Works Cited

1. Patchin JW, Hinduja S. Bullies move beyond the schoolyard: a preliminary look at cyberbullying. Youth Violence Juv Justice. 2006;4(2):148-169.

2. Ybarra ML, Mitchell KJ. Youth engaging in online harassment: associations with caregiver-child relationships, Internet use, and personal characteristics. J Adolesc. 2004;27(3):319-336.

3. Li Q. A cross-cultural comparison of adolescents' experience related to cyberbullying. Educ Res. 2008;50(3):223-234.

4. Premsky M. Digital natives: digital immigrants. On the Horizon. 2001;9(5):1-6.

5. Herther NK. Digital natives and immigrants. Online. 2009;33(6):14-21.

6. Pew Research Center. Internet/Broadband Fact Sheet. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/fact-sheet/internet-broadband. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

7. U.S. Census Bureau. Computer and Internet Access in the United States: 2015. Available at https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2017/acs/acs-37.html. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

8. Pew Research Center. Mobile Fact Sheet. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/fact-sheet/mobile. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

9. Pew Research Center. U.S. Smartphone Use in 2015. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2015/04/01/us-smartphone-use-in-2015. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

10. Walsh SP, White KM, Young RM. Over-connected? A qualitative phenomenon of the relationship between Australian youths and their mobile phones. J Adolesc. 2008;31(1):77-92.

11. Pew Research Center. Teens, Social Media and Technology Overview, 2015. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2015/04/09/teens-social-media-technology-2015. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

12. The Nielson Company. U.S. Teen Mobile Report: Calling Yesterday, Texting Today, Using Apps Tomorrow. Available at https://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/article/2010/u-s-teen-mobile-report-calling-yesterday-texting-today-using-apps-tomorrow. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

13. Pew Research Center. Social Media Fact Sheet. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/fact-sheet/social-media. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

14. StopCyberbullying.org. What Is It? Available at http://www.stopcyberbullying.org/what_is_cyberbullying_exactly.html. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

15. Pew Research Center. How Parents Monitor their Teen's Digital Behavior. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2016/01/07/how-parents-monitor-their-teens-digital-behavior. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

16. Guillén MF, Suárez SL. Explaining the global digital divide: economic, political, and sociological drivers of cross-national Internet use. Soc Forces. 2005;84(2):681-708.

17. Wasserman IM, Richmond-Abbott M. Gender and the Internet: causes of variation in access, level, and scope of use. Soc Sci Q. 2005;86(1):252-270.

18. Cyberbullying Research Center. New National Bullying and Cyberbullying Data. Available at https://cyberbullying.org/new-national-bullying-cyberbullying-data. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

19. Sheridan LP, Grant T. Is cyberstalking different? Psychology, Crime & Law. 2007;13(6):627-640.

20. Olweus D. A profile of bullying at school. Educ Leadersh. 2003;60(6):12-19.

21. Mitchell KJ, Wolak J, Finkelhor D. Trends in youth reports of sexual solicitations, harassment and unwanted exposure to pornography on the Internet. J Adolesc Health. 2007;40(2):116-126.

22. Vandebosch H, Van Cleemput K. Defining cyberbullying: a qualitative research into the perceptions of youngsters. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2008;11(4):499-503.

23. Hinduja S, Patchin JW. Cyberbullying Fact Sheet: What You Need To Know About Online Aggression. Available at https://cyberbullying.org/cyberbullying_fact_sheet.pdf. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

24. Stopbullying.gov. What is Cyberbullying? Available at https://www.stopbullying.gov/cyberbullying/what-is-it/index.html. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

25. Bullyingstatistics.org. Cyber Bullying Statistics. Available at http://www.bullyingstatistics.org/content/cyber-bullying-statistics.html. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

26. Ybarra ML, Espelage DL, Mitchell KJ. The co-occurrence of Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation victimization and perpetration: associations with psychosocial indicators. J Adolesc Health. 2007;41(6 Suppl 1):S31-S41.

27. Boyd DM, Ellison NB. Social network sites: definition, history, and scholarship. J Comput Mediat Commun. 2008;13(1):210-230.

28. Endcyberbullying.org. 5 Different Types of Cyberbullying. Available at https://www.endcyberbullying.org/5-different-types-of-cyberbullying. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

29. Mishna F, McLuckie A, Saini M. Real-world dangers in an online reality: a qualitative study examining online relationships and cyber abuse. Soc Work Res. 2009;33(2):107-118.

