosocial work environment and myocardial infarction: improving risk estimation by combining two complementary job stress models in the SHEEP Study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2002;56(4):294-300.

96. Peter R, Hammarstrom A, Hallqvist J, Siegrist J, Theorell T, the SHEEP Study Group. Does occupational gender segregation influence the association of effort-reward imbalance with myocardial infarction in the SHEEP study? Int J Behav Med. 2006;13(1):34-43.

97. Kivimaki M, Virtanen M, Elovainio M, Kouvonen A, Vaananen A, Vahtera J. Work stress in the etiology of coronary heart disease-a meta-analysis. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2006;32(6):431-442.

98. Orth-Gomer K, Wamala SP, Horsten M, Schenck-Gustafsson K, Schneiderman N, Mittleman MA. Marital stress worsens prognosis in women with coronary heart disease: the Stockholm Female Coronary Risk Study. JAMA. 2000;284(23):3008-3014.

99. Blom M, Janszky I, Balog P, Orth-Gomer K, Wamala SP. Social relations in women with coronary heart disease: the effects of work and marital stress. J Cardiovasc Risk. 2003;10(3):201-206.

100. Kivimäki M, Kawachi I. Work stress as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2015;17(9):630.

101. Lewis MA, Heinemann LA, Spitzer WO, MacRae KD, Bruppacher R. The use of oral contraceptives and the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction in young women: results from the Transnational Study on Oral Contraceptives and the Health of Young Women. Contraception. 1997;56(3):129-140.

102. Kemmeren JM, Algra A, Grobbee DE. Third generation oral contraceptives and risk of venous thrombosis: meta-analysis. BMJ. 2001;323(7305):131-134.

103. Jick H, Kaye JA, Vasilakis-Scaramozza C, Jick SS. Risk of venous thromboembolism among users of third generation oral contraceptives compared with users of oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel before and after 1995: cohort and case-control analysis. BMJ. 2000;321(7270):1190-1195.

104. Jick SS, Kaye JA, Russmann S, Jick H. Risk of nonfatal venous thromboembolism with oral contraceptives containing norgestimate or desogestrel compared with oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel. Contraception. 2006;73(6):566-570.

105. Shapiro S, Dinger J. Risk of venous thromboembolism among users of oral contraceptives: a review of two recently published studies. J Fam Plan Reprod Health Care. 2010;36(1):33-38.

106. Samson ME, Adams SA, Merchant AT, et al. Cardiovascular disease incidence among females in South Carolina by type of oral contraceptives, 2000-2013: a retrospective cohort study. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2016;294(5):991-997.

107. Coney P. Menopause. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/264088-overview. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

108. Sun Q, Ma J, Rifai N, Franco OH, Rexrode KM, Hu FB. Excessive body iron stores are not associated with risk of coronary heart disease in women. J Nutr. 2008;138(12):2436-2441.

109. Zegrean M. Association of body iron stores with development of cardiovascular disease in the adult population: a systematic review of the literature. Can J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2009;19(1):26-32.

110. Mason M. An evidence-based disease reversal strategy. Cardiovasc Dis Manage. 1997;3:1-5, 7.

111. Taber's Online Medical Dictionary. Available at https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/ub/. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

112. Humphrey LL, Fu R, Rogers K, Freeman M, Helfand M. Homocysteine level and coronary heart disease incidence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2008;83(11):1203-1212.

113. US Preventive Services Task Force. Final Recommendation Statement: Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Risk Assessment with Nontraditional Risk Factors. Available at https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/cardiovascular-disease-screening-using-nontraditional-risk-assessment. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

114. American Heart Association. Folic Acid and Cardiovascular Disease. Available at https://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Encyclopedia/Heart-Encyclopedia_UCM_445084_ContentIndex.jsp?title=folic%20acid%20and%20cardiovascular%20disease. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

115. Graham IM, O'Callaghan P. Vitamins, homocysteine and cardiovascular risk. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2002;16(5):383-389.

116. Nordestgaard BG, Chapman MJ, Ray K, et al. Lipoprotein(a) as a cardiovascular risk factor: current status. Eur Heart J. 2010;31(23):2844-2853.

117. Berglund L, Anuurad E. Role of lipoprotein(a) in cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52(2):132-134.

118. Koenig W. Fibrin(ogen) in cardiovascular disease: an update. Thromb Haemost. 2003;89(4):601-609.

119. Fibrinogen Studies Collaboration, Danesh J, Lewington S, et al. Plasma fibrinogen level and the risk of major cardiovascular diseases and nonvascular mortality: an individual participant meta-analysis. JAMA. 2005;294(14):1799-1809.

120. Ridker PM. C-reactive protein. A simple test to help predict risk of heart attack and stroke. Circulation. 2003;108:e81-e85

121. Ridker PM, Rifai N, Rose L, Buring JE, Cook NR. Comparison of c-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the prediction of first cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(20):1557-1565.

122. Sharma K, Gulati M. Coronary artery disease in women: a 2013 update. Global Heart. 2013;8(2):105-112.

123. Wenger NK. The Reynolds Risk Score: improved accuracy for cardiovascular risk prediction in women? Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med. 2007;4:366-367.

124. Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Rifai N. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(12):836-843.

