Works Cited

1. Smith KM, Larive LL, Romanelli F. Club drugs: methylenedioxymethamphetamine, flunitrazepam, ketamine hydrochloride, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2002;59(11):1067-1076.

2. Britt GC, McCance-Katz EF. A brief overview of the clinical pharmacology of "club drugs." Subst Use Misuse. 2005;40(9-10):1189-1201.

3. Rimsza ME, Moses KS. Substance abuse on the college campus. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2005;52(1):307-319.

4. Rome ES. It's a rave new world: rave culture and illicit drug use in the young. Cleve Clin J Med. 2001;68(6):541-550.

5. Jones CM, Clayton HB, Deputy NP, et al. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2019. MMWR. 2020;69(Suppl-1):40-46.

6. American Addiction Centers. Ecstasy Statistics and History. Available at Last accessed December 13, 2021.

7. Monitoring the Future. Marijuana Use is Rising; Ecstasy Use is Beginning to Rise; and Alcohol Use is Declining Among U.S. Teens. Available at Last accessed December 12, 2021.

8. El-Mallakh RS, Abraham HD. MDMA (Ecstasy). Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2007;19(1):45-52.

9. Greene JP, Ahrendt D, Stafford EM. Adolescent abuse of other drugs. Adolesc Med Clin. 2006;17(2):283-318.

10. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The DAWN Report: Ecstasy-Related Emergency Department Visits by Young People Increased Between 2005 and 2011; Alcohol Involvement Remains a Concern. Available at Last accessed December 15, 2021.

11. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. World Drug Report 2015. Available at Last accessed December 15, 2021.

12. Morton J. Ecstasy: pharmacology and neurotoxicity. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2005;5(1):79-86.

13. National Institute on Drug Abuse. MDMA (Ecstasy) Abuse. Available at Last accessed December 13, 2021.

14. National Drug Intelligence Center, Drug Enforcement Administration, United States Customs Service. Joint Assessment of MDMA Trafficking Trends. Johnstown, PA: National Drug Intelligence Center; 2000.

15. Sacco LN, Finklea K. Synthetic Drugs: Overview and Issues for Congress. Available at Last accessed December 14, 2021.

16. Baumeister D, Tojo LM, Tracy DK. Legal highs: staying on top of the flood of novel psychoactive substances. Ther Adv Psychopharmacol. 2015;5(2):97-132.

17. Klein M, Kramer F. Rave drugs: pharmacological considerations. AANA J. 2004;72(1):61-67.

18. Lexicomp Online. Available at Last accessed December 14, 2021.

19. Bang-Ping J. Sexual dysfunction in men who abuse illicit drugs: a preliminary report. J Sex Med. 2009;6(4):1072-1080.

20. Hahn I-H. MDMA Toxicity. Available at Last accessed December 15, 2021.

21. Andresen H, Aydin BE, Mueller A, Iwersen-Bergmann S. An overview of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid: pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, toxic effects, addiction, analytical methods, and interpretation of results. Drug Test Anal. 2011;3(9):560-568.

22. U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Drug Fact Sheet: GHB. Available at Last accessed December 15, 2021.

23. Drasbek KR, Christensen J, Jensen K. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate-a drug of abuse. Acta Neurol Scand. 2006;114(3):145-156.

24. Pardi D, Black J. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate/sodium oxybate: neurobiology, and impact on sleep and wakefulness. CNS Drugs. 2006;20(12):993-1018.

25. Benzer TI. Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Toxicity. Available at Last accessed December 15, 2021.

26. van Noorden MS, Kamal R, de Jong CA, Vergouwen AC, Zitman FG. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) dependence and the GHB withdrawal syndrome: diagnosis and treatment. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2010;154:A1286.

27. Kamal RM, Schellekens A, De Jong Ca, Dijkstra BA. Baclofen as relapse prevention in the treatment of Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) dependence: an open label study. BMC Psychiatry. 2015;15:91.

28. Li JH, Vicknasingam B, Cheung YW, et al. To use or not to use: an update on licit and illicit ketamine use. Subst Abuse Rehabil. 2011;2:11-20.

29. D'Orazio J. Hallucinogen Toxicity Treatment and Management. Treatment: Prehospital Care. Available at Last accessed December 15, 2021.

30. U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. DEA Drug Fact Sheet: Rohypnol. Available at Last accessed December 15, 2021.

31. U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Drugs of Abuse: A DEA Resource Guide, 2017 Edition. Available at Last accessed December 15, 2021.

32. Hall JA, Moore CBT. Drug-facilitated sexual assault: a review. J Forensic Leg Med. 2008;15(5):291-297.

33. Basheer C. Recent analytical strategies on "date-rape" drugs and its metabolites. J App Pharm Sci. 2011;1(6):21-28.

34. Brisset C, Leanza Y, Laforest K. Working with interpreters in health care: a systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative studies. Patient Educ Couns. 2013;91(2):131-140.

35. Hwa-Froelich DA, Westby CE. Considerations when working with interpreters. Commun Disord Q. 2003;24(2): 78-85.

36. Lynch EW. Developing cross-cultural competence. In: Lynch EW, Hanson MJ (eds). A Guide for Working with Children and Their Families: Developing Cross-Cultural Competence. 3rd ed. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.; 2004.

37. Herndon E. Getting the most from language interpreters. Fam Pract Manag. 2004;11(6):37-40.

38. U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid. Available at Last accessed December 15, 2021.

39. U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. 2020 National Drug Threat Assessment (NDTA) Summary. Available at Last accessed December 14, 2021.

40. Monitoring the Future. National Survey Results on Drug Use: 2020 Overview, Key Findings on Adolescent Drug Use. Available at Last accessed December 11, 2021.

41. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Trends in the Prevalence of Marijuana, Cocaine, and Other Illegal Drug Use National YRBS: 1991–2019. Available at Last accessed December 11, 2021.

42. UK Home Office. Letter from the Home Secretary to the Chair of the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. Available at Last accessed December 15, 2021.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. Clinical Effectiveness Group. UK National Guidelines on the Management of Adult and Adolescent Complainants of Sexual Assault 2011. London: British Association for Sexual Health and HIV; 2012. Available at Last accessed December 16, 2021.

Copyright © 2022 NetCE, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.