Works Cited

1. Cobb CM. Microbes, inflammation, scaling and root planning, and the periodontal condition. J Dent Hyg. 2008;82(suppl 3):4-9.

2. Merck Manuals Online. Introduction to Periodontal Diseases. Available at https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/mouth-and-dental-disorders/periodontal-diseases/introduction-to-periodontal-diseases. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

3. Paquette DW, Ryan ME, Wilder RS. Locally delivered antimicrobials: clinical evidence and relevance. J Dent Hyg. 2008;82 (suppl 3):10-15.

4. Page RC, Offenbacher S, Schroeder HE, Seymour GJ, Kornman KS. Advances in the pathogenesis of periodontitis: summary of developments, clinical implications and future directions. Periodontology. 1997;14:216-248.

5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. A Report of the Task Force on the NIH Women's Health Research Agenda for the 21st Century, Volume 1. Executive Summary. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 1999.

6. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Available at https://www.nidcr.nih.gov/research/data-statistics/surgeon-general. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

7. Suri V, Suri V. Menopause and oral health. J Midlife Health. 2014;5(3):115-120.

8. Soikkonen K, Wolf J, Salo T, Tilvis R. Radiographic periodontal attachment loss as an indicator of death risk in the elderly. J Clin Periodontol. 2000;27(2):87-92.

9. Dhadse P, Gattani D, Mishra R. The link between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease: how far we have come in last two decades? J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2010;14(3):148-154.

10. Teng YT, Taylor GW, Scannapieco F, et al. Periodontal health and systemic disorders. J Can Dent Assoc. 2002;68(3)188-192.

11. Arigbede AO, Babatope BO, Bamidele MK. Periodontitis and systemic diseases: a literature review. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2012;16(4):487-491.

12. Anil S, Al-Ghamdi HS. The impact of periodontal infections on systemic disease: an update for medical practitioners. Saudi Med J. 2006;27(6):767-776.

13. Ford PJ, Raphael SL, Cullinan MP, Jenkins AJ, West MJ, Seymour GJ. Why should a doctor be interested in oral disease? Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2010;8(10):1483-1493.

14. Anderson SE, Must A. Interpreting the continued decline in the average age at menarche: results from two nationally representative surveys of U.S. girls studied 10 years apart. J Pediatr. 2005;147(6):753-760.

15. Weinberg MA. Women and Oral Health. Available at https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/441902. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

16. HealthPartners Dental Group and Clinics. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases. Minneapolis, MN: HealthPartners; 2006.

17. American Dental Association Council on Access, Prevention, and Interprofessional Relations. Women's oral health issues. In: ADA Oral Health Care Series. Chicago, IL: American Dental Association; 1995: 9.

18. Calls KA. Dysmenorrhea. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/253812-overview. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

19. Moreno MA. Premenstrual Syndrome. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/953696-overview. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

20. Mashburn J. Etiology, diagnosis, and management of vaginitis. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2006;51(6):423-430.

21. Walensky RP, Houry D, Jernigan DB, Bunnell R, Layden J, Iademarco MF. Sexually transmitted infections treatment guidelines, 2021. MMWR. 2021;70(4):1-192.

22. Youngkin EQ, Davis MS, Schadewald D, Juve C. Women's Health: A Primary Care Clinical Guide. 4th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2012.

23. Chan PD, Johnson SM. Gynecology and Obstetrics. 9th ed. Laguna Hills, CA: Current Clinical Strategies; 2007.

24. Taber's Online. Available at https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

25. Cottrell BH. Vaginal douching. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2003;32(1):12-18.

26. Mayo Clinic. Endometriosis. Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/endometriosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20354656. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

27. Guo SW, Wang Y. The prevalence of endometriosis in women with chronic pelvic pain. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2006;62:121-130.

28. Borgelt-Hansen L. Oral contraceptives: an update on health benefits and risks. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2001;41(6).

29. Gillum LA, Mamidipudi SK, Johnston SC. Ischemic stroke risk with oral contraceptives: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2000;281(1): 72-78.

30. Tanis BC. Oral contraceptives and the risk of myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J. 2003;24(5):377-380.

31. Meschia JF, Bushnell C, Boden-Albala B, et al. Guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2014;45(12):3754-3832.

