Works Cited

1. MotherToBaby. Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy (NVP). Available at https://mothertobaby.org/fact-sheets/nausea-vomiting-pregnancy-nvp/. Last accessed July 23, 2020.

2. Khan FH. Hyperemesis Gravidarum in Emergency Medicine. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/796564-overview#a0199. Last accessed July 23, 2020.

3. Piwko, Koren G, Babashov V, Vicente C, Einarson TR. Economic burden of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy in the USA. J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol. 2013;20(2):e149-e160.

4. Abell TL, Riely CA. Hyperemesis gravidarum. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1992;21(4):835-849.

5. Wegrzyniak LJ, Repke JT, Ural SH. Treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2012;5(2):78-84.

6. Mullin PM, Ching C, Schoenberg F, et al. Risk factors, treatments, and outcomes associated with prolonged hyperemesis gravidarum. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25(6):632-636.

7. Goodwin TM, Montoro MN. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy including hyperemesis gravidarum. In: Goodwin TM, Montoro MN, Muderspach L, Paulson R, Roy S (eds). Management of Common Problems in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 5th ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010: 165-171.

8. Kontic-Vucinic O, Sulovic N, Radunovic N. Micronutrients in women's reproductive health: I. Vitamins. Int J Fertil Womens Med. 2006;51:106-115.

9. Ayyavoo A1, Derraik JG, Hofman PL, et al. Severe hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity in the offspring in childhood. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(8):3263-3268.

10. Ogunyemi, DA. Hyperemesis Gravidarum. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/254751-overview. Last accessed July 23, 2020.

11. Veenendaal MV, van Abeelen AF, Painter RC, van der Post JA, Roseboom TJ. Consequences of hyperemesis gravidarum for offspring: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG. 2011;118(11):1302-1313.

12. Hyperemesis Education and Research Organization. Complications of HG. Available at https://www.hyperemesis.org/about-hyperemesis-gravidarum/complication. Last accessed July 24, 2020.

13. Roseboom TJ, Ravelli AC, van der Post JA, Painter RC. Maternal characteristics largely explain poor pregnancy outcome after hyperemesis gravidarum. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;156(1):56-59.

14. Maconochie N, Doyle P, Prior S, Simmons R. Risk factors for first trimester miscarriage: results from a UK population-based case-control study. BJOG. 2007;114:170-186.

15. Koren G, Madjunkova S, Maltepe C. The protective effects of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy against adverse fetal outcome: a systematic review. Reprod Toxicol. 2014;47C:77-80.

16. Hyperemesis Education and Research Organization. Neurological Complications. Available at https://www.hyperemesis.org/about-hyperemesis-gravidarum/complications/neurological-complications. Last accessed July 24, 2020.

17. Trovik J, Vikanes A. Hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with substantial economic burden in addition to severe physical and psychological suffering. Isr J Health Policy Res. 2016;5:43.

18. Hyperemesis Education and Research Foundation. Impact of Hyperemesis Gravidarum. Available at https://www.helpher.org/hyperemesis-gravidarum/impact-hyperemesis. Last accessed July 24, 2020.

19. Poursharif B, Korst LM, Macgibbon KW, Fezjo MS, Romero R, Goodwin TM. Elective pregnancy termination in a large cohort of women with hyperemesis gravidarum. Contraception. 2007;76:451-455.

20. Heitmann K, Nordeng H, Kavnen GC, Solheimsnes A, Holst L. The burden of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: severe impacts on quality of life, daily life functioning and willingness to become pregnant again: results from a cross-sectional study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017;17(1):75.

21. Attard CL, Kohli MA, Coleman S, et al. The burden of illness of severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186(5Suppl):S220-S227.

22. Lee S, Ananthakrishnan S. Hyperthyroidism and Thyrotoxicosis. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/121865-overview. Last accessed July 24, 2020.

23. Goodwin TM, Montoro M, Mestman JH. Transient hyperthyroidism and hyperemesis gravidarum: clinical aspects. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992;167(3):648-652.

24. Keely E, Casey B. Thyroid disease in pregnancy. In: Powrie R, Greene M, Camann W, De Swiet M (eds). De Swiet's Medical Disorders in Obstetric Practice. 5th ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010: 322-334.

25. Kennedy RL, Darne J, Davies R, Price A. Thyrotoxicosis and hyperemesis gravidarum associated with a serum activity which stimulates human thyroid cells in vitro. Clin Endocrinol. 1992;36(1):83-89.

