Works Cited

1. Ring ME. Dentistry: An Illustrated History. New York, NY: Abrams Books; 1992.

2. Campbell JM. Dentistry Then and Now. Glasgow, UK: Privately printed; 1981.

3. Bharti R. Wadhwani KK, Tikku AP, Chandra A. Dental amalgam: an update. J Conserv Dent. 2010;13(4):204-208.

4. Letzel H, van 't Hof MA, Marshall GW, Marshall SJ. The influence of the amalgam alloy on the survival of amalgam restorations: a secondary analysis of multiple controlled clinical trials. J Dent Res. 1997;76(11):1787-1798.

5. Ritter AV, Boushell LW, Walter R. Sturdevant's Art and Science of Operative Dentistry. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2019.

6. California Dental Association. Dental Amalgam: Public Health and the Environment. Available at https://www.cda.org/Portals/0/pdfs/policy_statements/issue_amalgam.pdf. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

7. Colgate. Dental Amalgam: A Health Risk? Available at https://www.colgate.com/en-us/oral-health/procedures/fillings/dental-amalgam-a-health-risk. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

8. Rathore M, Singh A, Pant VA. The dental amalgam toxicity fear: a myth or actuality. Toxicol Int. 2012;19(2):81-88.

9. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. About Dental Amalgam Fillings. Available at https://www.fda.gov/medical-devices/dental-amalgam/about-dental-amalgam-fillings. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

10. American Dental Association. Dental Amalgam: What Others Say. Available at https://www.ada.org/en/press-room/press-kits/dental-fillings-press-kit/dental-amalgam-what-others-say. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

11. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service. Dental Amalgam: A Scientific Review and Recommended Public Health Service Strategy for Research, Education and Regulation. Available at https://health.gov/environment/amalgam1/ct.htm. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

12. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service. Dental Amalgam and Alternate Restorative Materials. Available at https://health.gov/environment/amalgam2/Trends.html. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

13. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Finalized Enforcement Policy on Unauthorized Flavored Cartridge-Based E-Cigarettes that Appeal to Children, Including Fruit and Mint. Available at https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-finalizes-enforcement-policy-unauthorized-flavored-cartridge-based-e-cigarettes-appeal-children. Last accessed January 27, 2020.

14. Life Sciences Research Organization. Review and Analysis of the Literature on the Potential Health Effects of Dental Amalgams. Available at http://www.lsro.org/amalgam/frames_amalgam_home.html. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

15. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. White Paper: FDA Update/Review of Potential Adverse Health Risks Associated with Exposure to Mercury in Dental Amalgam. Available at https://www.fda.gov/medical-devices/dental-amalgam/white-paper-fda-updatereview-potential-adverse-health-risks-associated-exposure-mercury-dental. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

16. American Dental Association. Statement on Dental Amalgam. Available at https://www.ada.org/en/about-the-ada/ada-positions-policies-and-statements/statement-on-dental-amalgam. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

17. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Final Rule on Classification of Dental Amalgam. Available at https://www.fda.gov/media/77127/download. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

18. European Commission Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks. The Safety of Dental Amalgam and Alternative Dental Restoration Materials for Patients and Users. Available at https://ec.europa.eu/health/archive/ph_risk/committees/04_scenihr/docs/scenihr_o_016.pdf. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

19. American Dental Association. FDA Position on Dental Amalgam Hasn't Changed. Available at https://www.ada.org/en/publications/ada-news/2015-archive/january/fda-position-on-dental-amalgam-hasnt-changed. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

20. Murthy VH. Community water fluoridation: one of CDC's "10 Great Public Health Achievements of the 20th Century." Pub Health Rep. 2015;130(4):296-298.

21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Water Fluoridation Data and Statistics. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/statistics/index.htm. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

22. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Fluoride Therapy. Available at https://www.aapd.org/globalassets/media/policies_guidelines/bp_fluoridetherapy.pdf. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

23. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Federal Panel on Community Water Fluoridation. U.S. Public Health Service recommendation for fluoride concentration in drinking water for the prevention of dental caries. Public Health Rep. 2015;130(4):318-331.

