Works Cited

1. Iannelli V. Timeline and the History of Autism. Available at https://www.verywellhealth.com/autism-timeline-2633213#citation-8. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

2. National Institute of Mental Health. Autism Spectrum Disorder. Available at https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/autism-spectrum-disorders-asd/index.shtml. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

3. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Available at https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/autism. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

4. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.

5. Shulman L. DSM-5 and the New Autism Spectrum Disorder Criteria: What's It All About? Available at http://www.einstein.yu.edu/uploadedfiles/Centers/childrens-evaluation-rehabilitation/eiti-summer-2013.pdf. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

6. Huerta M, Bishop SL, Duncan A, Hus V, Lord C. Application of DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder to three samples of children with DSM-IV diagnoses of pervasive developmental disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2012;169(10):1056-1064.

7. Brasic JR. Autism Spectrum Disorder. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/912781-overview#a1. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

8. Maenner MJ, Shaw KA, Baio J, et al. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 sites, United States, 2016. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2020;69(4):1-12.

9. Baxter AJ, Brugha TS, Erskine HE, Scheurer RW, Vos T, Scott JG. The epidemiology and global burden of autism spectrum disorders. Psychol Med. 2015;45(3):601-613.

10. Hyman SL, Levy SE, Myers SM, and Council on Children with Disabilities, Section on Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. Identification, evaluation, and management of children with autism spectrum disorder. Pediatrics. 2020;145(1):e20193447.

11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Available at https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/facts.html. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

12. Cakir J, Frye RE, Walker SJ. The lifetime social cost of autism: 1990–2029. Res Autism Spec Disord. 2020;72:101502.

13. Baron-Cohen S, Bolton P. Autism: The Facts. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1993.

14. Spectrum. Theories of Autism. Zamzow R. The Connectivity Theory of Autism, Explained. Available at https://www.spectrumnews.org/features/special-reports/theories-of-autism/. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

15. Spectrum. Theories of Autism. Deweerdt S. The Signaling Imbalance Theory of Autism, Explained. Available at https://www.spectrumnews.org/features/special-reports/theories-of-autism/. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

16. Spectrum. Theories of Autism. Musser G. The Predictive Coding Theory of Autism, Explained. Available at https://www.spectrumnews.org/features/special-reports/theories-of-autism/. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data and Statistics on Autism Spectrum Disorder. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/data.html. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

18. Hutton J. Does rubella cause autism: a 2015 reappraisal? Front Hum Neurosci. 2016;10:25.

19. Yamashita Y, Fujimoto C, Nakajima E, Isagai T, Matsuishi T. Possible association between congenital cytomegalovirus infection and autistic disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2003;33(4):455-459.

20. Weiss LA. Autism genetics: emerging data from genome-wide copy-number and single nucleotide polymorphism scans. Expert Rev Mol Diagn.2009;9(8):795-803.

21. Wang C, Geng H, Liu W, Zhang G. Prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal factors associated with autism: a meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96(18):e6696.

22. Chien YL, Chou MC, Chou WJ, et al. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors and the clinical implications on autism spectrum disorder. Autism. 2019;23(3):783-791.

23. Joseph RM, O'Shea TM, Allred EN, et al. Prevalence and associated features of autism spectrum disorder in extremely low gestational age newborns at age 10 years. Autism Res. 2017;10(2):224-232.

24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Key Findings: The Association Between Assisted Reproductive Technology And Autism Spectrum Disorder. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/features/artandasd.html. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

25. Glasson EJ, Bower C, Petterson B, de Klerk N, Chaney G, Hallmayer JF. Perinatal factors and the development of autism: a population study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(6):618-627.

26. DeStefano F, Chen RT. Autism and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination: controversy laid to rest? CNS Drugs. 2001;15(11):831-837.

27. Miller E. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and the development of autism. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2003;14(3):199-206.

28. Lintas C, Altieri L, Lombardi F, Sacco R, Persico AM. Association of autism with polyomavirus infection in postmortem brains.J Neurovirol. 2010;16(2):141-149.

29. Nordin J, Anderson R, Anderson R, et al. Immunizations. Bloomington, MN: Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement; 2012.

30. Mawson AR, Croft AM. Rubella virus infection, the congenital rubella syndrome, and the link to autism. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(19):3543.