30. Calvete E, Orue I, Estévez A, Villardón L, Padilla P. Cyberbullying in adolescents: modalities and aggressors' profile. Comput Human Behav. 2010;26(5):1128-1135.

31. Reeckman B, Cannard L. Cyberbullying. Youth Studies Australia. 2009;28(2):41-49.

32. Cassidy W, Jackson M, Brown KN. Sticks and stones can break my bones, but how can pixels hurt me? Students' experiences with cyber-bullying. Sch Psychol Int. 2009:30(4):383-402.

33. Strom PS, Strom RD. Cyberbullying by adolescents: a preliminary assessment. Educ Forum. 2005;70(1):21-36.

34. O'Donovan E. Sexting and student discipline. District Administration. 2010;46(3):60-64.

35. Lenhart A. Teens and Sexting. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2009/12/15/teens-and-sexting. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

36. Raskauskas J, Stoltz AD. Involvement in traditional and electronic bullying among adolescents. Dev Psychol. 2007;43(3):564-575.

37. Anderson M. A Majority of Teens Have Experienced Some Form of Cyberbullying. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2018/09/27/a-majority-of-teens-have-experienced-some-form-of-cyberbullying. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

38. Finkelhor D, Mitchell KJ, Wolak J. Online Victimization: A Report on the Nation's Youth. Available at http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/jvq/CV38.pdf. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

39. Ybarra ML, Mitchell KJ. Instant messaging may put young people at risk of harassment. Nurs Stand. 2008;22(31):17.

40. Tynes BM, Giang MT, Williams DR, Thompson GN. Online racial discrimination and psychological adjustment among adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2008;43(6):565-569.

41. Tynes BM. Online Racial Discrimination: A Growing Problem for Adolescents. Available at https://www.apa.org/science/about/psa/2015/12/online-racial-discrimination. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

42. Finn J. A survey of online harassment at a university campus. J Interpers Violence. 2004;19(4):468-483.

43. Kennedy MA, Taylor MA. Online Harassment and Victimization of College Students. Available at http://www.cjcj.org/uploads/cjcj/documents/online_harassment.pdf. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

44. Macdonald CD, Roberts-Pittman B. Cyberbullying Among College Students: Prevalence and Demographic Differences. Available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241123159_Cyberbullying_Among_College_Students_Prevalence_and_Demographic_Differences. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

45. Burke S, Yick-Flanagan A, Oomen-Early J, Walker A. Using Social Networking Sites to Explore Cyberabuse Among U.S. Women. Paper presented at: American Public Health Association 138th Annual Meeting and Expo; November 6, 2010; Denver, CO.

46. Mishna F, Khoury-Kassabri M, Gadalla T, Daciuka J. Risk factors for involvement in cyberbullying: victims, bullies and bully-victims. Children and Youth Services Review. 2012;34(1): 63-70.

47. Peter I-K, Petermann F. Cyberbullying: a concept analysis of defining attributes and additional influencing factors. Computers in Human Behavior. 2018;86:350-366.

48. Price M, Dalgleish J. Cyberbullying experiences, impacts and coping strategies as described by Australian young people. Youth Studies Australia. 2010;29(2):51-59.

49. Hokoda A, Lu H-HA, Angeles M. School bullying in Taiwanese adolescents. Journal of Emotional Abuse. 2006;6(4):69-90.

50. Mishna F, Saini M, Solomon S. Ongoing and online: children and youth's perceptions of cyber bullying. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2009;31:1222-1228.

51. Ybarra ML, Mitchell KJ. Prevalence and frequency of Internet harassment instigation: implications for adolescent health. J Adolesc Health. 2004:41(2):189-195.

52. Kiriakidis SP, Kavoura A. Cyberbullying: a review of the literature on harassment through the internet and other electronic means. Fam Community Health. 2010;33(2):82-93.

53. Williams KR, Guerra NG. Prevalence and predictors of internet bullying. J Adolesc Health. 2007;41(6):S14-S21.

54. Ybarra ML, Diener-West M, Leaf PJ. Examining the overlap in Internet harassment and school bullying: implications for school intervention. J Adolesc Health. 2007;41(6 Suppl 1):S42-S50.