26. Wilson R, McKillop JH, MacLean M, et al. Thyroid function tests are rarely abnormal in patients with severe hyperemesis gravidarum. Clin Endocrinol. 1992;37:331-334.

27. Cooper DS, Laurberg P. Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2013;1(3):238-249.

28. Medline Plus. Hyperthyroidism. Available at https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000356.htm. Last accessed July 24, 2020.

29. Sun S, Qiu X, Zhou J. Clinical analysis of 65 cases of hyperemesis gravidarum with gestational transient thyrotoxicosis. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2014;40(6):1567-1572.

30. Kimura M, Amino N, Tamaki H, Ito E, Mitsuda N, Miyai K, Tanizawa O. Gestational thyrotoxicosis and hyperemesis gravidarum: possible role of hCG with higher stimulating activity. Clin Endocrinol. 1993;38:345-350.

31. El Orabi HAH, Sabry IM, Allah AMA, Alkhalek AAA. Assessment of thyroid function and leptin hormone in women with hyperemesis gravidarum. Thyroid Science. 2010;(4):1-7.

32. Sheehan P. Hyperemesis gravidarum: assessment and management. Aust Fam Physician. 2007;36(9):698-699.

33. Goodwin TM, Montoro M, Mestman JH, Pekary AE, Hershman JM. The role of chorionic gonadotropin in transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992;75(5):1333-1337.

34. Rashid M, Rashid MH, Malik F, Herath RP. Hyperemesis gravidarum and fetal gender: a retrospective study. J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;32:475-478.

35. Peled Y, Melamed N, hiersch L, Hadar E, Wiznitzer A, Yogev Y. Pregnancy outcome in hyperemesis gravidarum: the role of fetal gender. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013;26(17):1753-1757.

36. Gadsby R, Barnie-Adshead AM, Jagger C. A prospective study of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Br J Gen Pract. 1993;43:245-248.

37. Lee NM, Saha S. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2011;40(2):309-vii.

38. Matsubara S, Kuwata T, Kamozawa C, Sakamoto Y, Suzuki M, Tamada K. Connection between hyperemesis gravidarum, jaundice or liver dysfunction, and biliary sludge. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2012;38(2):446-448.

39. Morali GA, Braverman DZ. Abnormal liver enzymes and ketonuria in hyperemesis gravidarum: a retrospective review of 80 patients. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1990;12(3):303-305.

40. Deruelle P, Dufour P, Subtil D, et al. Hyperemesis in the first trimester of pregnancy: role of biological hyperthyroidism and fetal sex. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2002;30(3):204-209.

41. Ahmed KT, Almashhrawi AA, Rahman RN, Hammoud GM, Ibdah JA. Liver diseases in pregnancy: diseases unique to pregnancy. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19(43):7639-7646.

42. Riezzo G, Russo F, Indrio F. Electrogastrography in adults and children: the strength, pitfalls, and clinical significance of the cutaneous recording of the gastric electrical activity. Biomed Res Int. 2013;282757.

43. Riezzo G, Pezzolla F, Darconza G, Giorgio I. Gastric myoelectrical activity in the first trimester of pregnancy: a cutaneous electrographic study. Am J Gastroenterol. 1992;87(6):702-707.

44. Mansour GM, Nashaat EH. Role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2011;284(4):843-847.

45. Nashaat EH, Mansour GM. Helicobacter pylori and Hyperemesis Gravidarum Continuous Study (2). Nature Sci. 2010;8(7):22-26.

46. Jueckstock JK, Kaestner R, Mylonas I. Managing hyperemesis gravidarum: a multimodal challenge. BMC Medicine. 2010;8:46.

47. Li L, Li L, Zhou X, Xiao S, Gu H, Zhang G. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with an increased risk of hyperemesis gravidarum: a meta-analysis. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2015;278905.

48. Hyperemesis Education and Research Organization. Deficiencies of Nutrients. Available at https://www.helpher.org/hyperemesis-gravidarum/theories-research/deficient-nutrients.php. Last accessed July 24, 2020.

49. Haugen M, Vikanes A, Brantsaeter AL, Meltzer HM, Grjibovski AM, Magnus P. Diet before pregnancy and the risk of hyperemesis gravidarum. Br J Nutr. 2011;106(4):596-602.