31. Slawinski BL, Talge N, Ingersoll B, et al. Maternal CMV seropositivity and autism symptoms in children. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2018;79(5):e12840.

32. Zappulo E, Riccio MP, Binda S, et al. Prevalence of HSV1/2 congenital infection assessed through genome detection on dried blood spot in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. In Vivo. 2018;32(5):1255-1258.

33. al-Haddad BJS, Jacobsson B, Chabra S, et al. Long-term risk of neuropsychiatric disease after exposure to infection in utero. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019;76(6):594-602.

34. Croen LA, Qian Y, Ashwood P, et al. Infection and fever in pregnancy and autism spectrum disorders: findings from the study to explore early development. Autism Res. 2019;12(10):1551-1561.

35. Ozonoff S, Young GS, Carter A, et al. Recurrence risk for autism spectrum disorders: a Baby Siblings Research Consortium study. Pediatrics. 2011;128(3):e488-e495.

36. Messinger DS, Young GS, Webb SJ, et al. Early sex differences are not autism-specific: a Baby Siblings Research Consortium (BSRC) study. Mol Autism. 2015;6:32.

37. Ozonoff S, Young GS, Carter A, et al. Recurrence risk for autism spectrum disorders: a Baby Siblings Research Consortium study. Pediatrics. 2011;128(3):e488-e495.

38. Cohen S. Targeting Autism: What We Know, Don't Know, and Can Do to Help Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. 3rd ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, Ltd.; 2006.

39. Colvert E, Tick B, McEwen F, et al. Heritability of autism spectrum disorder in a UK population-based twin sample. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(5):415-423.

40. Bai D, Yip BHK, Windham GC, et al. Association of genetic and environmental factors with autism in a 5-country cohort. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019;76(10:1035-1043.

41. Sandin S, Lichtenstein P, Kuja-Halkola R, Larsson H, Hultman CM, Reichenberg A. The familial risk of autism. JAMA. 2014;311(17):1770-1777.

42. Yuen RK, Thiruvahindrapuram B, Mericoencing of quartet families with autism spectrum disorder. Nat Med. 2015;21(2):185-191.

43. Leppa VM, Kravitz SN, Martin CL, et al. Rare inherited and denovo CNVs reveal complex contributions to ASD risk in multiplex families. Am J Hum Genet. 2016;99(3):540-554.

44. C Yuen RK, Merico D, Bookman M, et al. Whole genome sequencing resource identifies 18 new candidate genes for autism spectrum disorder. Nat Neurosci. 2017;20(4):602-611.

45. Tammimies K, Marshall CR, Walker S, et al. Molecular diagnostic yield of chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing in children with autism spectrum disorder. JAMA. 2015;314(9):895-903.

46. Hallmayer J, Cleveland S, Torres A, et al. Genetic heritability and shared environmental factors among twin pairs with autism. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68(11):1095-1102.

47. Muhle R, Trentacoste SV, Rapin I. The genetics of autism. Pediatrics. 2004;113(5):e472-e486.

48. Sadakata T, Washida M, Iwayama Y, et al. Autistic-like phenotypes in CADPS2-knockout mice and aberrant CADPS2 splicing in autistic patients. J Clin Invest. 2007;117(4):931-943.

49. Geier DA, Geier MR. Early downward trends in neurodevelopmental disorders following removal of thimerosal-containing vaccines. J Am Phys Surg. 2006;11(1):8-13.

50. Orenstein WA, Paulson JA, Brady MT, Cooper LZ, Seib K. Global vaccination recommendations and thimerosal. Pediatrics. 2013;131(1):149-151.

51. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Thimerosal FAQs. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/concerns/thimerosal/faqs.html. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

52. Geier MR, Geier DA. Neurodevelopmental disorders after thimerosal-containing vaccines: a brief communication. Exp Biol Med. 2003;228(6):660-664.

53. American Academy of Pediatrics, United States Public Health Service. Joint statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the United States Public Health Service (USPHS). Pediatrics. 1999;104(3 Pt 1):568-569.