55. Willard NE. Cyberbullying and Cyberthreats: Responding to the Challenge of Online Social Cruelty, Threats, and Distress. Champaign, IL: Research Press; 2007.

56. Mesch GS. Parental mediation, online activities and cyberbullying. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2009;12(4):387-393.

57. Juvonen J, Gross EF. Extending the school grounds? Bullying experiences in cyberspace. J Sch Health. 2008;78(9):46-54.

58. Patchin JW, Hinduja S. Traditional and nontraditional bullying among youth: a test of general strain theory. Youth Soc. 2011;43(2):727-751.

59. Agnew R. Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminol. 1992;30(1):47-87.

60. Suler J. The online disinhibition effect. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2004;7(3):321-326.

61. Huang Y, Chou C. An analysis of multiple factors of cyberbullying among junior high school students in Taiwan. Comput Human Behav. 2010;26(6):1581-1590.

62. Whitty MT. Liberating or debilitating? An examination of romantic relationships, sexual relationships and friendships on the Net. Comput Human Behav. 2008;24(5):1837-1850.

63. Pew Research Center. 10 Facts About Americans and Online Dating. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/02/06/10-facts-about-americans-and-online-dating/. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

64. Pew Research Center. Online Dating and Relationships. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2013/10/21/main-report. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

65. Jerin R, Dolinsky B. You've got mail! You don't want it: cyber-victimization and on-line dating. Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture. 2001;9(1):15-21.

66. Couch D, Liamputtong P. Online dating and mating: the use of the Internet to meet sexual partners. Qual Health Res. 2008;18(2):268-279.

67. Bent-Goodly TB. Eradicating domestic violence in the African American community. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2001;2(4):316-330.

68. Schechter S, Ganley A. Domestic Violence: A National Curriculum for Family Preservation Practitioners. San Francisco, CA: Family Violence Prevention Fund; 1995.

69. Smith SG, Chen J, Basile KC, et al. The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010–2012 State Report. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/NISVS-StateReportBook.pdf. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

70. National Network to End Domestic Violence. Technology-Facilitated Stalking: What You Need to Know. Available at https://nnedv.org/latest_update/technology-facilitated-stalking. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

71. Finn J, Atkinson T. Promoting the safe and strategic use of technology for victims of intimate partner violence: evaluation of the Technology Safety Project. J Fam Violence. 2009;24(1):53-59.

72. Southworth C, Finn J, Dawson S, Fraser C, Tucker S. Intimate partner violence, technology, and stalking. Violence Against Women. 2007;13(8):842-856.

73. Beran T, Li Q. The relationship between cyberbullying and school bullying. Journal of Student Wellbeing. 2007;1(2):15-33.

74. Ybarra ML. Linkages between depressive symptomatology and Internet harassment among young regular Internet users. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2004;7(2):247-257.

75. Ybarra ML, Leaf PJ, Diener-West M. Sex differences in youth-reported depressive symptomatology and unwanted Internet sexual solicitation. J Med Internet Res. 2004;6(1):e5.

76. Patchin JW, Hinduja S. Cyberbullying and self-esteem. J Sch Health. 2010;80(12):614-621.

77. Hinduja S, Patchin JW. Bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide. Arch Suicide Res. 2010;14(3):206-221.

78. Delmonico DL, Griffin EJ. Cybersex and the e-teen: what marriage and family therapists should know. J Marital Fam Ther. 2008;34(4):431-444.

79. Diamanduros T, Downs E, Jenkins SJ. The role of school psychologists in the assessment, prevention, and intervention of cyberbullying. Psychol Sch. 2008;45(8):693-704.

80. Noll JG, Shenk CE, Barnes JE, Haralson KJ. Association of maltreatment with high-risk Internet behaviors and offline encounters. Pediatrics. 2013;2012-1281.

81. Pew Research Center. Online Harassment 2017. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2017/07/11/online-harassment-2017. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

82. Liau AK, Khoo A, Ang PH. Factors influencing adolescents' engagement in risky Internet behavior. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2005;8(6):513-520.

83. Wolak J, Finkelhor D, Mitchell KJ, Ybarra ML. Online "predators" and their victims: myths, realities and implications for prevention and treatment. Am Psychol. 2008;63(2):111-128.