32. Kennon S, Tasch EG, Arm RN. Considerations in the management of patients taking oral contraceptives. J Am Dent Assoc. 1978;97(4):641-643.

33. Jensen J, Liljemark W, Bloomquist C. The effect of female sex hormones on subgingival plaque. J Periodontol. 1981;52(10):599-602.

34. Magnusson T, Ericson T, Hugoson A. The effect of oral contraceptives on the concentration of some salivary substances in women. Arch Oral Biol. 1975;20(2):119-126.

35. El-Ashiry GM, El-Kafrawy AH, Nasr MF, Younis N. Effects of oral contraceptives on the gingiva. J Periodontol. 1971;42(5):273-275.

36. Rose LF, Kaye D (eds). Internal Medicine for Dentistry. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 1990.

37. Sweet JB, Butler DP. Increased incidence of postoperative localized osteitis in mandibular third molar surgery associated with patients using oral contraceptives. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977;127(5):518-519.

38. Castellini J, Harvey D, Erickson S, Cherkin D. Effect of oral contraceptive cycle on dry socket (localized alveolar osteitis). J Am Dent Assoc. 1980;101(5):777-780.

39. Brusca MI, Rosa A, Albaina O, Moragues MD, Verdugo F, Ponton J. The impact of oral contraceptives on women's periodontal health and the subgingival occurrence of aggressive periodontopathogens and Candida species. J Periodontol. 2010;81(7):1010-1018.

40. ADA Council on Scientific Affairs. Antibiotic interference with oral contraceptives. J Am Dent Assoc. 2002;133(7):880.

41. Burroughs KE, Chambliss ML. Antibiotics and oral contraceptive failure. Arch Fam Med. 2000;9:81-82.

42. Kornman KS, Loesche WJ. The subgingival microbial flora during pregnancy. J Periodont Res. 1980;15(2):111-122.

43. Carrillo-de-Albornoz A, Figuero E, Herrera D, Bascones-Martinez A. Gingival changes during pregnancy: II. Influence of hormonal variations on the subgingival biofilm. J Clin Periodontol. 2010;37(3):230-240.

44. Markou E, Eleana B, Lazaros T, Antonios K. The influence of sex steroid hormones on gingiva of women. Open Dent J. 2009;3: 114-119.

45. Lindhe J, Branemark PI. Changes in vascular permeability after local application of sex hormones. J Periodontol Res. 1967;2(4): 259-265.

46. Mariotti A. Sex steroid hormones and cell dynamics in the periodontium. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 1994;5(1):27-53.

47. Soory M. Targets for steroid hormone mediated actions of periodontal pathogens, cytokines and therapeutic agents: some implications on tissue turnover in the periodontium. Curr Drug Targets. 2000;1(4):309-325.

48. Miller LS, Manwell MA, Newbold D, et al. The relationship between reduction in periodontal inflammation and diabetes control: a report of nine cases. J Periodontol. 1992;63(10):843-848.

49. Shlossman M, Knowler WC, Pettitt DJ, Genco RJ. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease. J Am Dent Assoc. 1990;121(4):532-536.

50. Nagata T. Relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease. Clin Calcium. 2009;19(9):1291-1298.

51. Santos VR, Lima JA, De Mendonca AC, Braz Maximo MB, Faveri M, Duarte PM. Effectiveness of full-mouth and partial-mouth scaling and root planing in treating chronic periodontitis in subjects with type 2 diabetes. J Periodontol. 2009;80(8):1237-1245.

52. Jeffcoat MK, Geurs NC, Reddy MS, Cliver SP, Goldenberg RL, Hauth JC. Periodontal infection and preterm birth: results of a prospective study. J Am Dent Assoc. 2001;132(7):875-880.

53. Offenbacher S, Katz V, Fertik G, et al. Periodontal infection as a possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight. J Periodontol. 1996;67(10 suppl):1103-1113.

54. Jeffcoat MK, Geurs NC, Reddy MS, Goldenberg RL, Hauth JC. Current evidence regarding periodontal disease as a risk factor in preterm birth. Ann Periodontol. 2001;6(1):183-188.