50. Chortatos A, Haugen M, Iversen PO, Vikanes Å, Magnus P, Veierød MB. Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: associations with maternal gestational diet and lifestyle factors in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. BJOG. 2013;120(13): 1642-1653.

51. Bühling KJ, Matthias D. Nausea and hyperemesis gravidarum. Gynakol Geburtsmed Gynakol Endokrinol. 2008;4(1):36-48.

52. McCormack D. Hypnosis for hyperemesis gravidarum. J Obstet Gyngecol. 2010;30(7):647-653.

53. Buckwalter JG, Simpson SW. Psychological factors in the etiology and treatment of severe nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186(5 Suppl):S210-S214.

54. Munch S, Schmitz MF. Hyperemesis gravidarum and patient satisfaction: a path model of patients' perceptions of the patient-physician relationship. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;27(1):49-57.

55. D'Orazio LM, Meyerowitz BE, Korst LM, Romero R, Goodwin TM. Evidence against a link between hyperemesis gravidarum and personality characteristics from an ethnically diverse sample of pregnant women: a pilot study. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011;20(1):137-144.

56. Summers A. Emergency management of hyperemesis gravidarum. Emerg Nurse. 2012;20(4):24-28.

57. Philip B. Hyperemesis gravidarum: literature review. Wisconsin Medical Journal. 2003;101(3):46.

58. Adams MA, Harlass FE, Sarno AP, Read JA, Rawlings JS. Antenatal hospitalization among enlisted servicewomen, 1987–1990. Obstet Gynecol. 1994;84(1):35-39.

59. Fell DB, Dodds L, Joseph KS, Allen VM, Butler B. Risk factors for hyperemesis gravidarum requiring hospital admission during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;107(2 Pt 1):277-284.

60. Nageotte MP, Briggs GG, Towers CV, Asrat T. Droperidol and diphenhydramine in the management of hyperemesis gravidarum. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996;174:1801-1806.

61. Jiang HJ, Elixhauser A, Nicholas J, Steiner C, Reyes C, Bierman AS. Care of Women in U.S. Hospitals, 2000. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2002.

62. Gazmararian JA, Petersen R, Jamieson DJ, et al. Hospitalizations during pregnancy among managed care enrollees. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100(1):94-100.

63. Signorello LB, Harlow BL, Wang S, Erick MA. Saturated fat intake and the risk of hyperemesis gravidarum. Epidemiology. 1998;9(6):636-640.

64. Trogstad LI, Stoltenberg C, Magnus P, Skjaerven R, Irgens LM. Recurrence risk in hyperemesis gravidarum. BJOG. 2005;112:1641-1645.

65. Fejzo MS, Ching C, Schoenberg FP, et al. Change in paternity and recurrence of hyperemesis gravidarum. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25(8):1241-1245.

66. Vikanes Å, Skjaerven R, Grjibovski AM, Gunnes N, Vangen S, Magnus P. Recurrence of hyperemesis gravidaum across generations: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2010;340:c2050.

67. Lacasse A, Rey E, Ferreira E, Morin C, Bérard A. Epidemiology of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: prevalence, severity, determinants, and the importance of race/ethnicity. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2009;9:26.

68. Browning J, North R, Hayward P, Mantell C, Cuttance P. Hyperemesis gravidarum: a particular problem for Pacific Islanders.N Z Med J. 1991;104(923):480.

69. Koren G, Maltepe C. Pre-emptive therapy for severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum. J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;24(5):530-533.

70. Meltepe C, Koren G. Preemptive treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: results of a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol Int. 2013;809787.

71. Erick M. Battling morning (noon and night) sickness: new approaches for treating an age-old problem. JADA. 1994;94(2):147-148.

72. Lee EJ, Frazier SK. The efficacy of acupressure for symptom management: a systematic review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2011;42(4):589-603.

73. Lord LM, Pelletier K. Nutrition issues in gastroenterology, series 63: management of hyperemesis gravidarum with enteral nutrition. Pract Gastroenterol. 2008;32(6):15-31.

74. Niebyl JR. Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:1544-1550.

75. Hyperemesis Education and Research Organization. Common Medications. Available at https://www.hyperemesis.org/about-hyperemesis-gravidarum/treatment/medications. Last accessed August 5, 2020.

76. Lexi-Comp Online. Available at https://online.lexi.com. Last accessed August 5, 2020.

77. Mazzota P, Magee L, Koren G. Therapeutic Abortions Due to Severe Morning Sickness: Unacceptable Combination. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2255258/pdf/canfamphys00064-0037.pdf. Last accessed August 5, 2020.