54. National Academy of Sciences. Link Between Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Thimerosal Remains Unclear. Available at https://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=10208. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

55. National Academy of Sciences. MMR Vaccine and Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines Are Not Associated with Autism, IOM Report Says. Available at https://www.nationalacademies.org/news/2004/05/mmr-vaccine-and-thimerosal-containing-vaccines-are-not-associated-with-autism-iom-report-says. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

56. Institute of Medicine Immunization Safety Review Committee. Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2004.

57. Schechter R, Grether JK. Continuing increases in autism reported to California's development services system: mercury in retrograde. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65(1):19-24.

58. Geier DA, Geier MR. An assessment of downward trends in neurodevelopmental disorders in the United States following removal of thimerosal from childhood vaccines. Med Sci Monit. 2006;12(6):CR231-CR239.

59. DeStefano F, Price CS, Weintraub ES. Increasing exposure to antibody-stimulating proteins and polysaccharides in vaccines is not associated with risk of autism. J Pediatrics. 2013;163:561-567.

60. Hultman CM, Sandin S, Levine SZ, Lichtenstein P, Reichenberg A. Advancing paternal age and risk of autism: new evidence from a population-based study and a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Mol Psychiatry. 2011;16(12):1203-1212.

61. Puts NAJ, Wodka EL, Harris AD, et al. Reduced GABA and altered somatosensory function in children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Res. 2017;10(4):608-619.

62. Hwang BJ, Mohamed MA, Brašić JR. Molecular imaging of autism spectrum disorder. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2017;29(6):530-554.

63. Endres D, Tebartz van Elst L, Meyer SA, et al. Glutathione metabolism in the prefrontal brain of adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: an MRS study. Mol Autism. 2017;8:10.

64. Giulivi C, Zhang JR, Omanska-Klusek A, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism. JAMA. 2010;304(21):2389-2396.

65. Hardan AY, Fung LK, Frazier T, et al. A proton spectroscopy study of white matter in children with autism. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2016;66:48-53.

66. Saghazadeh A, Ataeinia B, Keynejad K, Abdolalizadeh A, Hirbod-Mobarakeh A, Rezaei N. Anti-inflammatory cytokines in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cytokine. 2019;123:154740.

67. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.

68. Barbaresi WJ. The meaning of "regression" in children with autism spectrum disorder: why does it matter? J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2016;37(6):506-507.

69. Bradley CC, Boan AD, Cohen AP, Charles JM, Carpenter LA. Reported history of developmental regression and restricted, repetitive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2016;37(6):451-456.

70. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Autism Spectrum Disorder. Screening and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder for Healthcare Providers. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/hcp-screening.html#1. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

71. American Academy of Pediatrics. Coury D, Wolfe A, Lipkin PH, et al. Screening of Young Children for Autism Spectrum Disorders: Results from a National Survey of Pediatricians. Available at https://www.aap.org/en-us/professional-resources/Research/research-findings/Pages/Screening-of-Young-Children-for-Autism-Spectrum-Disorders-Results-from-a-National-Survey-of-Ped.aspx. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

72. Volkmar F, Siegel M, Woodbury-SmithM, et al. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014;53(2):237-257.

73. American Academy of Neurology. Screening and Diagnosis of Autism. Available at https://www.aan.com/Guidelines/home/GuidelineDetail/33. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

74. Hus V, Lord C. The autism diagnostic observation schedule, module 4: revised algorithm and standardized severity scores. J Autism Dev Disord. 2014;44(8):1996-2012.

75. Shumway S, Farmer C, Thurm A, Joseph L, Black D, Golden C. The ADOS calibrated severity score: relationship to phenotypic variables and stability over time. Autism Res. 2012;5(4):267-276.

76. Green IW, Kidd CL, Accordino RE. Differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder across the lifespan. In: McDougle C (ed). Autism Spectrum Disorder. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2015.

77. Autism Society. Differential Diagnosis. Available at https://www.autism-society.org/what-is/diagnosis/differential-diagnosis/. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

78. National Organization for Rare Disorders. Available at https://rarediseases.org/for-patients-and-families/information-resources/rare-disease-information/. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

79. Macferran K, Major N, Fussel J. High P. Differential and etiologic diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Developed for the Autism Case Training: A Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics Curriculum; 2011.

80. Kohane IS, McMurry A, Weber G, et al. The co-morbidity burden of children and young adults with autism spectrum disorders. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e33224.