55. López NJ, DaSilva I, Ipinza J, Gutiérrez J. Periodontal therapy reduces the rate of preterm low birth weight in women with pregnancy-associated gingivitis. J Periodontol. 2005;76(11):2144-2153.

56. American Academy of Periodontology. Gum Disease and Women. Available at https://www.perio.org/consumer/gum-disease-and-women. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

57. Carta G, Persia G, Falciglia K, Iovenitti P. Periodontal disease and poor obstetrical outcome. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2004;31(1):47-49.

58. Offenbacher S, Jared HL, O'Reilly PG, et al. Potential pathogenic mechanisms of periodontitis associated pregnancy complications. Ann Periodontol. 1998;3(1):233-250.

59. Mitchell-Lewis D, Engebretson SP, Chen J, Lamster IB, Papapanou PN. Periodontal infections and pre-term birth: early findings from a cohort of young minority women in New York. Eur J Oral Sci. 2001;109(1):34-39.

60. ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins Obstetrics. ACOG practice bulletin no. 171: management of preterm labor. Obstet Gynecol. 2016;128(4):e155-e164.

61. Dasanayake AP. Poor periodontal health of the pregnant woman as a risk factor for low birth weight. Ann Periodontol. 1998;3(1):206-212.

62. Khader YS, Ta'ani Q. Periodontal diseases and the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight: a meta-analysis. J Periodontol. 2005;76(2):161-165.

63. Lopez NJ, Da Silva I, Ipinza J, Gutierrez J. Periodontal therapy reduces the rate of preterm low birth weight in women with pregnancy-associated gingivitis. J Periodontol. 2005;76(11 suppl):2144-2153.

64. National Cancer Institute. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Cancer Statistics. Available at https://surveillance.cancer.gov/statistics/types/lifetime_risk.html. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

65. Allen KM, Phillips JM. Women's Health Across the Lifespan: A Comprehensive Perspective. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 1997.

66. Berman NR. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer screening: recent advances improve the clinical picture. Adv Nurse Pract. 2002;10(10):26-35.

67. National Cancer Institute. Cervical Cancer. Available at https://www.cancer.gov/types/cervical/hp. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

68. Saslow D, Solomon D, Lawson HW, et al. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer.CA Cancer J Clin. 2012;62(3):147-172.

69. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines for Average-Risk Women. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/cervical/pdf/guidelines.pdf. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

70. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Cervical Cancer: Screening. Available at https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/cervical-cancer-screening2. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

71. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Licenses New Vaccine for Prevention of Cervical Cancer and Other Diseases in Females Caused by Human Papillomavirus. Available at http://www.natap.org/2006/newsUpdates/060906_01.htm. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

72. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Human Papillomavirus Quadrivalent (Types 6, 11, 16, 18) Vaccine, Recombinant. Available at https://www.fda.gov/vaccines-blood-biologics/vaccines/gardasil. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

73. American Cancer Society. Treating Cervical Cancer. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cervical-cancer/treating.html. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

74. American Cancer Society. Endometrial (Uterine) Cancer. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/endometrial-cancer/about/key-statistics.html. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

75. Banno K, Susumu N, Yanokura M, et al. Association of HNPCC and endometrial cancers. Int J Clin Oncol. 2004;9(4):262-269.

76. Hackley BK, Kriebs JM. Primary Care of Women. 2nd ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2017.

77. American Cancer Society. Ovarian Cancer: Detailed Guide. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/ovarian-cancer.html. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

78. National Cancer Institute. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women. Available at https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/risk-fact-sheet. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

79. American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer.html. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

80. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Genetic risk assessment and BRCA mutation testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility: recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143(5):355-361.

81. National Cancer Institute. Breast Cancer Screening: Overview. Available at https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp/breast-screening-pdq. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

82. American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society Recommendations for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer. Available at http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/screening-tests-and-early-detection/american-cancer-society-recommendations-for-the-early-detection-of-breast-cancer.html. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

83. National Cancer Institute. Breast Cancer Screening Modalities–Mammography. Available at https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp/breast-screening-pdq#_51. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

84. National Cancer Institute. SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Breast Cancer. Available at https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

85. American Heart Association. Suggested Servings from Each Food Group. Available at https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/nutrition-basics/suggested-servings-from-each-food-group. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

86. National Cancer Institute. Stage Information for Breast Cancer. Available at https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp/breast-treatment-pdq#_27. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

87. MedlinePlus. Hyperemesis Gravidarum. Available at https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001499.htm. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

88. Zachariasen RD. Oral manifestations of menopause. Compendium. 1993;14(12):1584-1591.

89. Boardman HM, Hartley L, Eisinga A, et al. Hormone therapy for preventing cardiovascular disease in post-menopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(3):CD002229.