24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Community Water Fluoridation FAQs. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/faqs/index.htm. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

25. National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Committee on Fluoride in Drinking Water. Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2007.

26. World Health Organization. Water-Related Diseases. Available at https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases-risks/diseases/fluorosis/en/. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

27. Beltrán-Aguilar ED, Barker L, Dye BA. Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in the United States, 1999–2004. NCHS Data Brief. 2010;(53):1-8.

28. Murthy VH. Surgeon general's perspectives. Public Health Rep. 2015;130(4):296-298.

29. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Statement on the Evidence Supporting the Safety and Effectiveness of Community Water Fluoridation. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/guidelines/cdc-statement-on-community-water-fluoridation.html. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

30. New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. Fluoride: Health Information Summary. Available at https://www.des.nh.gov/organization/commissioner/pip/factsheets/ard/documents/ard-ehp-14.pdf. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

31. Green R, Lanphear B, Hornung R, et al. Association between maternal fluoride exposure during pregnancy and IQ scores in offspring in Canada. JAMA Pediatr. 2019; [Epub ahead of print].

32. Bashash M, Thomas D, Hu H, et al. Prenatal fluoride exposure and cognitive outcomes in children at 4 and 6–12 years of age in Mexico. Environ Health Perspect. 2017;125(9):097017.

33. Das K, Mondal NK. Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride concentration as a reflection of fluoride exposure and its impact on IQ level and BMI of children of Laxmisagar, Simlapal Block of Bankura District, W.B., India. Environ Monit Assess. 2016;188(4):218.

34. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, Medicine. Fluoride in Drinking Water Has Not Been Proven to Affect Children's IQ. Available at https://sites.nationalacademies.org/BasedOnScience/fluoride-has-not-been-shown-to-affect-childrens-IQ/. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

35. Jenco M. AAP Continues to Recommend Fluoride Following New Study on Maternal Intake and Child IQ. Available at https://www.aappublications.org/news/2019/08/19/fluoride081919. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

36. American Dental Association. ADA Statement on Study in JAMA Pediatrics. Available at https://www.ada.org/en/press-room/news-releases/2019-archives/august/ada-statement-on-study-in-jama-pediatrics. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

37. Public Broadcasting Service. Fleming Discovers Penicillin 1928–1945. Available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm28pe.html. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

38. Dar-Odeh NS, Abu-Hammad OA, Al-Omiri MK, Khraisat AS, Shehabi AA. Antibiotic prescribing practices by dentists: a review. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2010;6:301-306.

39. Hellden LB, Listgarten MA, Lindhe J. The effect of tetracycline and/or scaling on human periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol. 1979;6(4):222-230.

40. Slots J, Mashimo P, Levine MJ, Genco RJ. Periodontal therapy in humans. I. Microbiological and clinical effects of a single course of periodontal scaling and root planing, and of adjunctive tetracycline therapy. J Periodontol. 1979;50(10):495-509.

41. Bollen CM, Quirynen M. Microbiological response to mechanical treatment in combination with adjunctive therapy: a review of the literature. J Periodontol. 1996;67(11):1143-1158.

42. Silva-Senem MX, Heller D, Varela VM, Torres MCB, Feres-Filho EJ, Colombo APV. Clinical and microbiological effects of systemic antimicrobials combined to an anti-infective mechanical debridement for the management of aggressive periodontitis: a 12-month randomized controlled trial. J Clin Periodontol. 2013;40(3):242-251.

43. Hagenfeld D, Koch R, Junemann S, et al. Do we treat our patients or rather periodontal microbes with adjunctive antibiotics in periodontal therapy? A 16S rDNA microbial community analysis. PLoS One. 2018;13(4):e0195534.