78. Drugs.Com. Available at https://www.drugs.com/professionals.html. Last accessed August 5, 2020.

79. Medscape Reference. Drugs, OTCs, and Herbals. Available at https://reference.medscape.com/drugs. Last accessed August 5, 2020.

80. Olson G. Nausea and vomiting. In: Queenan JT, Hobbins JC, Spong CY (eds). Protocols for High-Risk Pregnancies: Edition 5. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010: 383-390.

81. Klauser CK, Fox NS, Istwan N, Rhea D, Rebarber A, Desch C, Palmer B, Saltzman D. Treatment of severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy with subcutaneous medications. Am J Perinatol. 2011;28(9):715-721.

82. Badell ML, Ramin SM, Smith JA. Treatment options for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Pharmacotherapy. 2006;26(9): 1273-1287.

83. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Approves Diclegis for Pregnant Women Experiencing Nausea and Vomiting. Available at https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20170112223043/http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm347087.htm. Last accessed August 5, 2020.

84. Vallerand AH, Sanoski CA, Deglin JH. Davis's Drug Guide for Nurses. 17th ed. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis; 2020.

85. Magee LA, Mazzotta P, Koren G. Evidence-based view of safety and effectiveness of pharmacologic therapy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186(5Suppl):S256-S261.

86. Brent R. Medical, social, and legal implications of treating nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186(5Suppl):S262-S266.

87. Holmes LB. Teratogen update: Bendectin. Teratology. 1983;27:277-281.

88. Kuscu NK, Koyuncu F. Hyperemesis gravidarum: current concepts and management. Postgrad Med J. 2002;78:76-79.

89. Barrett TW, DiPersio DM, Jenkins CA, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of ondansetron, metoclopramide, and promethazine in adults. Am J Emerg Med. 2011;29(3):247-255.

90. Smith JA, Fox KA, Clark SM. Treatment and Outcome of Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy. Available at https://www.uptodate.com/contents/nausea-and-vomiting-of-pregnancy-treatment-and-outcome. Last accessed August 5, 2020.

91. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. ACOG practice bulletin: nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;103:803-814.

92. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. ACOG practice bulletin no. 153: nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2015;126(3):e12-e24.

93. Quinlan JD, Hill DA. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Am Fam Physician. 2003;68(1):121-128.

94. Tan PC, Omar SZ. Contemporary approaches to hyperemesis during pregnancy. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2011;23(2):87-93.

95. Safari HR, Fassett MJ, Souter IC. The efficacy of methylprednisolone in the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum: a randomized, double blind, controlled study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;179:921-924.

96. Ziaei S, Hosseiney FS, Faghihzadeh S. The efficacy low dose of prednisolone in the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004;83:272-275.

97. Boelig RC, Barton SJ, Saccone G, Kelly AJ, Edwards SJ, Berghella V. Interventions for treating hyperemesis gravidarum. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(5):CD010607.

98. Tan PC, Norazilah MJ, Omar SZ. Dextrose saline compared with normal saline rehydration of hyperemesis gravidarum: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;121(2 Pt 1):291-298.

99. Sonkusare S. The clinical management of hyperemesis gravidarum. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2011;283(6):1183-1192.

100. Niebyl JR, Goodwin TM. Overview of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy with an emphasis on vitamins and ginger. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186(5Suppl):S253-S255.

101. Healey Smith M. Enteral vs. Parenteral Treatment of Hyperemesis Gravidarum. Available at https://helpher.org/mothers/treatments/nutritional-therapy/parenteral-vs-enteral.php. Last accessed August 5, 2020.

102. Holmgren CM, Silver RM, Porter TF, Aagard KM. Comparison of treatments for pregnancies affected with hyperemesis. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;107(4Suppl):S92.

103. Peled Y, Melamed N, Hiersch L, Pardo J, Wiznitzer A, Yogev Y. The impact of total parenteral nutrition support on pregnancy outcome in women with hyperemesis gravidarum. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014;27(11):1146-1150.

104. Folk JJ, Leslie-Brown HF, Nosovitch JT, Silverman RK, Aubry RH. Hyperemesis gravidarum: outcomes and complications without total parenteral nutrition. J Reprod Med. 2004;49:497-502.

105. Ågren A, Berg M. Tactile massage and severe nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: women's experience. Scand J Caring Sci. 2006;20:169-176.