90. Mayo Clinic. Menopause. Available at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/menopause/basics/definition/CON-20019726. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

91. George SA. The menopause experience: a woman's perspective. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2006;31(1):77-85.

92. Ferguson MM, Carter J, Boyle P, Hart DM, Lindsay R. Oral complaints related to climacteric symptoms in oophorectomized women. J R SocMed. 1981;74(7):492-498.

93. American Heart Association. American Heart Association Recommendations for Physical Activity in Adults. Available at https://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/HealthyLiving/PhysicalActivity/StartWalking/American-Heart-Association-Recommendations-for-Physical-Activity-in-Adults_UCM_307976_Article.jsp. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

94. Friedlander AH. The physiology, medical management and oral implications of menopause. J Am Dent Assoc. 2002;133(1):73-81.

95. Frutos R, Rodriguez S, Miralles-Jorda L. Machuca G. Oral manifestations and dental treatment in menopause. Med Oral. 2002;7(1):26-30, 31-35.

96. Meurman JH, Tarkkila L, Tiitinen A. The menopause and oral health. Maturitas. 2009;63(1):56-62.

97. American Academy of Periodontology. Women and Gum Disease: Your Unique Oral Health Needs. Chicago, IL: American Academy of Periodontology; 1993.

98. Frackiewicz EJ, Cutler NR. Women's health care during the perimenopause. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2000;40(6).

99. Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;288(3):321-333.

100. Women's Health Initiative. Available at https://www.whi.org . Last accessed December 18, 2019.

101. Bruckner MC, Youngkin EO. What's a woman to do? Exploring HRT questions raised by the women's health initiative. Nurs Womens Health. 2002;6(5):408-417.

102. Turton M, Africa CW. Further evidence for periodontal disease as a risk indicator for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Int Dent J. 2017;67(3):148-156.

103. Maxson J. Remedying dyslipidemia: NCEP-ATP III strategies to slow CVD. Clin Rev. 2002;12(10):53-60.

104. Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC, et al. Postmenopausal estrogen therapy and cardiovascular disease: ten-year follow-up from the Nurses' Health Study. N Engl J Med. 1991;325(11):756-762.

105. Gabriel Sanchez R, Sanchez Gomez LM, Carmona L, Roque I Figuls M, Bonfill Cosp X. Hormone replacement therapy for preventing cardiovascular disease in post-menopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;2:CD002229.

106. American Cancer Society. Menopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy and Cancer Risk. Available at http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/medical-treatments/menopausal-hormone-replacement-therapy-and-cancer-risk.html. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

107. Richards SS, Hendrie HC. Diagnosis, management and treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a guide for the internist. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(8):789-798.

108. Brinton RD. A women's health issue: Alzheimer's disease and strategies for maintaining cognitive health. Int J Fertil Womens Med. 1999;44(4):174-185.

109. Manly JJ, Merchant CA, Jacobs DM, et al. Endogenous estrogen levels and Alzheimer's disease among postmenopausal women. Neurology. 2000;54(4):833-837.

110. Hogervorst E, Yaffe K, Richards M, Huppert FA. Hormone replacement therapy to maintain cognitive function in women with dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;21(1):CD003799.

111. Lethaby A, Hogervorst E, Richards M, Yesufu A, Yaffe K. Hormone replacement therapy for cognitive function in postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;23(1):CD003122.

112. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Osteoporosis. Available at https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/osteoporosis. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

113. Wactawski-Wende J. Periodontal diseases and osteoporosis: association and mechanisms. Ann Periodontol. 2001;6(1):197-208.

114. Grodstein F, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ. Post-menopausal hormone use and tooth loss: a prospective study. J Am Dent Assoc. 1996;127(3):370-377.