44. Madianoa P. Debate: Is it Time for a Rethink on the Use of Antibiotics to Treat Periodontitis? Available at https://www.efp.org/newsupdate/time-for-a-rethink-on-use-of-antibiotics. Last accessed December 2, 2019.

45. Walker C. The supplemental use of antibiotics in periodontal therapy. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 1999;20(4):4-12.

46. Kapoor A, Malhotra R, Grover V, Grover D. Systemic antibiotic therapy in periodontics. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2012;9(5):505-515.

47. Rajendra A, Spivakovsky S. Antibiotics in aggressive periodontitis: is there a clinical benefit? Evid Based Dent. 2016;17(4):100.

48. Barca E, Cifcibasi E, Cintan S. Adjunctive use of antibiotics in periodontal therapy. J Istanb Univ Fac Dent. 2015;49(3):55-62.

49. Salako NO, Rotimi VO, Adib SM, Al-Mutawa S. Pattern of antibiotic prescription in the management of oral diseases among dentists in Kuwait. J Dent. 2004;32(7):503-509.

50. Oomens MA, Forouzanfar T. Antibiotic prophylaxis in third molar surgery: a review. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012;114(6):e5-e12.

51. Lacasse A, Rey E, Ferreira E, Morin C, Bérard A. Epidemiology of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: prevalence, severity, determinants, and the importance of race/ethnicity. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2009;9:26.

52. Little JW, Miller C, Rhodus NL. Little and Falace's Dental Management of the Medically Compromised Patient. 9th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2018.

53. Merck Manual. Drugs in Pregnancy. Available at https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/drugs-in-pregnancy/drugs-in-pregnancy. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

54. Federal Register. Content and Format of Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products: Requirements for Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling. Available at https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2014/12/04/2014-28241/content-and-format-of-labeling-for-human-prescription-drug-and-biological-products-requirements-for. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

55. Gaffney A. FDA Scraps Pregnancy Labeling Classification System in Favor of New Standard. Available at https://www.raps.org/regulatory-focus%e2%84%a2/news-articles/2014/12/fda-scraps-pregnancy-labeling-classification-system-in-favor-of-new-standard. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

56. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Final Rule. Available at https://www.fda.gov/drugs/labeling-information-drug-products/pregnancy-and-lactation-labeling-drugs-final-rule. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

57. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Issues Final Rule on Changes to Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Information for Prescription Drug and Biological Products. Available at https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20170111093956/http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm425317.htm. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

58. Kurien S, Kattimani VS, Sriram RR, et al. Management of pregnant patient in dentistry. J Int Oral Health. 2013;5(1):88-97.

59. Patton LL, Glick M. The ADA Practical Guide to Patients with Medical Conditions. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Blackwell; 2016.

60. American Dental Association Council on Access, Prevention, and Interprofessional Relations. Women's oral health issues. In: ADA Oral Health Care Series. Chicago, IL: American Dental Association; 1995: 9.

61. Kornman KS, Loesche WJ. The subgingival microbial flora during pregnancy. J Periodont Res. 1980;15(2):111-122.

62. Carrillo-de-Albornoz A, Figuero E, Herrera D, Bascones-Martinez A. Gingival changes during pregnancy: II. Influence of hormonal variations on the subgingival biofilm. J Clin Periodontol. 2010;37(3):230-240.

63. Markou E, Eleana B, Lazaros T, Antonios K. The influence of sex steroid hormones on gingiva of women. Open Dent J. 2009;3: 114-119.

64. Lindhe J, Branemark PI. Changes in vascular permeability after local application of sex hormones. J Periodontol Res. 1967;2(4): 259-265.

65. Mariotti A. Sex steroid hormones and cell dynamics in the periodontium. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 1994;5(1):27-53.

66. Soory M. Targets for steroid hormone mediated actions of periodontal pathogens, cytokines and therapeutic agents: some implications on tissue turnover in the periodontium. Curr Drug Targets. 2000;1(4):309-325.

67. Barnett ML. The oral-systemic disease connection: an update for the practicing dentist. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006;137:5S-6S.