125. Mora S, Ridker PM. Justification for the Use of Statins in Primary Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER): can C-reactive protein be used to target statin therapy in primary prevention? Am J Cardiol. 2006;97(2A):33A-41A.

126. O'Keefe JH, Carter MD, Lavie CJ, Bell DS. The gravity of JUPITER (Justification for the Use of Statins in Primary Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin). Postgrad Med. 2009;121(3):113-118.

127. Wilson PW, Pencina M, Jacques P, Selhub J, D'Agostino R Sr., O'Donnell CJ. C-reactive protein and reclassification of cardiovascular risk in the Framingham Heart Study. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2008;1(2):92-97.

128. Yousuf O, Mohanty BD, Martin SS, et al. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and cardiovascular disease: a resolute belief or an elusive link? J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;62(5):397-408.

129. Buckley DI, Fu R, Freeman M, Rogers K, Helfand M. C-reactive protein as a risk factor for coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analyses for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(7):483-495.

130. Shah T, Casas JP, Cooper JA, et al. Critical appraisal of CRP measurement for the prediction of coronary heart disease events: new data and systematic review of 31 prospective cohorts. Int J Epidemiol. 2009;38(1):217-231.

131. Joanna Briggs Institute. Nurse-led cardiac clinics for adults with coronary heart disease. Best Practice. 2005;9(1):1-6.

132. Madjid M, Awan I, Willerson JT, Casscells SW. Leukocyte count and coronary heart disease: implications for risk assessment.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;44(10):1945-1956.

133. Surks MI, Ortiz E, Daniels GH, et al. Subclinical thyroid disease: scientific review and guidelines for diagnosis and management. JAMA. 2004;291(2):228-238.

134. Hak AE, Pols HAP, Visser TJ, Drexhage HA, Hofman A, Witteman JCM. Subclinical hypothyroidism is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in elderly women: the Rotterdam Study. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132(4):270-278.

135. Redford C, Vaidya B. Subclinical hypothyroidism: should we treat? Post Reprod Health. 2017;23(2):55-62.

136. Liccardo D, Cannavo A, Spagnuolo G, et al. Periodontal disease: a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20(6).

137. Wu T, Trevisan M, Genco RJ, Falkner KL, Dorn JP, Sempos CT. Examination of the relation between periodontal health status and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;151(3):273-282.

138. Kimble LP, McGuire DB, Dunbar SB, et al. Gender differences in pain characteristics of chronic stable angina and perceived physical limitation in patients with coronary artery disease. Pain. 2003;101(1-2):45-53.

139. Kyker KA, Limacher MC. Gender differences in the presentation and symptoms of coronary artery disease. Curr Womens Health Rep. 2002;2(2):115-119.

140. Pregler, JP, Decherney AH. Women's Health: Principles and Clinical Practice. 1st ed. Shelton, CT: People's Medical Publishing House; 2002.

141. Taylor P, Becker RC. Noninvasive diagnosis of coronary heart disease in women. Cardiology. 1990;77(Suppl 2):91-98.

142. Pray WS. The patient with chest pain. US Pharmacist. 2007;32(2).

143. Fass R, Dickman R. Non-cardiac chest pain: an update. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2006;18:408-417.

144. Ringstrom E, Freedman J. Approach to undifferentiated chest pain in the emergency department: a review of recent medical literature and published practice guidelines. Mt Sinai Med. 2006;73:499-505.

145. O'Keefe-McCarthy S. Women's experiences of cardiac pain: a review of the literature. Can J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2008;18(3):18-25.

146. Swap CJ, Nagurney JT. Value and limitations of chest pain history in the evaluation of patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes. JAMA. 2005;294(20):2623-2629.

147. Dosh SA. Diagnosis of heart failure in adults. Am Fam Physician. 2004;70(11):2145-2152.

148. Gökçe M, Karahan B, Yilmaz R, Orem C, Erdöl C, Ozdemir S. Long term effects of hormone replacement therapy on heart rate variability, QT interval, QT dispersion and frequencies of arrhythmia. Int J Cardiol. 2005;99(3):373-379.

149. Sedlak T, Shufelt C, Iribarren C, Merz CN. Sex hormones and the QT interval: a review. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2012;21(9):933-941.

150. Mieres JH, Gulati M, Merz NB, et al. Role of noninvasive testing in the clinical evaluation of women with suspected ischemic heart disease: a consensus statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2014;139(4):350-379.

151. Di Carli MF, Dorbala S. Exercise testing and nuclear scanning. Circulation. 2003;107:e100-e102.

152. Arbab-Zadeh A. Stress testing and non-invasive coronary angiography in patients with suspected coronary artery disease: time for a new paradigm. Heart Int. 2012;7:32.

153. Boden WE. Is myocardial perfusion imaging an important predictor of mortality in women and if so, is this likely cost effective?J Am Coll Cardiol Img. 2011;4(8):889-893.

154. American Heart Association. Radionuclide Ventriculography or Radionuclide Angiography (MUGA Scan). Available at https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/heart-attack/diagnosing-a-heart-attack/radionuclide-ventriculography-or-radionuclide-angiography-muga-scan. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

155. Merck Manuals Online Medical Library. Radionuclide Imaging. Available at https://www.msdmanuals.com/en-au/professional/SearchResults?query=radionuclide+imaging. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

156. Marwick TH. Stress echocardiography. Heart. 2003;89:113-118.

157. Greulich S, Bruder O, Parker M, et al. Comparison of exercise electrocardiography and stress perfusion CMR for the detection of coronary artery disease in women. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2012;14:36.