115. Mohammad AR, Brunsvold M, Bauer R. The strength of association between systemic postmenopausal osteoporosis and periodontal disease. Int J Prosthodont. 1996;9(5):479-483.

116. Kribbs PJ. Comparison of mandibular bone in normal and osteoporotic women. J Prosthet Dent. 1990;63(2):218-222.

117. von Wowern N, Klausen B, Kollerup G. Osteoporosis: a risk factor in periodontal disease. J Periodontol. 1994;65(12):1134-1138.

118. Weyant RJ, Pearlstein ME, Churak AP, Famili P, Cauley JA. The association between osteopenia and periodontal attachment loss in older women. J Periodontol. 1999;70(9):982-991.

119. Paganini-Hill A. The benefits of estrogen replacement therapy on oral health: the Leisure World Cohort. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155(21):2325-2329.

120. Jeffcoat MK, Reddy MS. Alveolar bone loss and osteoporosis: evidence for a common mode of therapy using the bisphosphonate alendronate. In: Davidovitch Z (ed). The Biologic Mechanism of Tooth Eruption, Resorption and Replacement by Implants. Boston, MA: Harvard Society for the Advancement of Orthodontics; 1998.

121. Giannobile WV. Host-response therapeutics for periodontal diseases. J Periodontol. 2008;79(8 suppl):1592-1600.

122. Takaishi Y, Miki T, Nishizawa Y, Morii H. Clinical effect of etidronate on alveolar pyorrhoea associated with chronic marginal periodontitis: report of four cases. J Int Med Res. 2001;29:355-365.

123. Rocha M, Nava LE, Vázquez de la Torre C, Sánchez-Marin F, Garay-Sevilla ME, Malacara JM. Clinical and radiological improvement of periodontal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with alendronate: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Periodontol. 2001;72:204-209.

124. Mauck KF, Clarke BL. Diagnosis, screening, prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006;81(5):662-672.

125. North American Menopause Society. Management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: 2010 position statement of the North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2010;17(1):25-54.

126. Gamble CL. Osteoporosis: drug and nondrug therapies for the patient at risk. Geriatrics. 1995;50(8):39-43.

127. LexiComp Online. Available at https://online.lexi.com. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

128. Moore A. Menopausal health strategies: focus on osteoporosis. Am J Nurse Pract. 2003;7(2):9-21.

129. Office on Women's Health. Osteoporosis. Available at https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/osteoporosis. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

130. Writing Group Members, Benjamin EJ, Muntner P, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics: update 2019: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2019;139(10):e57-e526.

131. American Heart Association. Heart Attack Symptoms in Women. Available at https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/heart-attack/warning-signs-of-a-heart-attack/heart-attack-symptoms-in-women. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

132. American Heart Association. Menopause and Heart Disease. Available at https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/consumer-healthcare/what-is-cardiovascular-disease/menopause-and-heart-disease. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

133. Office on Women's Health. Heart Health and Stroke. Available at http://womenshealth.gov/heart-health-stroke. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

134. Mattila KJ, Nieminen MS, Valtonen VV, et al. Association between dental health and acute myocardial infarction. BMJ. 1989;298(6676):779-781.

135. Mattila KJ, Valle MS, Nieminen MS, et al. Dental infections and coronary atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 1993;103(2):205-211.

136. Willershausen B, Kasaj A, Willershausen I, et al. Association between chronic dental infection and acute myocardial infarction. J Endod. 2009;35(5):626-630.

137. Kaisare S, Rao J, Dubashi N. Periodontal disease as a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction: a case-control study in Goans highlighting a review of the literature. Br Dent J. 2007;203(3):E5.

138. Stein JM, Kuch B, Conrads G, et al. Clinical periodontal and microbiologic parameters in patients with acute myocardial infarction. J Periodontol. 2009;80(10):1581-1589.

139. DeStefano F, Anda RF, Kahn HS, Williamson DF, Russell CM. Dental disease and risk of coronary heart disease and mortality.BMJ. 1993;306(6879):688-691.

140. Suzuki J, Aoyama N, Ogawa M, et al. Periodontitis and cardiovascular disease. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2010;13(10):1023-1027.