68. Mattila KJ, Nieminen MS, Valtonen VV, et al. Association between dental health and acute myocardial infarction. BMJ. 1989;298(6676):779-781.

69. Lam OL, Zhang W, Samaranayake LP, Li LS, McGrath C. A systematic review of the effectiveness of oral health promotion activities among patients with cardiovascular disease. Int J Cardiol. 2011;151(3):261-267.

70. Joshipura K, Zevallos JC, Ritchie CS. Strength of evidence relating to periodontal disease and atherosclerotic disease. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2009;30(7):430-439.

71. Haraszthy VI, Zambon JJ, Trevisan M, Zeid M, Genco RJ. Identification of periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaques. J Periodontol. 2000;71(10):1554-1560.

72. Herzberg MC, Meyer MW. Effects of oral flora on platelets: possible consequences in cardiovascular disease. J Periodontol. 1996;67(10):1138-1142.

73. Seymour GJ, Ford PJ, Cullinan MP, Leishman S, Yamazaki K. Relationship between periodontal infections and systemic disease. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007;13(4):3-10.

74. Fong IW. Infections and their role in atherosclerotic vascular disease. J Am Dent Assoc. 2002;133:7S-13S.

75. Meisel P, Kohlmann T, Wallaschofski H, Kroemer HK, Kocher T. Cholesterol, c-reactive protein, and periodontitis: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) as effect modifiers. ISRN Dent. 2011;2011:125168.

76. Ridker PM. Evaluating novel cardiovascular risk factors: can we better predict heart attacks? Ann Intern Med. 1999;130(11): 933-937.

77. D'Aiuto F, Parkar M, Andreou G, et al. Periodontitis and systemic inflammation: control of the local infection is associated with a reduction in serum inflammatory markers. J Dent Res. 2004;83(2):156-160.

78. Lalla E, Cheng B, Lal S, et al. Periodontal changes in children and adolescents with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(2):295-299.

79. American Academy of Periodontology. Diabetes and Periodontal Disease. Available at https://www.perio.org/consumer/gum-disease-and-diabetes.htm. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

80. Preshaw PM, Alba AL, Herrera D, et al. Periodontitis and diabetes: a two-way relationship. Diabetologia. 2012;55(1):21-31.

81. Shinkai RS, Hatch JP, Cornell JE, Yeh CK. Intraoral tactile sensitivity in adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(4):869-873.

82. Mealey BL, Oates TW. Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease. J Periodontol. 2006;77(8):1289-303.

83. Southerland JH, Taylor GW, Offenbacher S. Diabetes and periodontal infection: making the connection. Clin Diabetes. 2005;23(4):171-178.

84. Lorber D. Macrovascular disease in diabetes. In: Mensing C (ed). The Art and Science of Diabetes Self-Management Education: Desk Reference. 3rd ed. Chicago, IL: American Association of Diabetes Educators; 2014.

85. Westerfield J, Holcomb S, Jensen S (eds). Current Trends in Diabetes Management: A Guide for the Healthcare Professional. 7th ed. Nashville, TN: Healthways; 2005.

86. Cummings KM. Programs and policies to discourage the use of tobacco products. Oncogene. 2002;21(48):7349-7364.

87. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. 1964. Available at https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/GPO-SMOKINGANDHEALTH/pdf/GPO-SMOKINGANDHEALTH.pdf. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

88. National Center for Health Statistics. Early Release of Selected Estimates Based on Data from January–September 2018 National Health Interview Survey. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/releases/released201903.htm. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

89. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking and Tobacco Use: Fast Facts. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/fast_facts/. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

90. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current cigarette smoking among adults—United States, 2016. MMWR. 2018;67(2); 54-59.

91. Wang TW, Asman K, Gentzke AS, et al. Tobacco product use among adults—United States, 2017. MMWR. 2018;67(44):1225-1232.

92. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smokeless Tobacco Use in the United States. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/smokeless/use_us/index.htm. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

93. Lipari RN, Van Horn SL. Trends in Smokeless Tobacco Use and Initiation: 2002 to 2014. Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2017.

94. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smokeless Tobacco: Products and Marketing. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/smokeless/products_marketing/index.htm. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

95. Maxwell JC. The Maxwell Report: The Smokeless Tobacco Industry in 2011. Richmond, VA: John Maxwell, Jr.; 2011

96. Stein PS, Henry RG. Poor oral hygiene in long-term care. Am J Nurs. 2009;109(6):44-50.

97. Benowitz NL. Neurobiology of nicotine addiction: implications for smoking cessation treatment. Am J Med. 2008;121 (4 Suppl 1):S3-S10.

98. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Tobacco Prevention and Health Effects: Basic Information. Available at https://betobaccofree.hhs.gov/basic-information/index.html. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

99. National Institute on Drug Abuse. DrugFacts: Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes). Available at https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/electronic-cigarettes-e-cigarettes. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

100. Singh T, Arrazola RA, Corey CG, et al. Tobacco use among middle and high school students—United States, 2011–2015. MMWR. 2016;65(14):361-367.

101. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Youth Tobacco Use: Results from the National Youth Tobacco Survey. Available at https://www.fda.gov/tobacco-products/youth-and-tobacco/youth-tobacco-use-results-national-youth-tobacco-survey. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

102. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Takes New Steps to Address Epidemic of Youth E-Cigarette Use, Including a Historic Action. Available at https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-takes-new-steps-address-epidemic-youth-e-cigarette-use-including-historic-action-against-more. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

103. Altschuler C. Dangerous liaisons: the hazardous attraction of e-cigarettes, hookahs, and smokeless tobacco products. AGD Impact. 2015;43(5):18-23.

104. Knishkowy B, Amitai Y. Water-pipe (narghile) smoking: an emerging health risk behavior. Pediatrics. 2005;116(1):e113-e119.

105. Kiter G, Uçan ES, Ceylan E, Kilinç O. Water-pipe smoking and pulmonary functions. Respir Med. 2000;94(9):891-894.

106. World Health Organization, Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking: Health Effects, Research Needs and Recommended Actions by Regulators. Available at https://www.who.int/tobacco/global_interaction/tobreg/Waterpipe%20recommendation_Final.pdf. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

107. Ward KD, Eissenberg T, Gray JN, Srinivas V, Wilson N, Maziak W. Characteristics of U.S. waterpipe users: a preliminary report. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9(12):1339-1346.

108. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Hookah Tobacco (Shisha or Waterpipe Tobacco). Available at https://www.fda.gov/tobaccoproducts/labeling/productsingredientscomponents/ucm482575.htm#references. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

109. Sepetdjian E, Shihadeh A, Saliba NA. Measurement of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in narghile waterpipe tobacco smoke. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46(5):1582-1590.

110. Saleh R, Shihadeh A. Elevated toxicant yields with narghile waterpipes smoked using a plastic hose. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46(5):1461-1466.

111. Lewin T. Collegians smoking hookahs…filled with tobacco. The New York Times. April 19, 2006.

112. Wahl MJ. Myths of dental surgery in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy. J Am Dent Assoc. 2000;131(1):77-81.

113. Jiménez Y, Poveda R, Gavaldá C, Margaix M, Sarrión G. An update on the management of anticoagulated patients for dental extractions and surgery. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2008;13(3):E176-E179.

114. Dennis MJ. Anticoagulant therapy and dentistry. Today's FDA. 2012;24(6):40-41, 43-47.

115. Hupp JR. Prevention and management of surgical complications. In: Hupp JR, Ellis E, Tucker MR (eds). Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2008: 185-200.

116. Mingarro-de-León A, Chaveli-López B, Gavaldá-Esteve C. Dental management of patients receiving anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet treatment. J Clin Exp Dent. 2014;6(2):e155-e161.

117. Al-Harkan AM, Al-Ayoub GA. Should antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications be discontinued before minor oral surgery procedures? J Can Dent Assoc. 2012;78:c24.