158. Dodi C, Cortigiani L, Masini M, Olivotto I, Azzarelli A, Nannini E. The incremental prognostic value of pharmacological stress echo over exercise electrocardiography in women with chest pain of unknown origin. Eur Heart J. 2001;22(2):145-152.

159. Akinpelu D. Pharmacologic Stress Testing. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1827166-overview. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

160. Lexi-Comp Online. Available at https://online.lexi.com/lco/action/login. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

161. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Archive: Safety Alert: Lexiscan (Regadenoson) and Adenoscan (Adenosine): Drug Safety Communication—Rare but Serious Risk of Heart Attack and Death. Available at https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20170406124140/https://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm375981.htm. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

162. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Warns of Rare but Serious Risk of Heart Attack and Death with Cardiac Nuclear Stress Test Drugs Lexiscan (Regadenoson) and Adenoscan (Adenosine). Available at https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-warns-rare-serious-risk-heart-attack-and-death-cardiac-nuclear-stress-test-drugs-lexiscan. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

163. Douglas PS, Garcia MJ, Haines DE, et al. ACCF/ASE/AHA/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCAI/SCCM/SCCT/SCMR 2011 appropriate use criteria for echocardiography. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Society of Echocardiography, American Heart Association, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Critical Care Medicine, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance American College of Chest Physicians. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2011;24(3):229-267.

164. O'Rourke RA, Brundage BH, Froelicher VF, et al. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association expert consensus document on electron-beam computed tomography for the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2000;102(1):126-140.

165. Lakoski SG, Greenland P, Wong ND, et al. Coronary artery calcium scores and risk for cardiovascular events in women classified as "low risk" based on Framingham risk score: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:2437-2442.

166. Kushner FG, Hand M, Smith SC Jr, et al. 2009 focused updates: ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2004 guideline and 2007 focused update) and ACC/AHA/SCAI guidelines on percutaneous coronary intervention (updating the 2005 guideline and 2007 focused update): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54(23):2205-2241.

167. Rathore SS, Chen J, Wang Y, Radford MJ, Vaccarino V, Krumholz HM. Sex differences in cardiac catheterization: the role of physician gender. JAMA. 2001;286(22):2849-2856.

168. Gold LD, Krumholz HM. Gender differences in treatment of heart failure and acute myocardial infarction: a question of quality or epidemiology? Cardiol Rev. 2006;14(4):180-186.

169. Kaczmarek RG, Liu CH, Gross TP. Medical device surveillance: gender differences in pulmonary artery rupture after pulmonary artery catheterization. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2003;12(9):931-935.

170. King KM, Ghali WA, Faris PD, et al. Sex differences in outcomes after cardiac catheterization: effect modification by treatment strategy and time. JAMA. 2004;291(10):1220-1225.

171. Roger V, Farkouh ME, Weston SA, et al. Sex differences in evaluation and outcome of unstable angina. JAMA. 2000;283(5): 646-652.

172. Jacobs AK. Women, ischemic heart disease, revascularization, and the gender gap. What are we missing? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47(Suppl S):S63-S65.

173. Fabreau GE, Leung AA, Southern DA, et al. Sex, socioeconomic status, access to cardiac catheterization, and outcomes for acute coronary syndromes in the context of universal healthcare coverage. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2014;7(4):540-549.

174. Canto JG, Goldberg RJ, Hand M, et al. Symptom presentation of women with acute coronary syndromes: myth vs. reality. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(22):2405-2413.

175. Sketch MH Jr, Pieper KS, Warner J, et al. Mobile cardiac catheterization laboratories increase use of cardiac care in women and African Americans. Am Heart J. 2007;154(3):532-538.

176. Peterson LF, Peterson LR. The safety of performing diagnostic cardiac catheterizations in a mobile catheterization laboratory at primary care hospitals. Angiology. 2004;55(5):499-506.

177. Leuzzi C, Modena MG. Coronary artery disease: clinical presentation, diagnosis and prognosis in women. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010;20(6):426-435.

178. American Heart Association. Heart Attack Symptoms in Women. Available at https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/heart-attack/warning-signs-of-a-heart-attack/heart-attack-symptoms-in-women. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

179. Hemingway H, Langenberg C, Damant J, Frost C, Pyorala K, Barrett-Connor E. Prevalence of angina in women versus men: a systematic review and meta-analysis of international variations across 31 countries. Circulation. 2008;117(12):1526-1536.

180. American Heart Association. Unstable Angina. Available at https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/heart-attack/angina-chest-pain/unstable-angina. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

181. Wang SS. Coronary Artery Vasospasm. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/153943-overview. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

182. Devabhaktuni SR. Cardiac Syndrome X. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1967073-overview. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

183. National Institutes of Health. WISE Study of Women and Heart Disease Yields Important Findings on Frequently Undiagnosed Coronary Syndrome. Available at https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/wise-study-women-heart-disease-yields-important-findings-frequently-undiagnosed-coronary-syndrome. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

184. Asbury EA, Collins P. Cardiac syndrome X. Int J Clin Pract. 2005;59(9):1063-1069.

185. American Heart Association. Microvascular Angina. Available at https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/heart-attack/angina-chest-pain/microvascular-angina. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

186. Cannon RO III. Microvascular angina and the continuing dilemma of chest pain with normal coronary angiograms. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54(10):877-885.