106. Matthews A, Haas DM, O'Mathúna DP, Dowswell T, Doyle M. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;3:CD007575.

107. Viljoen E, Visser J, Koen N, Musekiwa A. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-associated nausea and vomiting. Nutr J. 2014;13:20.

108. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Nzu, Traditional Remedy for Morning Sickness. Available at https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20170112165924/http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm196045.htm. Last accessed August 8, 2017.

109. Murray SS, McKinney ES. Foundations of Maternal-Newborn and Women's Health Nursing. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Co.; 2018.

110. Trovik J, Vikanes A. Hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with substantial economic burden in addition to severe physical and psychological suffering. Isr J Health Policy Res. 2016;5:43.

111. North American Nursing Diagnosis Association. Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions and Classification, 2018–2020. Philadelphia, PA: NANDA International; 2017.

112. Cox HC, Hinz MD, Scott Tilley D, Sridaromont KL, Maramba PJ. Clinical Applications of Nursing Diagnosis: Adult, Child, Women's, Psychiatric, Gerontic, and Home Health Considerations. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis; 2007.

113. Carstairs SD. Ondansetron use in pregnancy and birth defects: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. 2016;127(5):878-883.

114. Oliveira LG, Capp SM, You WB, Riffenburgh RH, Carstairs SD. Ondansetron compared with doxylamine and pyridoxine for treatment of nausea in pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;124(4):735-742.

115. Grooten IJ, Roseboom TJ, Painter RC. Barriers and challenges in hyperemesis gravidarum research. Nutr Metab Insights. 2016;8(Suppl 1):33-39.

116. Waters TP, Bailit JL. Obstetric and non-obstetric indications for admission in the antepartum and postpartum periods of pregnancy. J Women's Health Care. 2012;1:104.

117. Aprioku JS, Ogwo-Ude EM. Gestational toxicity of calabash chalk (nzu) in wistar rats. Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 2018;8(4):249-252.

118. Fiaschi L, Nelson-Piercy C, Deb S, King R, Tata LJ. Clinical management of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum across primary and secondary care: a population-based study. BJOG. 2019;126(10):1201-1211.

119. Fiaschi L, Nelson-Piercy C, Gibson J, Szatkowski L, Tata LJ. Adverse maternal and birth outcomes in women admitted to hospital for hyperemesis gravidarum: a population-based cohort study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2018;32(1):40-51.

120. Koot MH, Grooten IJ, Sebert S, et al. Hyperemesis gravidarum and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents: a follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. BJOG. 2017;124(7):1107-1114.

121. Ng QX, Venkatanarayanan N, De Deyn MLZQ, Ho CYX, Mo Y, Yeo WS. A meta-analysis of the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and hyperemesis gravidarum. Helicobacter. 2018;23(1).

122. Kjeldgaard HK, Eberhard-Gran M, Benth JS, Vikanes AV. Hyperemesis gravidarum and the risk of emotional distress during and after pregnancy. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2017;20(6):747-756.

123. Kjeldgaard HK, Vikanes AV, Benth JS, Junge C, Garthus-Niegel S, Eberhard-Gran M. The association between the degree of nausea in pregnancy and subsequent posttraumatic stress. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2019;22(4):493-501.

124. Mitchell-Jones N, Gallos I, Farren J, Tobias A, Bottomley C, Bourne T. Psychological morbidity associated with hyperemesis gravidarum: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG. 2017;124(1):20-30.

125. Abramowitz A, Miller ES, Wisner KL. Treatment options for hyperemesis gravidarum. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2017;20(3):363-372.

126. Havnen GC, Truong ABT, Do MLH, Heitmann K, Holst L, Nordeng H. Women’s perspectives on the management and consequences of hyperemesis gravidarum: a descriptive interview study. Scand J Prim Health Care. 2019;37(1):30-40.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. The Management of Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy and Hyperemesis Gravidarum. Available at https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/green-top-guidelines/gtg69-hyperemesis.pdf. Last accessed August 11, 2020.

2. The Endocrine Society. Management of Thyroid Dysfunction during Pregnancy and Postpartum: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Chevy Chase, MD: The Endocrine Society; 2012. Available at https://www.endocrine.org/clinical-practice-guidelines/thyroid-dysfunction-during-pregnancy-and-postpartum. Last accessed August 11, 2020.


Copyright © 2020 NetCE, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.