81. Isaksen J, Bryn V, Diseth TH, et al. Children with autism spectrum disorders – the importance of medical investigations. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2013;17(1):68-76.

82. Mazurek MO, Vasa RA, Kalb LG, et al. Anxiety, sensory over-responsivity, and gastrointestinal problems in children with autism spectrum disorders. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2013;41(1):165-176.

83. Memari A, Ziaee V, Mirfazeli F, Kordi R. Investigation of autism comorbidities and associations in a school-based community sample. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 2012;25(2):84-90.

84. Kose S, Erermis S, Ozturk O, et al. Health related quality of life in children with autism spectrum disorders: the clinical and demographic related factors in Turkey. Res Autism Spectrum Disord. 2013;7(2):213-220.

85. Bilder D, Botts EL, Smith KR, et al. Excess mortality and causes of death in autism spectrum disorders: a follow up of the 980s Utah/UCLA autism epidemiologic study. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013;43(5):1196-1204.

86. Woolfenden S, Sarkozy V, Ridley G, Coory M, Williams K. A systematic review of two outcomes in autism spectrum disorder—epilepsy and mortality. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012;54(4):306-312.

87. Buie T, Campbell DB, Fuchs GJ III, et al. Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with ASDs: a consensus report. Pediatrics. 2010;125(Suppl 1):S1-S18.

88. Treating Autism, Autism Treatment Trust. Medical Comorbidities in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Primer for Health Care Professionals and Policy Makers. Available at https://nationalautismassociation.org/pdf/MedicalComorbiditiesinASD2013.pdf. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

89. Nicolaidis C, Raymaker D, McDonald K, et al. Comparison of healthcare experiences in autistic and non-autistic adults: a cross-sectional online survey facilitated by an academic-community partnership. J Gen Intern Med. 2013;28(6):761-769.

90. Barger BD, Campbell JM, McDonough JD. Prevalence and onset of regression within autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analytic review. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013;43(4):817-828.

91. Ekinci O, Arman AR, Melek I, Bez Y, Berkem M. The phenomenology of autistic regression: subtypes and associated factors.Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;21(1):23-29.

92. Fein D, Barton M, Eigsti IM, et al. Optimal outcome in individuals with a history of autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013;54(2):195-205.

93. Pellicano E. Do autistic symptoms persist across time? Evidence of substantial change in symptomatology over a 3-year period in cognitively able children with autism. Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2012;117(2):156-166.

94. Munoz-Yunta JA, Ortiz T, Palau-Baduell M, et al. Magnetoencephalographic pattern of epileptiform activity in children with early-onset autism spectrum disorders. Clin Neurophysiol. 2008;119(3):626-634.

95. Strasser L, Downes M, Kung J, Cross JH, De Haan M. Prevalence and risk factors for autism spectrum disorder in epilepsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2018;60(1):19-29.

96. Souders MC, Zavodny S, Eriksen W, et al. Sleep in children with autism spectrum disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2017;19(6):34.

97. Cortese S, Wang F, Angriman M, Masi G, Bruni O. Sleep disorders in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: diagnosis, epidemiology, and management. CNS Drugs. 2020;34(4):415-423.

98. Mazurek MO, Petroski GF. Sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder: examining the contributions of sensory over-responsivity and anxiety. Sleep Med. 2015;16(2):270-279.

99. Rajaei S, Kalantari M, Azari ZP, Tabatabaee SM, Dunn W. Sensory processing patterns and sleep quality in primary school children. Iran J Child Neurol. 2020;14(3):57-68.

100. Berenguer-Forner C, Miranda-Casas A, Pastor-Cerezuela G, Rosello-Miranda R. Comorbidity of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit with hyperactivity. A review study. Rev Neurol. 2015;60(Suppl 1)S37-S43.

101. Elwin M, Elvin T, Larsson JO. Symptoms and level of functioning related to comorbidity in children and adolescents with ADHD: a cross-sectional registry study. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2020;14:30.

102. Buck TR, Viskochil J, Farley M, et al. Psychiatric comorbidity and medication use in adults with autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2014;44(12):3063-3071.

103. Salazar F, Baird G, Chandler S, et al. Cooccurring psychiatric disorders in preschool and elementary school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2015;45(8):2283-2294.