187. Berg J, Bjorck L, Dudas K, Lappas G, Rosengren A. Symptoms of a first acute myocardial infarction in women and men. Gend Med. 2009;6(3):454-462.

188. Albarran JW, Clarke BA, Crawford J. "It was not chest pain really, I can't explain it!" An exploratory study on the nature of symptoms experienced by women during their myocardial infarction. J Clin Nurs. 2007;16(7):1292-1301.

189. Kearney M. Women don't get heart attacks? Reflect Nurs Leadersh. 2000;26(2):18-20.

190. Philpott S, Boynton PM, Feder G, Hemingway H. Gender differences in descriptions of angina symptoms and health problems immediately prior to angiography: the ACRE study. Soc Sci Med. 2001;52(10):1565-1575.

191. DeVon H, Zerwic J. The symptoms of unstable angina: do women and men differ? Nurs Res. 2003;52(2):108-118.

192. Schaefer KM. The female cardiac patient: caring for the new majority. Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 1992;11(2):65-66.

193. Rosenfeld AG. Treatment-seeking delay among women with acute myocardial infarction: decision trajectories and their predictors. Nurs Res. 2004;53(4):225-236.

194. Lefler LL, Bondy KN. Women's delay in seeking treatment with myocardial infarction: a meta-synthesis. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2004;19(4):251-268.

195. Nguyen HL, Saczynski JS, Gore JM, Goldberg RJ. Age and sex differences in duration of prehospital delay in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a systematic review. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2010;3(1):82-92.

196. Isaksson RM, Holmgren L, Lundblad D, Brulin C, Eliasson M. Time trends in symptoms and prehospital delay time in women vs. men with myocardial infarction over a 15-year period. The Northern Sweden MONICA Study. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2008;7(2):152-158.

197. Khraim FM, Carey MG. Predictors of pre-hospital delay among patients with acute myocardial infarction. Patient Educ Couns. 2009;75(2):155-161.

198. Lefler L. The advanced practice nurse's role regarding women's delay in seeking treatment with myocardial infarction. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2002;14(10):449-456.

199. Dempsey S, Dracup K, Moser D. Women's decision to seek care for symptoms of acute myocardial infarction. Heart Lung. 1995;24(6):444-456.

200. Moser DK, McKinley S, Dracup K, Chung ML. Gender differences in reasons patients delay in seeking treatment for acute myocardial infarction symptoms. Patient Educ Couns. 2005;56(1):45-54.

201. de Torbal A, Boersma E, Kors JA, et al. Incidence of recognized and unrecognized myocardial infarction in men and women aged 55 and older: the Rotterdam Study. Eur Heart J. 2006;27:729-736.

202. Vaccarino V, Parsons L, Every NR, Barron HV, Krumholz HM, for the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 2 Participants. Sex-based differences in early mortality after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(4):217-225.

203. Vaccarino V, Parsons L, Peterson ED, Rogers WJ, Kiefe CI, Canto J. Sex differences in mortality after acute myocardial infarction: changes from 1994 to 2006. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(19):1767-1774.

204. Hochman JS, Tamis JE, Thompson TD, et al. Sex, clinical presentation, and outcome in patients with acute coronary syndromes: global use of strategies to open occluded coronary arteries in acute coronary syndromes llb investigators. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(4):226-232.

205. Tillmanns H, Waas W, Voss R, et al. Gender differences in the outcome of cardiac interventions. Herz. 2005;30(5):375-389.

206. Zimmermann S, Ruthrof S, Nowak K, et al. Short-term prognosis of contemporary interventional therapy of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: does gender matter? Clin Res Cardiol. 2009;98(11):709-715.

207. Movahed MR, Ramaraj R, Jamal MM, Hashemzadeh M. Nationwide trends in the utilization of multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (MVPCI) in the United States across different gender and ethnicities. J Interv Cardiol. 2009;22(3):247-251.

208. Levine GN, Bates ER, Blankenship JC, et al. 2011 ACCF/AHA/SCAI guideline for percutaneous coronary intervention: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. Circulation. 2011;124:e574-e651.

209. Tamis-Holland JE, Palazzo A, Stebbins AL, et al. Benefits of direct angioplasty for women and men with acute myocardial infarction: results of the Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries in Acute Coronary Syndromes (GUSTO II-B) Angioplasty Substudy. Am Heart J. 2004;147(1):133-139.

210. Singh M, Rihal CS, Gersh BJ, et al. Mortality differences between men and women after percutaneous coronary interventions: a 25-year, single-center experience. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51(24):2313-2320.

211. Smith SC, Feldman TE, Hirshfield JW, et al. ACC/AHA/SCAI 2005 guideline update for percutaneous intervention. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47(1):e1-e121.

212. Smith SC Jr, Dove JT, Jacobs AK, et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for percutaneous coronary intervention (revision of the 1993 PTCA guidelines): executive summary. Circulation. 2001;103:3019-3041.