141. Krejci CB, Bissada NF. Women's health issues and their relationship to periodontitis. J Am Dent Assoc. 2002;133(2):323-329.

142. Haraszthy VI, Zambon JJ, Trevisan M, Zeid M, Genco RJ. Identification of periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaques. J Periodontol. 2000;71(10):1554-1560.

143. Demmer RT, Desvarieux M. Periodontal infections and cardiovascular disease: the heart of the matter. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006;137(suppl):14S-20S.

144. Rajendran R, Sivapathasundharam B (eds). Shafer's Textbook of Oral Pathology. 7th ed. New Delhi: Elsevier; 2012.

145. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). Available at https://www.cdc.gov/std/. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

146. Hatcher RA, Trussell J, Nelson AL, Cates W, Kowal D, Policar M. Contraceptive Technology. 20th ed. New York, NY: Ardent Media; 2011.

147. Bobak I, Lowdermilk D, Jensen M. Maternity and Gynecologic Care: The Nurse and the Family. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 1997.

148. Bennett DE, Bertagnolio S, Sutherland D, Gilks CF. The World Health Organizations' global strategy for prevention and assessment of HIV drug resistance. Antiviral Therapy. 2008;13(suppl 2):1-13.

149. Lifante-Olivia C, Lopez-Jornet P. Camacho-Alonson F, Esteve-Salinas J. Study of oral changes in patients with eating disorders. Int J Dent Hyg. 2008;6(2):119-122.

150. Brown S, Bonifazi DZ. An overview of anorexia and bulimia nervosa and the impact of eating disorders on the oral cavity. Compendium. 1993;14(12):1594-1608.

151. Austin SB, Ziyadeh NJ, Forman S, Prokop LA, Keliher A, Jacobs D. Screening high school students for eating disorders: results of a national initiative. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5(4).

152. DeBate RD, Tedesco LA, Kerschbaum WE. Knowledge of oral and physical manifestations of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among dentist and dental hygienists. J Dent Educ. 2005;69(3):346-354.

153. Mandel L, Kayna A. Bulimia and parotid swelling: a review and case report. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1992;50(10):1122-1125.

154. Ruff JC, Koch MO, Perkins S. Bulimia: dentomedical complications. Gen Dent. 1992;40(1):22-25.

155. Lo Russo L, Campisi G, De Fede O, Di Liberto C, Panzarella V, Lo Muzio L. Oral manifestations of eating disorders: a critical review. Oral Dis. 2008;14(6):479-484.

156. Council on Scientific Affairs American Medical Association. Violence against women: relevance for medical practitioners. JAMA. 1992;267(33):3184-3189.

157. Shipway L. Domestic Violence: A Handbook for Health Professionals. New York, NY: Routledge; 2004.

158. World Health Organization. Violence Against Women. Available at https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/violence-against-women. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

159. Scherer D. Tort remedies for victims of domestic abuse. South Carolina Law Rev. 1992;43:543-579.

160. National Institute of Justice. Intimate Partner Violence. Available at https://nij.ojp.gov/topics/articles/overview-intimate-partner-violence. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

161. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Intimate Partner Violence: Risk and Protective Factors for Perpetration. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/intimatepartnerviolence/riskprotectivefactors.html. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

162. Futures Without Violence. National Consensus Guidelines on Identifying and Responding to Domestic Violence Victimization in Health Care Settings. Available at http://www.futureswithoutviolence.org/userfiles/file/Consensus.pdf. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

163. McLeer SV, Anwar RA. The role of the emergency physician in the prevention of domestic violence. Ann Emerg Med. 1987;16(10):1155-1161.

164. Chez RA, Jones RF. The battered woman. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;173(3):677-679.

165. Horton AL, Boggess KA, Moss KL, Jared HL, Beck J, Offenbacher S. Periodontal disease early in pregnancy is associated with maternal systemic inflammation among African American women. J Periodontol. 2008;79(7):1127-1132.

166. Pitiphat W, Gillman MW, Joshipura KJ, Williams PL, Douglass CW, Rich-Edwards JW. Plasma C-reactive protein in early pregnancy and preterm delivery. Am J Epidemiol. 2005;162(11):1108-1113.

167. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FDA licensure of bivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV2, Cervarix) for use in females and updated HPV vaccination recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR. 2010;59(20):626-629.

168. Einstein MH, Baron M, Levin MJ, et al. Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of Cervarix and Gardasil human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical cancer vaccines in healthy women aged 18–45 years. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5(10):705-719.

169. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women: Fact Sheet. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/stdfact-hpv-vaccine-young-women.htm. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

170. American College of Obstetricians-Gynecologists. Practice bulletin no. 179: breast cancer risk assessment and screening in average-risk women. Obstet Gynecol. 2017;130:e1-e16.

171. Yackzan SG, Hatch J. Surgical management and reconstruction. In: Mahon SM (ed). Breast Cancer. 2nd ed. Pittsburg, PA: Oncology Nursing Society; 2011: 79-92.

172. Taghian A, El-Ghamry MN, Merajver SD. Inflammatory Breast Cancer: Clinical Features and Treatment. Available at https://www.uptodate.com/contents/inflammatory-breast-cancer-clinical-features-and-treatment. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

173. Moyer VA, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Menopausal hormone therapy for the primary prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2017;318(22):2224-2233.

174. Dodd DZ, Rowe DJ. The relationship between postmenopausal osteoporosis and periodontal disease. J Dent Hyg. 2013;87(6):336-344.

175. American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw—2014 Update. Available at http://www.aaoms.org/docs/govt_affairs/advocacy_white_papers/mronj_position_paper.pdf. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

176. Anil S, Preethanath RS, AlMoharib HS, Kamath KP, Anand PS. Impact of osteoporosis and its treatment on oral health. Am J Med Sci. 2013;346(5):396-401.

177. Daily Med. Denosumab. Available at https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=49e5afe9-a0c7-40c4-af9f-f287a80c5c88. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

178. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Denosumab: Highlight of Prescribing Information. Available at https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2018/125320s186lbl.pdf. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

179. McClung M. Role of RANKL inhibition in osteoporosis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2007;9(suppl 1):S3.

180. University of Maryland Medical Center. Herpes Simplex Virus. Available at http://www.ihv.org/Education--Training/General-HIV-AIDS-Information/Herpes-Simplex--/. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

181. Alzheimer's Association. 2019 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimers Dement. 2019;15(3):321-387.

182. Silk H, Douglass AB, Douglass JM, Silk L. Oral health during pregnancy. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77(8):1139-1144.

183. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Approves Gardasil 9 for Prevention of Certain Cancers Caused by Five Additional Types of HPV. Available at https://www.esmo.org/Oncology-News/FDA-Approves-Gardasil-9-for-Prevention-of-Certain-Cancers-Caused-by-Five-Additional-Types-of-HPV. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

184. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Approves Expanded Use of Gardasil 9 to Include Individuals 27 through 45 Years Old. Available at https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-expanded-use-gardasil-9-include-individuals-27-through-45-years-old. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

185. American Cancer Society. Chemotherapy for Ovarian Cancer. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/ovarian-cancer/treating/chemotherapy.html. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

186. Boyd LR, Muggia FM. Carboplatin/paclitaxel induction in ovarian cancer: the finer points. Oncology. 2018;32(8):418-424.

187. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Approves New Treatment for Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women at High Risk of Fracture. Available at https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-new-treatment-osteoporosis-postmenopausal-women-high-risk-fracture. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

188. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. About Heart Disease. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

189. The Healthy Teen Project. Adolescent Eating Disorders Such as Anorexia, Bulimia and Binge Eating Disorders are Treatable. Available at http://www.healthyteenproject.com/adolescent-eating-disorders-ca. Last accessed December 18, 2019.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Guideline on Oral Health Care for the Pregnant Adolescent. Chicago, IL: American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry; 2016. Available at https://www.aapd.org/globalassets/media/policies_guidelines/bp_pregnancy.pdf. Last accessed January 6, 2020.

2. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Management of Menopausal Symptoms. Washington, DC: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 2014. Available at https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Practice-Bulletins/Committee-on-Practice-Bulletins-Gynecology/Management-of-Menopausal-Symptoms. Last accessed January 6, 2020.


Copyright © 2020 NetCE, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.