104. De-la-Iglesia M, Olivar JS. Risk factors for depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorders. Scientific World J. 2015:127853.

105. Heijtz RD, Wang S, Anuar F, et al. Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108(7):3047-3052.

106. Schurman JV, Friesen CA, Dai H, Danda CE, Hyman PE, Cocjin JT. Sleep problems and functional disability in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders: an examination of the potential mediating effects of physical and emotional symptoms. BMC Gastroenterol. 2012;12(1):142.

107. Chandler S, Carcani-Rathwell I, Charman T, et al. Parent-reported gastro-intestinal symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013;43(12):2737-2747.

108. Schieve LA, Gonzalez V, Boulet SL, et al. Concurrent medical conditions and health care use and needs among children with learning and behavioral developmental disabilities, National Health Interview Survey, 2006–2010. Res Dev Disabil. 2012;33(2):467-476.

109. French L, Kennedy EMM. Annual research review: early intervention for infants and young children with, or at-risk of, autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2018;59(4):444-456.

110. Zwaigenbaum L, Penner M. Autism spectrum disorder: advances in diagnosis and evaluation. BMJ. 2018;361:k1674.

111. Zwaigenbaum L, Bauman ML, Choueiri R, et al. Early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder under 3 years of age: recommendations for practice and research. Pediatrics. 2015; 136(Suppl 1):S60-S81.

112. Smith T, Iadarola S. Evidence base update for autism spectrum disorder. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2015;44(6):897-922.

113. National Autism Center at May Institute. National Standards Project. Available at https://www.nationalautismcenter.org/national-standards-project/. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

114. Wong C, Odom SL, Hume K, et al. Evidence-Based Practices for Children, Youth, and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Chapel Hill, NC: Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute; 2013.

115. Odom SL, Boyd BA, Hall LJ, Hume K. Evaluation of comprehensive treatment models for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2010;40(4):425-436.

116. UNC School of Medicine. TEACCH Autism Program. Available at https://teacch.com/. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

117. Early Start Denver Model. Available at https://www.esdm.co/. last accessed December 15, 2020.

118. Child Mind Institute. What is Applied Behavior Analysis? Available at https://childmind.org/article/what-is-applied-behavior-analysis/. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

119. Autism Speaks. Applied Behavior Analysis. Available at https://www.autismspeaks.org/applied-behavior-analysis-aba-0. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

120. Taylor JL, Dove D, Veenstra-VanderWeele J, et al. Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2012.

121. Devita-Raeburn E. The Controversy Over Autism's Most Common Therapy. Available at https://www.spectrumnews.org/features/deep-dive/controversy-autisms-common-therapy/. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

122. Baron-Cohen S. The Concept of Neurodiversity is Dividing the Autism Community. Available at https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/the-concept-of-neurodiversity-is-dividing-the-autism-community/. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

123. Organization for Autism Research. Individualized Education Programs (IEPs). Available at https://researchautism.org/education/teachers-corner/individualized-education-programs-ieps/. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

124. Boyd BA, Hume K, McBee MT, et al. Comparative efficacy of LEAP, TEACCH and non-model-specific special education programs for preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2014;44(2):366-380.

125. Strain PS, Bovey EH II. Randomized, controlled trial of the LEAP model of early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorders. Topics Early Child Spec Educ. 2011;31(3):133-154.

126. Strain PS, Hoyson M. The need for longitudinal, intensive social skill intervention: LEAP follow-up outcomes for children with autism. Topics Early Child Spec Educ. 2000;20(2):116-122.

127. Anderson DK, Lord C, Risi S, et al. Patterns of growth in verbal abilities among children with autism spectrum disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2007;75(4):594-604.

128. Schlosser RW, Wendt O. Effects of augmentative and alternative communication intervention on speech production in children with autism: a systematic review. Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2008;17(3):212-230.

129. Ganz JB, Mason RA, Goodwyn FD, Boles MB, Heath AK, Davis JL. Interaction of participant characteristics and type of AAC with individuals with ASD: a meta-analysis. Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2014;119(6):516-535.

130. National Autism Resources. The Picture Exchange Communication System. Available at https://nationalautismresources.com/the-picture-exchange-communication-system-pecs/. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

131. Spencer D, Marshall J, Post B, et al. Psychotropic medication use and polypharmacy in children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics. 2013;132(5):833-840.