213. Naito R, Miyauchi K, Konishi H, et al. Gender difference in long-term clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention during 1984-2008. Atherosclerosis. 2016;247:105-110.

214. De Luca G, Suryapranata H, Dambrink JH, et al. Sex-related differences in outcome after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated by primary angioplasty: data from the Zwolle Myocardial Infarction Study. Am Heart J. 2004;148(5):852-856.

215. Pancholy SB, Shantha GP, Patel T, Cheskin LJ. Sex differences in short-term and long-term all-cause mortality among patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated by primary percutaneous intervention: a meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(11):1822-1830.

216. Mallik S, Vaccarino V. Outcomes of thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction in women. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2004;47(1):58-71.

217. Ostadal P, Ostadal B. Women and the management of acute coronary syndrome. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2012;90(9):1151-1159.

218. Spaander FH, Zinkstok SM, Baharoglu IM, et al. Sex differences and functional outcome after intravenous thrombolysis. Stroke. 2017;48:699-703.

219. Woods SE, Noble G, Smith JM, Hasselfeld K. The influence of gender in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: an eight-year prospective hospitalized cohort study. J Am Coll Surg. 2003;196(3):428-434.

220. Koch CG, Weng YS, Zhou SX, et al. Prevalence of risk factors, and not gender per se, determines short- and long-term survival after coronary artery bypass surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2003;17(5):585-593.

221. Edwards ML, Albert NM, Wang C, Apperson-Hansen C. 1993–2003 gender differences in coronary artery revascularization: has anything changed? J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2005;20(6):461-467.

222. Piña IL, Zheng Q, She L, et al. Sex difference in patients with ischemic heart failure undergoing surgical revascularization: results from the STICH Trial (Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure). Circulation. 2018;137(8):771-780.

223. Karthik S, Fabri BM. Left internal mammary artery usage in coronary artery bypass grafting: a measure of quality control. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2006;88(4):367-369.

224. Harskamp RE, Alexander JH, Ferguson B Jr, et al. Frequency and predictors of internal mammary artery graft failure and subsequent clinical outcomes: insights from the Project of Ex-vivo Vein Graft Engineering via Transfection (PREVENT) IV Trial. Circulation. 2016;133:131-138.

225. Vaccarino V, Koch CG. Long-term benefits of coronary bypass surgery: are the gains for women less than for men? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;126(6):1707-1711.

226. Vaccarino V, Abramson JL, Veledar E, Weintraub WS. Sex differences in hospital mortality after coronary artery bypass surgery: evidence for a higher mortality in younger women. Circulation. 2002;105(10):1176-1181.

227. Koch CG, Khandwala F, Cywinski JB, et al. Health-related quality of life after coronary artery bypass grafting: a gender analysis using the Duke Activity Status Index. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;128(2):284-295.

228. Gaudino M, Angelini GD, Antoniades C, et al. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: 30 years of debate. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018;7(16):e009934.

229. Lamy A, Devereaux PJ, Prabhakaran D, et al. Five-year outcomes after off-pump or on-pump coronary-artery bypass grafting.N Engl J Med. 2016;375(24):2359-2368.

230. Shroyer AL, Hattler B, Wagner TH, et al. Five-year outcomes after on-pump and off-pump coronary-artery bypass. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(7):623-632.

231. Di Mauro M, Gagliardi M, Iaco AL, et al. Does off-pump coronary surgery reduce postoperative acute renal failure? The importance of preoperative renal function. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;84(5):1496-1502.

232. Kirmani BH, Holmes MV, Muir AD. Long-term survival and freedom from reintervention after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Circulation. 2016;134(17):1209-1220.

233. Moore SM. A comparison of women's and men's symptoms during home recovery after coronary artery bypass surgery. Heart Lung. 1995;24(6):495-501.

234. King KM, Gortner SR. Women's short-term recovery from cardiac surgery. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1996;11(2):5-15.

235. King KB, Rowe MA, Zerwic JJ. Concerns and risk factor modification in women during the year after coronary artery surgery.Nurs Res. 2000;49(3):167-172.

236. De Vos C, Li X, Van Vlaenderen I, et al. Participating or not in a cardiac rehabilitation programme: factors influencing a patient's decision. Euro J Preventive Cardiol. 2013;20(2):341-348.

237. Ghali JK, Pina IL, Gottlieb SS, Deedwania PC, Wikstrand JC, MERIT-HF Study Group. Metoprolol CR/XL in female patients with heart failure: analysis of the experience in Metoprolol Extended-Release Randomized Intervention Trial in Heart Failure (MERIT-HF). Circulation. 2002;105(13):1585-1591.

238. Grace SL, Gravely-Witte S, Brual J, et al. Contribution of patient and physician factors to cardiac rehabilitation referral: a prospective multilevel study. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med. 2008;5(10):653-662.

239. Moradi B, Maleki M, Esmaeilzadeh M, Abkenar HB. Physician-related factors affecting cardiac rehabilitation referral. J Tehran Heart Cent. 2011;6(4):187-192.

240. Judelson D. Gender differences in evaluation and management of coronary disease. Cardiovasc Dis Chest Pain. 1994;10:3-8.

241. Halm M, Penque S, Doll N, Beahrs M. Women and cardiac rehabilitation: referral and compliance patterns. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 1999;13(3):83-92.