118. Little JW, Miller CS, Henry RG, McIntosh BA. Antithrombotic agents: implications in dentistry. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Radiol Endod. 2002;93(5):544-551.

119. Grines CL, Bonow RO, Casey DE, et al. Prevention of premature discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary artery stents: a science advisory from the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, American College of Surgeons, and American Dental Association, with representation from the American College of Physicians. Circulation. 2007;115(6):813-818.

120. American Dental Association. Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Medications and Dental Procedures. Available at https://www.ada.org/en/member-center/oral-health-topics/anticoagulant-antiplatelet-medications-and-dental-. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

121. Wynn RL, Meiller TF, Crossley HL. Drug Information Handbook for Dentistry. 23rd ed. Hudson, OH: LexiComp; 2017.

122. National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services. Improving Oral Health Care Services in Rural America. Available at https://www.hrsa.gov/sites/default/files/hrsa/advisory-committees/rural/publications/2018-Oral-Health-Policy-Brief.pdf. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

123. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report. Available at https://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/index.html. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

124. National Rural Health Association. Improving Rural Oral Healthcare Access. Available at https://www.ruralhealthweb.org/NRHA/media/Emerge_NRHA/Advocacy/Policy%20documents/05-11-18-NRHA-Policy-Improving-Rural-Oral-Health-Access.pdf. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

125. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Power of Prevention Chronic Disease…The Public Health Challenge of the 21st Century. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/pdf/2009-power-of-prevention.pdf. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

126. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Community Water Fluoridation. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/index.html. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

127. Health Resources and Services Administration. Oral Health. Available at https://www.hrsa.gov/oral-health/index.html. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

128. National Conference of State Legislatures. Improving Access to Care in Rural and Underserved Communities: State Workforce Strategies Health. Available at http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/improving-access-to-care-in-rural-and-underserved-communities-state-workforce-strategies.aspx. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

129. Minnesota Department of Health. Emerging Health Professions. Available at https://www.health.state.mn.us/facilities/ruralhealth/emerging/index.html. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

130. PEW Charitable Trusts. Expanding the Dental Team Increasing Access to Care in Public Settings. Available at https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/reports/2014/06/30/expanding-the-dental-team. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

131. Garg S, Rubin T, Jasek J, Weinstein J, Helburn L, Kaye K. How willing are dentists to treat young children? A survey of dentists affiliated with Medicaid managed care in New York City, 2010. J Am Dent Assoc. 2013;144(4):416-425.

132. New York State Department of Health. Oral Health Plan. Available at https://www.health.ny.gov/prevention/dental/oral_health_plan.htm. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

133. PEW Charitable Trusts. The Cost of Delay: State Dental Policies Fail One in Five Children. Available at https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/reports/2010/02/23/the-cost-of-delay-state-dental-policies-fail-one-in-five-children. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

134. Indian Health Service. The Oral Health of American Indian and Alaska Native Children Aged 6–9 Years: Results of the 2016–2017 IHS Oral Health Survey. Available at https://www.ihs.gov/doh/documents/Data%20Brief%20IHS%206-9%20Year%20Olds%2003-30-2017.pdf. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

135. Indian Health Service. Indian Health Disparities. Available at https://www.ihs.gov/newsroom/includes/themes/responsive2017/display_objects/documents/factsheets/Disparities.pdf. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

136. Indian Health Service. The Public Health Nurse's Role in ECC Prevention and Early Intervention. Available at https://www.ihs.gov/doh/documents/ecc/CommunityDocs/PHNRoleECCPreventionAndEarlyIntervention.pdf. Last accessed January 21, 2020.

137. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Issues Recommendations for Certain High-Risk Groups Regarding Mercury-Containing Dental Amalgam. Available at https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-issues-recommendations-certain-high-risk-groups-regarding-mercury-containing-dental-amalgam. Last accessed January 5, 2021.


Copyright © 2020 NetCE, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.