84. Dowell EB, Burgess AW, Cavanaugh DJ. Clustering of Internet risk behaviors in a middle school student population. J Sch Health. 2009;79(11):547-553.

85. Liau A, Khoo A, Ang P. Parental awareness and monitoring of adolescent Internet use. Curr Psychol. 2008;27(4):217-233.

86. Hertz M, David-Ferdon C. Electronic Media and Youth Violence: A CDC Issue Brief for Educators and Caregivers. Available at https://www.sccgov.org/sites/cac/Documents/training/electronic_agression_brief_for_parents.pdf. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

87. Gini G, Albiero P, Benelli B, Altoè G. Determinants of adolescents' active defending and passive bystanding behavior in bullying. J Adolesc. 2008;31(1):93-105.

88. Hinduja S, Patchin JW. Preventing Cyberbullying: Top Ten Tips for Teens. Available at https://cyberbullying.org/preventing-cyberbullying-top-ten-tips-for-teens. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

89. Roberts AR. Contemporary Perspectives on Crisis Intervention and Prevention. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1991.

90. Alexy EM, Burgess AW, Baker T, Smoyak SA. Perceptions of cyberstalking among college students. Brief Treat Crisis Interv. 2005;5(3):279-289.

91. Woolley N. Crisis theory: a paradigm of effective intervention with families of critically ill people. J Adv Nurs. 1990;15(2):1402-1408.

92. Pew Research Center. One in Four Black Americans Have Faced Online Harassment Because of Their Race or Ethnicity. Available at http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/07/25/1-in-4-black-americans-have-faced-online-harassment-because-of-their-race-or-ethnicity. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

93. Cyberbullying Research Center. State Cyberbullying Laws. Available at https://cyberbullying.org/state-cyberbullying-laws-a-brief-review-of-state-cyberbullying-laws-and-policies. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

94. U.S. Department of Justice. Domestic Violence. Available at https://www.justice.gov/ovw/domestic-violence. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

95. Pew Internet Research. Teens, Technology and Friendships. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2015/08/06/teens-technology-and-friendships/. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

96. Hinduja S, Patchin J. Preventing Cyberbullying: Top Ten Tips for Educators. Available at https://cyberbullying.org/responding-to-cyberbullying-top-ten-tips-for-educators. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

97. Faucher C, Jackson M, Cassidy W. Cyberbullying among university students: gendered experiences, impacts, and perspectives. Education Research International. 2014;2014: 698545.

98. Mehari KR, Farrell AD, Le AH. Cyberbullying among adolescents: measures in search of a construct. Psychol Violence. 2014; 4(4):399-415.

99. Compton L, Campbell MA, Mergler A. Teacher, parent and student perceptions of the motives of cyberbullies. Soc Psychol Educ. 2014;17(3):383-400.

100. Slonje R, Smith PK, Frisén A. The nature of cyberbullying, and strategies for prevention. Comput Human Behav. 2013;29(1):26-32.

101. Lenhart A, Madden M, Smith A, Purcell K, Zickuhr K, Rainie L. Teens, Kindness and Cruelty on Social Network Sites: How American Teens Navigate the New World of "Digital Citizenship." Washington, DC: Pew Research Center Internet & American Life Project; 2011.

102. Kowalski RM, Giumetti GW, Schroeder AN, Lattanner MR. Bullying in the digital age: a critical review and meta-analysis of cyberbullying research among youth. Psychol Bull. 2014;140(4):1073-1137.

103. Peskin F, Markham CM, Addy RC, et al. Prevalence and patterns of sexting among ethnic minority urban high school students. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2013;16(6):454-459.

104. Ringrose J, Gill R, Livingstone S, Harvey L. A Qualitative Study of Children, Young People and "Sexting:" A Report Prepared for the NSPCC. Available at https://library.nspcc.org.uk/HeritageScripts/Hapi.dll/filetransfer/2012QualitativeStudyChildrenYoungPeopleSextingReport.pdf. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

105. Slonje R, Smith PK. Cyberbullying: another main type of bullying? Scand J Psychol. 2008;49:147-154.

106. Patchin JW. Summary of Our Research (2004–2016). Available at https://cyberbullying.org/summary-of-our-cyberbullying-research. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

107. Jones LM, Mitchell KJ, Finkelhor D. Trends in youth Internet victimization: findings from three youth Internet safety surveys 2000–2010. J Adolesc Health. 2012;50(2):179-186.