242. Colbert JD, Martin BJ, Haykowsky MJ, et al. Cardiac rehabilitation referral, attendance and mortality in women. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2015;22(8):979-986.

243. Shanmugasegaram S, Oh P, Reid RD, McCumber T, Grace SL. Cardiac rehabilitation barriers by rurality and socioeconomic status: a cross-sectional study. Int J Equity Health. 2013;12(1):72.

244. Sanderson BK, Shewchuk RM, Bittner V. Cardiac rehabilitation and women: what keeps them away? J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2010;30(1):12-21.

245. Cannistra LB, Balady GJ, O'Malley CJ, Weiner DA, Ryan TJ. Comparison of the clinical profile and outcome of women and men in cardiac rehabilitation. Am J Cardiol. 1992;69(16):1274-1279.

246. Azad NA, Bouchard K, Mayhew A, Carter M, Molnar FJ. Safety and predictors of adherence of a new rehabilitation program for older women with congestive heart failure. J Geriatr Cardiol. 2012;9(3):243-246.

247. Santiago de Arujo PC, Chaves GS, Davies P, Taylor RS, Grace SL. Interventions to promote patient utilization of cardiac rehabilitation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019;2:CD007131.

248. Beswick AD, Rees K, West RR, et al. Improving uptake and adherence in cardiac rehabilitation: literature review. J Adv Nurs. 2005;49(5):538-555.

249. Chyun D. Nursing management of coronary heart disease in women: using research findings. Crit Care Nurse. 1997;17(2):10, 12, 14.

250. Gravely S, Anand SS, Stewart DE, Grace SL, CRCARE Investigators. Effect of referral strategies on access to cardiac rehabilitation among women. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2014;21(8):1018-1025.

251. Shabani R, Gaeini AA, Nikoo MR, Nikbackt H, Sadegifar M. Effect of cardiac rehabilitation program on exercise capacity in women undergoing coronary artery bypass graft in Hamadan-iran. Int J Prev Med. 2010;1(4):247-251.

252. Ghashghaei FE, Sadeghi M, Marandi SM, Ghashghaei SE. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation improves hemodynamic responses after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. ARYA Atheroscler. 2012;7(4):151-156.

253. Kim C, Youn JE, Choi HE. The effect of a self-exercise program in cardiac rehabilitation for patients with coronary artery disease. Ann Rehabil Med. 2011;35(3):381-387.

254. European Society of Cardiology. Heart Attack Patients Return to Work Later and Retire Earlier if Treatment is Delayed. Available at https://www.escardio.org/The-ESC/Press-Office/Press-releases/Heart-attack-patients-return-to-work-later-and-retire-earlier-if-treatment-is-de. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

255. Halm MA, Alpen MA. Support groups: an annotated bibliography for critical care nurses. Crit Care Nurse. 1994;14(3):118-128.

256. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Ischemic Heart Disease: What Should Women Know? Available at https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/ischemic-heart-disease. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

257. American Heart Association. Cardiovascular Disease: Women's No. 1 Health Threat. Available at http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@wcm/@adv/documents/downloadable/ucm_302256.pdf. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

258. National Institute of Nursing Research. Subtle and Dangerous: Symptoms of Heart Disease in Women. Available at https://www.ninr.nih.gov/sites/default/files/subtle-and-dangerous-symptoms-heart-disease-in-women-booklet.pdf. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

259. Pereira de Melo R, Venicios de Oliveira Lopes M, Leite de Araujo T, de Fatima da Silva L, Aline Arrais Sampaio Santos F, Moorhead S. Risk for decreased cardiac output: validation of a proposal for nursing diagnosis. Nurs Crit Care. 2011;16(6):287-294.

260. Hunt SA, Abraham WT, Chin MH, et al. 2009 focused update incorporated into the ACC/AHA 2005 guidelines for the diagnosis and management of heart failure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart 221. Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53:e1-90.

261. Hsich EM, Piña, IL. Heart failure in women: a need for prospective data. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54(6):491-498.

262. Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: executive summary. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2013;128:1810-1852.

263. Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;70(6):776-803.

264. Jacobs AK, Eckel RH. Evaluating and managing cardiovascular disease in women: understanding a woman's heart. Circulation. 2005;111:383-384.

265. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Angina: Treatment. Available at https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/angina. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

266. Alaeddini J. Angina Pectoris Treatment and Management. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/150215-treatment. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

267. American Heart Association. Angina in Women can be Different than Men. Available at https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/heart-attack/angina-chest-pain/angina-in-women-can-be-different-than-men. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

268. Lloyd GW, Patel NR, McGing E, Cooper AF, Brennand-Roper D, Jackson G. Does angina vary with the menstrual cycle in women with premenopausal coronary artery disease? Heart. 2000;84(2):189-192.

269. Kawano H, Motoyama T, Ohgushi M, Kugiyama K, Ogawa H, Yasue H. Menstrual cyclic variation of myocardial ischemia in premenopausal women with variant angina. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135(11):977-981.

270. Luca MC, Liuni A, Harvey P, Mak S, Parker JD. Effects of estradiol on measurements of conduit artery endothelial function after ischemia and reperfusion in premenopausal women. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2016;94(12):1304-1308.