132. Schubart JR, Camacho F, Leslie D. Psychotropic medication trends among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder in the Medicaid program. Autism. 2014;18(6):631-637.

133. Mandell DS, Morales KH, Marcus SC, Stahmer AC, Doshi J, Polsky DE. Psychotropic medication use among Medicaid-enrolled children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics. 2008;121(3).

134. Rosenberg RE, Mandell DS, Farmer JE, Law JK, Marvin AR, Law PA. Psychotropic medication use among children with autism spectrum disorders enrolled in a national registry, 2007–2008. J Autism Dev Disord. 2010;40(3):342-351.

135. Coury DL, Anagnostou E, ManningCourtney P, et al. Use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics. 2012;130(Suppl 2):S69-S76.

136. Malone RP, Waheed A. The role of antipsychotics in the management of behavioural symptoms in children and adolescents with autism. Drugs. 2009;69(5):535-548.

137. Swinson RP, Antony MM, Rachman S, Richter MA (eds). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Theory, Research, and Treatment. New York, NY: The Guilford Press; 1998.

138. LexiComp Online. Available at https://online.lexi.com. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

139. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Approves the First Drug to Treat Irritability Associated with Autism, Risperdal. Available at https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20170113132901/http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/2006/ucm108759.htm. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

140. Jesner OS, Aref-Adib M, Coren E. Risperidone for autism spectrum disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(1):CD005040.

141. McCracken JT, McGough J, Shah B, et al. Risperidone in children with autism and serious behavioral problems. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:314-321.

142. DeFilippis M, Wagner KD. Treatment of autism spectrum disorder in children and adolescents. Psychopharmacol Bull. 2016;46(2):18-41.

143. Stachnik JM, Nunn-Thompson C. Use of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of autistic disorder. Ann Pharmacother. 2007;41(4):626-634.

144. Malone RP, Cater J, Sheikh RM, Choudhury MS, Delaney MA. Olanzapine versus haloperidol in children with autistic disorder: an open pilot study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001;40(8):887-894.

145. Barnard L, Young AH, Pearson J, Geddes J, O'Brien G. A systematic review of the use of atypical antipsychotics in autism.J Psychopharmacol. 2002;16(1):93-101.

146. McDougle CJ, Kem DL, Posey DJ. Case series: use of ziprasidone for maladaptive symptoms in youths with autism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2002;41(8):921-927.

147. Correll CU, Manu P, Olshanskiy V, Napolitano B, Kane JM, Malhotra AK. Cardiometabolic risk of second-generation antipsychotic medications during first-time use in children and adolescents. JAMA. 2009;302(16):1765-1773.

148. El Achkar CM, Spence SJ. Clinical characteristics of children and young adults with co-occurring autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2015;47:183-190.

149. Nickels K, Katusic SK, Colligan RC, Weaver AL, Voigt RG, Barbaresi WJ. Stimulant medication treatment of target behaviors in children with autism: a population-based study. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2008;29(2):75-81.

150. Posey DJ, Aman MG, McCracken JT, et al. Positive effects of methylphenidate on inattention and hyperactivity in pervasive developmental disorders: an analysis of secondary measures. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61(4):538-544.

151. Williams K, Brignell A, Randall M, Silove N, Hazell P. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(8):CD004677.

152. Boaden K, Tomlinson A, Cortese S, Cipriani A. Antidepressants in children and adolescents: meta-review of efficacy, tolerability and suicidality in acute treatment. Front Psychiatry. 2020;11:717.

153. Gabis LV, Ben-Hur R, Shefer S, Jokel A, Ben Shalom D. Improvement of language in children with autism with combined donepezil and choline treatment. J Molecular Neuroscience. 2019;69:224-234.

154. Malaguarnera M, Cauli O. Effects of l-carnitine in patients with autism spectrum disorders: review of clinical studies. Molecules. 2019;24(23):4262.

155. Feng JY, Li HH, Wang B, Shan L, Jia FY. Successive clinical application of vitamin D and bumetanide in children with autism spectrum disorder: a case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020;99(2):e18661.

156. Hafizi S, Tabatabaei D, Lai MC. Review of clinical studies targeting inflammatory pathways for individuals with autism. Front Psychiatry. 2019;10:849.