108. Chang FC, Chiu CH, Miao NF, et al. Predictors of unwanted exposure to online pornography and online sexual solicitation of youth. J Health Psychol. 2014;21(6):1107-1118.

109. Gibb ZG, Devereux PG. Who does that anyway? Predictors and personality correlates of cyberbullying in college. Comput Human Behav. 2014;38:8-16.

110. Cénat JM, Hébert M, Blais M, et al. Cyberbullying, psychological distress and self-esteem among youth in Quebec schools. J Affect Disord. 2014;169(1):7-9.

111. Floros GD, Siomos KE, Fisoun V, et al. Adolescent online cyberbullying in Greece: the impact of parental online security practices, bonding, and online impulsiveness. J Sch Health. 2013;83:445-453.

112. Barlett CP, Gentile DA, Anderson CA, et al. Cross-cultural differences in cyberbullying behavior: a short-term longitudinal study. J Cross Cult Psychol. 2014;45(2):300-313.

113. Li Q. A cross-cultural comparison of adolescents' experience related to cyberbullying. Educ Res. 2008;50:223-234.

114. Santana D. Virtuous or vitriolic: the effect of anonymity on civility in online newspaper reader comment boards. Journalism Practice. 2014;8(1):18-33.

115. Barlett CP, Gentile DA, Chew C. Predicting cyberbullying from anonymity. Psychol Pop Media Cult. 2016;5(2):171-180.

116. D'Auria JP. Cyberbullying resources for youth and their families. J Pediatr Health Care. 2014;28(2):e19-e22.

117. Doane AN, Pearson MR, Kelley ML. Predictors of cyberbullying perpetration among college students: an application of the theory of reasoned action. Comput Human Behav. 2014;36:154-162.

118. Baas N, de Jong MDT, Drossaert CHC. Children's perspectives on cyberbullying: insights based on participatory research. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2013;16:248-253.

119. Bao W, Haas A, Chen X, Pi Y. Repeated strains, social control, social learning, and delinquency: testing an integrated model of strain theory in China. Youth Soc. 2014;46(3):402-424.

120. Jang H, Song J, Kim R. Does the offline bully-victimization influence cyberbullying behavior among youths? Application of general strain theory. Comput Human Behav. 2014;31:85-93.

121. Couch D, Liamputtong P, Pitts M. What are the real and perceived risks of online dating? Perspectives from online daters. Health Risk Soc. 2012;14(7-8):697-714.

122. O'Day RD. Rapists, sexual offenders, and child molesters: who is your romantic "match?" Why dating websites should perform criminal background checks. Valparaiso University Law Review. 2013;48(1):329-368.

123. Shimizu A. Domestic violence in the digital age: towards the creation of a comprehensive cyberstalking statute. Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law & Justice. 2013;28(1):116-137.

124. Congressional Documents and Publications. Brown Joins Domestic Violence Advocate to Outline Need for "Do Not Track" Internet and Smartphone Privacy Legislation: "Do Not Track" Bill Would Safeguard Consumers from Companies that Track Users' Whereabouts, Give Domestic Violence Victims Additional Safeguard Against GPS-Enabled Smartphone Stalking. Available at https://www.brown.senate.gov/newsroom/press/release/brown-joins-domestic-violence-advocate-to-outline-need-for-do-not-track-internet-and-smartphone-privacy-legislation. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

125. Nixon CL. Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health. Adolesc Health Med Ther. 2014;1(5):143-158.

126. Dredge R, Gleeson J, Garcia X. Presentation of Facebook and risk of cyberbullying victimization. Comput Human Behav. 2014;40:16-22.

127. Parris LN, Varjas K, Meyers J. The Internet is a mask: high school students' suggestions for preventing cyberbullying. West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(5):587-592.

128. Sasson H, Mesch G. Parental mediation, peer norms and risky online behavior among adolescents. Comput Human Behav. 2014;33:32-38.

129. Simmons KD, Bynum YP. Cyberbullying: six things administrators can do. Education. 2014;134(4):452-456.

130. Teo T. Do digital natives differ by computer self-efficacy and experience? An empirical study. Interactive Learning Environments. 2016;24(7):1725-1739.

131. El Asam A, Samara M. Cyberbullying and the law: a review of psychological and legal challenges. Comput Human Behav. 2016;65:127-141.