271. National Institutes of Health. Women's Heart Health: Developing a National Health Education Action Plan. Strategy Development Workshop Report. Available at https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/heart/whhw.pdf. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

272. Sandmaier M. Your Guide to a Healthy Heart. Available at https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/public/heart/healthyheart.pdf. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

273. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health Literacy. Evidence Reviews and Research Summaries. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/healthliteracy/researchevaluate/evidence-research.html. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

274. Sanderson BK, Shewchuk RM, Bittner V. Cardiac rehabilitation and women: what keeps them away? J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2010;30(1):12-21.

275. Carpenito LJ. Handbook of Nursing Diagnosis. 15th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 2017.

276. Farrell MA, Hayashi T, Loo RK, et al. Clinic-based nutrition and lifestyle counseling for Hispanic women delivered by community health workers: design of the California WISEWOMAN study. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009;18(5):733-739.

277. American Heart Association Go Red For Women. Facts About Heart Disease in Women. Available at https://www.goredforwomen.org/en/about-heart-disease-in-women/facts. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

278. Mosca L, Hammond G, Mochari-Greenberger H, Towfighi A, Albert MA. Fifteen-year trends in awareness of heart disease in women: results of a 2012 American Heart Association national survey. Circulation. 2013;127:1-29.

279. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Heart Disease Facts. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

280. American Heart Association. About Heart Disease in Women. Available at https://www.goredforwomen.org/home/about-heart-disease-in-women/. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

281. Mosca L, Benjamin EJ, Berra K, et al. Effectiveness-based guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in women—2011 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123(11):1243-1262.

282. Halm MA, Denker J. Primary prevention programs to reduce heart disease risk in women. Clin Nurse Spec. 2003;17(2):101-109.

283. Greenland P, Alpert JS, Beller GA, et al. 2010 ACCF/AHA guideline for assessment of cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56:e50-e103.

284. Gold S. Stages of Change. Available at https://psychcentral.com/lib/stages-of-change/. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

285. American Lung Association. Smoking Facts: Health Effects. Available at https://www.lung.org/stop-smoking/smoking-facts/ health-effects.html. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

286. Mons U, Muezzinler A, Gellert C, et al. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular events and mortality among older adults: meta-analysis of individual participant data from prospective cohort studies of the CHANCES consortium. BMJ. 2015;350:h1551.

287. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking and Tobacco Use. Quitting Smoking. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/cessation/quitting/index.htm. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

288. Perkins KA, Marcus MD, Levine MD, et al. Cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce weight concerns improves smoking cessation outcome in weight-concerned women. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2001;69(4):604-613.

289. Lee JS, Kawakubo K, Kobayashi Y, Mori K, Kasihara H, Tamura M. Effects of ten-year body weight variability on cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese middle-aged men and women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25(7):1063-1067.

290. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Healthy Weight. About Adult BMI. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/adult_BMI/. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

291. Rexrode KM, Carey VJ, Hennekens CH, et al. Abdominal adiposity and coronary heart disease in women. JAMA. 1998;280(21):1843-1848.

292. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Aim for a Healthy Weight. Available at https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/behavior.htm. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

293. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Choose My Plate. Available at https://www.choosemyplate.gov/. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

294. Mayo Clinic. Nutrition and Health Eating: DASH Diet: Healthy Eating to Lower Your Blood Pressure. Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/dash-diet/art-20048456. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

295. American Heart Association. Alcohol and Heart Health. Available at https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/ eat-smart/nutrition-basics/alcohol-and-heart-health. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

296. Hozumi T, Sugioka K, Shimada K, et al. Beneficial effect of short term intake of red wine polyphenols on coronary microcirculation in patients with coronary artery disease. Heart. 2006;92(5):681-682.

297. Lee IM, Rexrode KM, Cook NR, Manson JE, Buring JE. Physical activity and coronary heart disease in women: is "no pain, no gain" passé? JAMA. 2001;285(11):1447-1454.

298. Artinian NT, Fletcher GF, Mozaffarian D, et al. Interventions to promote physical activity and dietary lifestyle changes for cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2010;122(4):406-441.

299. HHS.gov. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Available at https://www.hhs.gov/fitness/be-active/physical-activity-guidelines-for-americans/index.html. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

300. Boldo A, White WB. Blood pressure effects of the oral contraceptive and postmenopausal hormone therapies. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2011;40(2):419-432.

301. Womenshealth.gov. Birth Control Methods. Available at https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/birth-control-methods#top. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

302. American Heart Association. The American Heart Association's Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations. Available at https:// www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/nutrition-basics/aha-diet-and-lifestyle-recommendations. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

303. Manson JE, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, et al. A prospective study of aspirin use and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women. JAMA. 1991;266(4):521-527.

304. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Aspirin Use to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer: Preventive Medication. Available at https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/aspirin-to-prevent-cardiovascular-disease-and-cancer. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

305. Yusuf S, Zhao F, Mehta SR, et al. Effects of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(7):494-502.

306. CAPRIE Steering Committee. A randomised, blinded, trial of clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients at risk of ischaemic events (CAPRIE). Lancet. 1996;348(9038):1329-1339.

307. Sarafoff N, Byrne RA, Sibbing D. Clinical use of clopidogrel. Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18(33):5224-5239.