157. Veenstra-VanderWeele J, Cook EH, King BH, et al. Arbaclofen in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: a randomized, controlled, phase 2 trial. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017;42(7):1390-1398.

158. National Institutes of Health. The Use of Secretin to Treat Autism. Available at https://www.nichd.nih.gov/newsroom/releases/secretin. Last accessed December 15, 2020.

159. Williams KJ, Wray JJ, Wheeler DM. Intravenous secretin for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(4):CD003495.

160. Bent S, Hendren RL. Complementary and alternative treatments for autism part 1: evidence-supported treatments. AMA J Ethics. 2015;17(4):369-374.

161. Lofthouse N, Hendren R, Hurt E, Arnold LE, Butter E. A review of complementary and alternative treatments for autism spectrum disorders. Autism Res Treat. 2012;(8):870391.

162. Hanson E, Kalish LA, Bunce E, et al. Use of complementary and alternative medicine among children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disorders. 2007;37(4):628-636.

163. Manivasagam T, Arunadevi S, Essa MM, et al. Role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in autism. Adv Neurobiol. 2020;24:193-206.

164. Pan X, Wu X, Yan D, Peng C, Rao C, Yan H. Acrylamide-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response are alleviated by N-acetylcysteine in PC12 cells: involvement of the crosstalk between Nrf2 and NF-ĸB pathways regulated by MAPKs. Toxicol Lett. 2018;288:55-64.

165. Estes A, Olson E, Sullivan K, et al. Parenting-related stress and psychological distress in mothers of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. Brain Dev. 2013;35(2):133-138.

166. Hayes SA, Watson SL. The impact of parenting stress: a meta-analysis of studies comparing the experience of parenting stress in parents of children with and without autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013;43(3):629-642.

167. Horlin C, Falkmer M, Parsons R, Albrecht MA, Falkmer T. The cost of autism spectrum disorders. PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e106552.

168. Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative, 2013. National Profile of Children with Special Health Care Needs and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Key Findings from the 2009/10 NS-CSHCN and 2011/12 NSCH. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration: 2013.

169. Clifford T, Minnes P. Who participates in support groups for parents of children with autism spectrum disorders? The role of beliefs and coping style. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013;43(1):179-187.

170. Mohd Roffeei SH, Abdullah N, Basar SK. Seeking social support on Facebook for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Int J Med Inform. 2015;84(5):375-385.

171. Kim SH, Macari SL, Koller J, Chawarska K. Examining the phenotypic heterogeneity of early autism spectrum disorder: subtypes and short-term outcomes. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2016;57(1):93-102.

172. Ozonoff S, Young GS, Landa R, et al. Diagnostic stability in young children at risk for autism spectrum disorder: a baby siblings research consortium study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015; 56(9):988-998.

173. Anderson DK, Liang JW, Lord C. Predicting young adult outcome among more and less cognitively able individuals with autism spectrum disorders. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014;55(5):485-494.

174. Gotham K, Pickles A, Lord C. Trajectories of autism severity in children using standardized ADOS scores. Pediatrics. 2012;130(5).

175. Pugliese CE, Anthony L, Strang JF, Dudley K, Wallace GL, Kenworthy L. Increasing adaptive behavior skill deficits from childhood to adolescence in autism spectrum disorder: role of executive function. J Autism Dev Disord. 2015;45(6):1579-1587.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. Schaefer GB, Mendelsohn NJ, Professional Practice and Guidelines Committee. Clinical genetics evaluation in identifying the etiology of autism spectrum disorders: 2013 guideline revisions. Genet Med. 2013;15(5):399-407. Available at https://www.acmg.net/PDFLibrary/Austism-Spectrum-Genetics-Evaluation.pdf. Last accessed December 18, 2020.

2. Volkmar F, Siegel M, Woodbury-Smith M, et al. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014;53(2):237-257. Available at https://www.jaacap.org/article/S0890-8567(13)00819-8/pdf. Last accessed December 18, 2020.

3. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Assessment, Diagnosis and Clinical Interventions for Children and Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A National Clinical Guideline. Edinburgh: Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network; 2016. Available at https://www.sign.ac.uk/assets/sign145.pdf. Last accessed December 18, 2020.


Copyright © 2021 NetCE, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.