132. Barlett CP, Helmstetter K, Gentile DA. The development of a new cyberbullying attitude measure. Comput Human Behav. 2016;64:906-913.

133. Smoker M, March E. Predicting perpetration of intimate partner cyberstalking: gender and the Dark Tetrad. Comput Human Behav. 2017;72:390-396.

134. Hutson E. Cyberbullying in adolescence. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2016;39(1):60-70.

135. Vranjes I, Baillien E, Vandebosch H, Erreygers S, De Witte H. The dark side of working online: towards a definition and an emotion reaction model of workplace cyberbullying. Comput Human Behav. 2017;69:324-334.

136. Whittaker E, Kowalski RM. Cyberbullying via social media. J Sch Violence. 2015;14(1):11-29.

137. Chang FC, Chiu CH, Miao NF, Chen PH, Lee CM, Chiang JT. Predictors of unwanted exposure to online pornography and online sexual solicitation of youth. J Health Psychol. 2016;21(6):1107-1118.

138. Carter JM, Wilson FL. Cyberbullying: a 21st century health care phenomenon. Pediatr Nurs. 2015;41(3):115-125.

139. Fernando DL. Trolling and the First Amendment: protecting Internet speech in the era of cyberbullies and Internet defamation. University of Illinois Journal of Law, Technology & Policy. 2016;6(1):135.

140. Nandhini BS, Sheeba JI. Online social network bullying detection using intelligence techniques. Procedia Comput Sci. 2015;45: 485-492.

141. Rachoene M, Oyedemi T. From self-expression to social aggression: cyberbullying culture among South African youth on Facebook. Communicatio: South African Journal for Communication Theory and Research. 2015;41(3):302-319.

142. Smith R, Morgan J, Monks C. Students' perceptions of the effect of social media ostracism on wellbeing. Comput Human Behav. 2017;68:276-285.

143. Wachs S, Junger M, Sittichai R. Traditional, cyber and combined bullying roles: differences in risky online and offline activities. Societies. 2015;5(1):109-135.

144. Van Ouytsel J, Walrave M, Vandebosch H. Correlates of cyberbullying and how school nurses can respond. NASN Sch Nurse. 2015;30(3):162-170.

145. Baker T, Pelfrey WV. Bullying victimization, social network usage, and delinquent coping in a sample of urban youth: examining the predictions of general strain theory. Violence Vict. 2016;31(6):1021-1043.

146. Barlett CP, Gentile DA, Chew C. Predicting cyberbullying from anonymity. Psychol Pop Media Cult. 2016;5(2):171-180.

147. Borrajo E, Gamez-Guadix M, Calvete E. Cyberdating abuse: prevalence, context, and relationship with offline dating aggression. Psychol Rep. 2015;116(2):565-585.

148. Reed LA, Tolman RM, Ward LM, Safyer P. Keeping tabs: attachment anxiety and electronic intrusion in high school dating relationships. Comput Human Behav. 2016;58:259-268.

149. Woodlock D. The abuse of technology in domestic violence and stalking. Violence Against Women. 2017;23(5):584-602.

150. Wright M. Adolescents' cyber aggression perpetration and cyber victimization: the longitudinal associations with school functioning. Soc Psychol Educ. 2015;18(4):653-666.

151. González-Cabrera J, Calvete E, León-Mejía A, Pérez-Sancho C, Peinado JM. Relationship between cyberbullying roles, cortisol secretion and psychological stress. Comput Human Behav. 2017;70:153-160.

152. Davis N, Schmidt C. Cyberbullying and cyber abuse intervention: the three-tiered model for schools. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health. 2016;11(3-4):366-377.

153. Bass PF. Living life online: talking to parents about social media. Contemp Pediatr. 2016;33(5):21-24.

154. Pfetsch JS. Empathic skills and cyberbullying: relationship of different measures of empathy to cyberbullying in comparison to offline bullying among young adults. J Genet Psychol. 2017;178(1):58-72.

155. Selkie EM, Fales JL, Moreno MA. Cyberbullying prevalence among us middle and high school-aged adolescents: a systematic review and quality assessment. J Adolesc Health. 2016;58(2):125-133.

156. Montiel I, Carbonell E, Pereda N. Multiple online victimization of Spanish adolescents: results from a community sample. Child Abuse Negl. 2016;52:123-134.