308. Martischnig AM, Mehili J, Pollak J, et al. Impact of dabigatran versus phenprocoumon on ADP induced platelet aggregation in patients with atrial fibrillation with or without concomitant clopidogrel therapy (the Dabi-ADP-1 and Dabi-ADP-2 Trials). Biomed Res Int. 2015;798486.

309. Olivier CB, Diehl P, Schnabel K, et al. Third generation P2Y12 antagonists inhibit platelet aggregation more effectively than clopidogrel in a myocardial infarction registry. Thromb Haemost. 2014;111(2):266-272.

310. Olivier CB, Schnabel K, Weber S, et al. Platelet reactivity after administration of third generation P2Y12=antagonists does not depend on body weight in contrast to clopidogrel. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2016;42(1):84-89.

311. The Alpha-Tocopherol Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. N Engl J Med. 1994;330(15):1029-1035.

312. Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Peto R. Antioxidant vitamins-benefits not yet proved. N Engl J Med. 1994;330(15):1080-1081.

313. Leopold JA. Antioxidants and coronary artery disease: from pathophysiology to preventive therapy. Coron Artery Dis. 2015;26(2):176-183.

314. Kris-Etherton PM, Lichtenstein AH, Howard BV, Steinberg D, Witztum JL, for the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. Antioxidant vitamin supplements and cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2004;110(5):637-641.

315. Hulley S, Grady D, Bush T, et al. Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group. JAMA. 1998;280(7): 605-613.

316. Hsai J, Langer RD, Manson JE, et al. Conjugated equine estrogens and coronary heart disease: the Women's Health Initiative.Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(3):357-365.

317. Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Menopausal hormone therapy for the primary prevention of chronic conditions: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;288(3):321-333.

318. Herrington DM, Reboussin DM, Brosnihan KB, et al. Effects of estrogen replacement on the progression of coronary-artery atherosclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2000;343(8):522-529.

319. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Hormone therapy for the primary prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal women: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2017;318(22):2224-2233.

320. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Menopause and Hormone Therapy: Collaborative Decision-Making and Management. Bloomington, MN: Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement; 2008.

321. Boardman HM, Hartley L, Eisinga A, et al. Hormone therapy for preventing cardiovascular disease in post-menopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(3):CD002229.

322. HealthyPeople.gov. Healthy People 2020. Available at https://www.healthypeople.gov/. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

323. American Heart Association. Go Red for Women. Available at https://www.goredforwomen.org/. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

324. Brittle C, Bird CE. Literature Review on Effective Sex- and Gender-Based Systems/Models of Care. Arlington, VA: U.S. Office on Women's Health; 2007.

325. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Guidelines for the Study and Evaluation of Gender Differences in the Clinical Evaluation of Drugs. Available at https://www.fda.gov/media/71107/download. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

326. Angell M. Caring for women's health: what is the problem? N Engl J Med. 1993;329(4):271-272.

327. Gendered Innovations in Science, Health and Medicine, Engineering, and Environment. Heart Disease in Women: Formulating Research Questions. Available at http://genderedinnovations.stanford.edu/case-studies/heart.html#tabs-1. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

328. National Institutes of Health, Office of Extramural Research. NIH Policy and Guidelines on the Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in Clinical Research, Amended, October 2001. Available at https://grants.nih.gov/policy/inclusion/women-and-minorities/guidelines.htm. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

329. National Institutes of Health. Office of Research on Women's Health. Women's Health. Available at https://orwh.od.nih.gov/research. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

330. Women's Health Initiative. Available at https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/science/womens-health-initiative-whi. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

331. Maclaran K, Stevenson JC. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with HRT. Women's Health. 2012;8(1):63-74.

332. Manson JE, Chlebowski RT, Stefanick ML, et al. Menopausal hormone therapy and health outcomes during the intervention and extended poststopping phases of the Women's Health Initiative randomized trials. JAMA. 2013;310(13):1353-1368.

333. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Archive: Drugs. Estrogen and Estrogen with Progestin Therapies for Postmenopausal Women. Available at https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20170722143601/https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/InformationbyDrugClass/ucm135318.htm. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

334. Reynolds HR. Percutaneous and surgical revascularization procedures in women. Curr Cardiovasc Risk Reports. 2008;2:2270232.

335. Maserejian NN, Lutfey KE, McKinlay JB. Do physicians attend to base rates? Prevalence data and statistical discrimination in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease. Health Serv Res. 2009;44(6):1933-1949.

336. Office of Research on Women's Health. Moving into the Future with New Dimensions and Strategies: A Vision for 2020 for Women's Health Research: Strategic Plan. Available at https://orwh.od.nih.gov/resources/pdf/ORWH_StrategicPlan2020_Vol1.pdf. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

337. Office of Research on Women's Health. Advancing Novel Science in Women's Health Research. Available at https://www.nlm.nih.gov/ep/answhr.html. Last accessed November 18, 2019.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. Mosca L, Benjamin EJ, Berra K, et al. Effectiveness-based guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in women—2011 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123(11):1243-1262. Available at https://ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/cir.0b013e31820faaf8. Last accessed December 3, 2019.

2. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Hormone therapy for the primary prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal women: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2017;318(22):2224-2233. Available at https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2665782. Last accessed December 3, 2019.


Copyright © 2020 NetCE, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.