Works Cited

1. Federal Register. Content and Format of Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products: Requirements for Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling. Available at Last accessed July 16, 2021.

2. Gaffney A. FDA Scraps Pregnancy Labeling Classification System in Favor of New Standard. Available at™/news-articles/2014/12/fda-scraps-pregnancy-labeling-classification-system-in-favor-of-new-standard. Last accessed July 16, 2021.

3. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Final Rule. Available at Last accessed July 16, 2021.

4. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Issues Final Rule on Changes to Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Information for Prescription Drug and Biological Products. Available at Last accessed July 14, 2021.

5. Suresh L, Radfar L. Pregnancy and lactation. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004;97(6):672-682.

6. Thornburg KL, Jacobson SL, Giraud GD, Morton MJ. Hemodynamic changes in pregnancy. Semin Perinatol. 2000;24(1):11-14.

7. Little JW, Miller CS, Rhodus NL. Dental Management of the Medically Compromised Patient. 9th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2018.

8. Giglio JA, Lanni SM, Laskin DM, Giglio NW. Oral health care for the pregnant patient. J Can Dent Assoc. 2009;5(1):43-48.

9. Silk H, Douglass AB, Douglass JM, Silk L. Oral health during pregnancy. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77(8):1139-1144.

10. Amini H, Casamassimo PS. Prenatal dental care: a review. Gen Dent. 2010;58(3):176-180.

11. Wu M, Chen SW, Jiang SY. Relationship between gingival inflammation and pregnancy. Mediators Inflamm. 2015;2015:623427.

12. Niederman R. Pregnancy gingivitis and causal inference. Evid Based Dent. 2013;14(4):107-108.

13. Boggess KA, Espinola JA, Moss K, Beck J, Offenbacher S, Camargo CA Jr. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant women. J Periodontal. 2011;82(2):195-200.

14. Ebersole JL, Novak JM, Michalowicz BS, et al. Systemic immune responses in pregnancy and periodontitis: relationship to pregnancy outcomes in the obstetrics and periodontal therapy (OPT) study. J Periodontal. 2009;80(6):953-960.

15. Han YW. Oral health and adverse pregnancy outcomes: what's next? J Dent Res. 2011;90(3):289-293.

16. Pierson JC. Dermatologic Manifestations of Pyogenic Granuloma (Lobular Capillary Hemangioma). Available at Last accessed July 16, 2021.

17. Manegold-Brauer G, Brauer HU. Oral pregnancy tumour: an update. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2014;34(2):187-188.

18. Merck Manual. Drugs in Pregnancy. Available at Last accessed July 16, 2021.

19. Lexicomp Online. Available at Last accessed July 16, 2021.

20. Malamed SF. Handbook of Local Anesthesia. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2020.

21. Briggs GG, Freeman RK, Towers CV, Forinash AB. Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation: A Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2017.

22. Patil AS, Sheng JS, Dotters-Katz SK, Schmoll MS, Onslow ML. Principles of anti-infective dosing in pregnancy. Clin Ther. 2016;38(9):2006-2015.

23. Newman MG, van Winkelhoff AJ. Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Use in Dental Practice. 2nd ed. Chicago, IL: Quintessence; 2001.

24. Clark MS, Brunick AL. Handbook of Nitrous Oxide and Oxygen Sedation. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2020.

25. Carlton RR, Adler AM. Principles of Radiographic Imaging: An Art and a Science. 5th ed. Albany, NY: Delmar, Cenage Learning; 2012.

26. Polyzos NP, Polyzos IP, Zavos A, et al. Obstetric outcomes after treatment of periodontal disease during pregnancy: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010;341:c7017.

27. National Centre for Eating Disorders. Bulimia: Caring For Your Teeth. Available at Last accessed July 16, 2021.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Guidelines on Oral Health Care for the Pregnant Adolescent. Chicago, IL: American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry; 2021. Available at Last accessed July 20, 2021.

Copyright © 2021 NetCE, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.