157. Forssell R. Exploring cyberbullying and face-to-face bullying in working life: prevalence, targets and expressions. Comput Human Behav. 2016;58:454-460.

158. Kyriacou C. A psychological typology of cyberbullies in schools. Psychology of Education Review. 2016;40(2):24-27.

159. Goodboy AK, Martin MM. The personality profile of a cyberbully: examining the Dark Triad. Comput Human Behav. 2015;49:1-4.

160. Guo S. A meta-analysis of the predictors of cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Psychol Sch. 2016;53(4):432-453.

161. Pew Research Center. Parenting Children in the Age of Screens. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2020/07/28/parenting-children-in-the-age-of-screens. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

162. Lee EB. Cyberbullying: prevalence and predictors among African American young adults. Journal of Black Studies. 2017;48(1):57-73.

163. Martin M. Deconstructing the Digital Divide: Identifying the Supply and Demand Factors That Drive Internet Subscription Rates. Available at https://www.census.gov/library/working-papers/2019/demo/SEHSD-WP2019-15.html. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

164. Alfandari R. Approaching the study of cyberbullying towards social workers from a systems perspective. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 2019;48:60-64.

165. Jenaro C, Flores N, Frías CP. Systematic review of empirical studies on cyberbullying in adults: what we know and what we should investigate. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 2018;38:113-122.

166. Huang CL, Yang SC, Hsieh LS. The cyberbullying behavior of Taiwanese adolescents in an online gaming environment. Children and Youth Services Review. 2019;106:104461.

167. Craig W, Boniel-Nissim M, King N, et al. Social media use and cyber-bullying: a cross-national analysis of young people in 42 countries. J Adolesc Health. 2020;66(6S):S100-S108.

168. Calabro SM. From the message board to the front door: addressing the offline consequences of race- and gender-based doxxing and swatting. Suffolk University Law Review. 2018;51(1):55-75.

169. Dulovics M, Kamenská J. Analysis of cyber-bullying forms by aggressors in elementary and secondary schools. New Educational Review. 2017;49(3):126-137.

170. Ojeda M, Del R, Hunter S. Longitudinal relationships between sexting and involvement in both bullying and cyberbullying. Journal of Adolescence. 2019;77:81-89.

171. Ansary NS. Cyberbullying: Concepts, theories, and correlates informing evidence-based best practices for prevention. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 2020;50:101343.

172. Pew Research Center. A Majority of Teens Have Been the Target of Cyberbullying, with Name-Calling and Rumor-Spreading Being the Most Common Forms of Harassment. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2018/09/27/a-majority-of-teens-have-experienced-some-form-of-cyberbullying/pi_2018-09-27_teens-and-cyberbullying_0-01. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

173. Thomas S. "What should I do?" Young women's reported dilemmas with nude photographs. Sexuality Research & Social Policy. 2017;15(2):192-207.

174. O'Connor K, Drouin M, Davis J, Thompson H. Cyberbullying, revenge porn and the mid-sized university: victim characteristics, prevalence and students' knowledge of university policy and reporting procedures. Higher Education Quarterly. 2018;72(4):344-359.

175. Watts LK, Wagner J, Velasquez B, Behrens PI. Cyberbullying in higher education: a literature review. Computers in Human Behavior. 2017;69:268-274.

176. Oksanen A, Oksa R, Savela N, Kaakinen M, Ellonen N. Cyberbullying victimization at work: social media identity bubble approach. Computers in Human Behavior. 2020;109:106363.

177. Athanasiou K, Melegkovits E, Andrie EK, et al. Cross-national aspects of cyberbullying victimization among 14–17-year-old adolescents across seven European countries. BMC Public Health. 2018;18:800-815.

178. D'Souza N, Forsyth D, Tappin D, Catley B. Conceptualizing workplace cyberbullying: toward a definition for research and practice in nursing. Journal of Nursing Management. 2018;26(7):842-850.

179. Hinduja S, Patchin JW. Digital Dating Abuse: A Brief Guide for Educators and Parents. Available at https://cyberbullying.org/digital-dating-abuse.pdf. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

180. Payne AA, Hutzell KL. Old wine, new bottle? Comparing interpersonal bullying and cyberbullying victimization. Youth & Society. 2017;49(8):1149-1178.

181. Quintana-Orts C, Rey L. Forgiveness and cyberbullying in adolescence: does willingness to forgive help minimize the risk of becoming a cyberbully? Computers in Human Behavior. 2018;81:209-214.

182. Pabian S, Vandebosch H. An investigation of short-term longitudinal associations between social anxiety and victimization and perpetration of traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2016;45:328-339.

183. Chu XW, Fan CY, Liu QQ, Zhou ZK. Cyberbullying victimization and symptoms of depression and anxiety among Chinese adolescents: examining hopelessness as a mediator and self-compassion as a moderator. Computers in Human Behavior. 2018;86:377-386.

184. Chen L, Ho SS, Lwin MO. A meta-analysis of factors predicting cyberbullying perpetration and victimization: from the social cognitive and media effects approach. New Media & Society. 2017;19(8): 1194-1213.

185. Ding Y, Li D, Li X, Xiao J, Zhang H, Wang Y. Profiles of adolescent traditional and cyber bullying and victimization: the role of demographic, individual, family, school, and peer factors. Computers in Human Behavior. 2020;111:106439.

186. Elbedour S, Alqahtani S, El Sheikh Rihan I, Bawalsah JA, Booker-Ammah B, Turner JF Jr. Cyberbullying: roles of school psychologists and school counselors in addressing a pervasive social justice issue. Children and Youth Services Review. 2020;109:104720.

187. Dennehy R, Meaney S, Cronin M, Arensman E. The psychosocial impacts of cybervictimisation and barriers to seeking social support: young people's perspectives. Children and Youth Services Review. 2020;111:104872.

188. Hinduja S, Patchin JW. Cyberbullying Warning Signs: Red Flags that a Child is Involved in Cyberbullying. Available at https://cyberbullying.org/cyberbullying-warning-signs.pdf. Last accessed November 6, 2020.

189. Lianos H, McGrath A. Can the general theory of crime and general strain theory explain cyberbullying perpetration? Crime & Delinquency. 2018;64(5):674-700.

190. Wright MF, Wachs S. Does empathy and toxic online disinhibition moderate the longitudinal association between witnessing and perpetrating homophobic cyberbullying? Int Journal of Bullying Prevention. 2020; [Epub ahead of print].

191. Barlett CP, Heath JB, Madison CS, DeWitt CC, Kirkpatrick SM. You're not anonymous online: the development and validation of a new cyberbullying intervention curriculum. Psychology of Popular Media. 2020;9(2):135-144.

192. Peskin MF, Markham CM, Shegog R, et al. Prevalence and correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse among early adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2017;46(2):358-375.

193. Melander L. College students' perceptions of intimate partner cyber harassment. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking. 2010;13:263-268.

194. Fernet M, Lapierre A, Hébert M, Cousineau M-M. A systematic review of literature on cyber intimate partner victimization in adolescent girls and women. Computers in Human Behavior. 2019;100:11-25.

195. Urano Y, Takizawa R, Ohka M, Yamasaki H, Shimoyama H. Cyber bullying victimization and adolescent mental health: the differential moderating effects of intrapersonal and interpersonal emotional competence. Journal of Adolescence. 2020;80: 182-191.

196. Yoon Y, Lee JO, Cho J, et al. Association of cyberbullying involvement with subsequent substance use among adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2019;65(5):613-620.

197. Peluchette JV, Karl K, Wood C, Williams J. Cyberbullying victimization: do victims' personality and risky social network behaviors contribute to the problem? Computers in Human Behavior. 2015;52:424-435.

198. Byrne E, Vessey JA, Pfeifer L. Cyberbullying and social media: information and interventions for school nurses working with victims, students, and families. Journal of School Nursing. 2018;34(1):38-50.

199. Abreu RL, Kenny MC. Cyberbullying and LGBTQ youth: a systematic literature review and recommendations for prevention and intervention. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma. 2018;11(1):81-97.

200. Florang JE. Cyberbullying: new approaches for school counselors. Journal of School Counseling. 2020;18(1):1-24.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for suicide risk in adolescents, adults, and older adults in primary care: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160(10):719-726. Available at https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/suicide-risk-in-adolescents-adults-and-older-adults-screening. Last accessed November 11, 2020.


Copyright © 2020 NetCE, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.