Works Cited

1. U.S. Census Bureau. Population Projections. Available at Last accessed January 2, 2022.

2. IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics. Avoidable Costs in U.S. Healthcare: The $200 Billion Opportunity from Using Medicines More Responsibly. Available at Last accessed January 2, 2022.

3. Jyrkkä J, Enlund H, Korhonen MJ, Sulkava R, Hartikainen S. Patterns of drug use and factors associated with polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy in elderly persons: results of the Kuopio 75+ study: a cross-sectional analysis. Drugs Aging. 2009;26(6):493-503.

4. The American Geriatrics Society 2019 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2019;00:1-21.

5. Gallagher P, Ryan C, Byrne S, Kennedy J,. STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment): consensus validation. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;46(2):72-83.

6. Rothberg MB, Pekow PS, Liu F, et al. Potentially inappropriate medication use in hospitalized elders. J Hosp Med. 2008;3(2): 91-102.

7. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. CMS Survey and Certification Group 2016/2017 Nursing Home Action Plan. Available Last accessed January 2, 2022.

8. Gill S, Mamdani M, Naglie G, et al. A prescribing cascade involving cholinesterase inhibitors and anticholinergic drugs. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(7):808-813.

9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Medication Safety Program: Adverse Drug Events in Adults. Available at Last accessed January 2, 2022.

10. Wu C, Bell CM, Wodchis WP. Incidence and economic burden of adverse drug reactions among elderly patients in Ontario emergency departments: a retrospective study. Drug Saf. 2012:35(9):769-781.

11. Shepherd G, Mohorn P, Yacoub K, May DW. Adverse drug reaction deaths reported in United States vital statistics, 1999–2006. Ann Pharmacother. 2012;46(2):169-175.

12. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Advanced Copy: Dementia Care in Nursing Homes: Clarification to Appendix P State Operations Manual (SOM) and Appendix PP in the SOM for F309–Quality of Care and F329–Unnecessary Drugs. Available at Last accessed January 2, 2022.

13. Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care (AMDA). White Paper on Palliative Care and Hospice in Long-Term Care. Columbia, MD: Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care; 2007.

14. Hughes CM, Cooper JA, Ryan C. Going beyond the numbers: a call to redefine polypharmacy. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014;77(6): 915-916.

15. Cooper JA, Cadogan CA, Patterson SM, et al. Interventions to improve the appropriate use of polypharmacy in older people: a Cochrane systematic review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(5):e009235.

16. Hilty D, Young JS, Bourgeois JA, Klein S, Hardin KA. Algorithms for the assessment and management of insomnia in primary care. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2009;3:9-20.

17. Ramakrishnan K, Scheid DC. Treatment options for insomnia. Am Fam Physician. 2007;76(4):517-526.

18. Barry PJ, Gallagher P, Ryan C, O'Mahony D. START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to the Right Treatment): an evidence-based screening tool to detect prescribing omissions in elderly patients. Age Ageing. 2007;36:632-638.

19. Le J. Drug Metabolism. Available at Last accessed January 2, 2022.

20. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. CMS Manual System. Pub. 100-07 State Operations Provider Certification. Available at Last accessed January 2, 2022.

21. Thorpe CT, Gellad WF, Good CB, et al. Tight glycemic control and use of hypoglycemic medications in older veterans with type 2 diabetes and comorbid dementia. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(4):588-595.

22. Vijan S, Sussman JB, Yudkin JS, Hayward RA. Effect of patients' risks and preferences on health gains with plasma glucose level lowering in type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(8):1227-1234.

23. Kirkman MS, Briscoe VJ, Clark N, et al. Diabetes in older adults: a consensus report. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60(12):2342-2356.

24. Sinclair AJ, Paolisso G, Castro M, et al. European Diabetes Working Party for Older People 2011 clinical guidelines for type 2 diabetes mellitus: executive summary. Diabetes Metab. 2011;37(Suppl 3):S27-S38.

25. Kapo J, Morrison LJ, Liao S. Palliative care for the older adult. J Palliat Med. 2007;10(1):185-209.

26. Bekelman DB, Hutt E, Masoudi FA, Kutner JS, Rumsfeld JS. Defining the role of palliative care in older adults with heart failure. Int J Cardiol. 2008;125(2):183-190.

27. Masoudi FA, Krumholz HM. Polypharmacy and comorbidity in heart failure. BMJ. 2003;327(7414):513-514.

28. Havranek E, Masoudi FA, Westfall KA, Wolfe P, Ordin DL, Krumholz HM. Spectrum of heart failure in older patients: results from the National Heart Failure project. Am Heart J. 2002;143(3):412-417.

29. Holmes HM, Sachs GA, Shega JW, Hougham GW, Cox Hayley D, Dale W. Integrating palliative medicine into the care of persons with advanced dementia: identifying appropriate medication use. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008;56(7):1306-1311.

30. Stevenson J, Abernethy AP, Miller C, Currow DC. Managing comorbidities in patients at the end of life. BMJ. 2004;329(7471):909-912.

31. Helme RD, Gibson SJ. The epidemiology of pain in elderly people. Clin Geriatr Med. 2001;17:417-431.

32. Ferrell BA, Ferrell BR, Rivera L. Pain in cognitively impaired nursing home patients. J Pain Sympt Manage. 1995;10:591-598.

33. American Geriatrics Society Panel on Pharmacological Management of Persistent Pain in Older Persons. Pharmacological management of persistent pain in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57:1331-1346.

34. Mitchell SL, Teno JM, Kiely DK, et al. The clinical course of advanced dementia. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:1529-1538.

35. Hanson LC, Eckert KJ, Dobbs D, et al. Symptom experience of dying long-term care residents. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008;56:91-98.

36. Teno JM, Clarridge BR, Casey V, et al. Family perspectives on end-of-life care at the last place of care. JAMA. 2004;291:88-93.

37. Ferrell BA. Assessing pain in the elderly. Consult Pharm. 2010;25(Suppl A):5-10.

38. Vandenberg EV, Tvrdik A, Keller BK. Use of the quality improvement process in assessing end-of-life care in the nursing home. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2005;6(5):334-339.

39. Buscemi N, Vandermeer B, Hooton N, et al. The efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin for primary sleep disorders: a meta-analysis. J Gen Intern Med. 2005;20(12):1151-1158.

40. Morandi A, Vasilevskis E, Pandharipande PP, et al. Inappropriate medication prescriptions in elderly adults surviving an intensive care unit hospitalization. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013;61(7):1128-1134.

41. Brown JD, Hutchison LC, Li C, Painter JT, Martin BC. Predictive validity of the Beers and Screening Tool of Older Persons' Potentially Inappropriate Prescriptions (STOPP) criteria to detect adverse drug events, hospitalizations, and emergency department visits in the United States. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016;64(1):22-30.

42. Weathermon R, Crabb DW. Alcohol and medication interactions. Alcohol Research and Health. 1999;23(1):40-54.

43. Vivian EM. Type 2 diabetes across the life span. In: Cornell S, Halstenson C, Miller DK (eds). The Art and Science of Diabetes Self-Management Education: Desk Reference. 4th ed. Chicago, IL: American Association of Diabetes Educators; 2017: 393-410.

44. Kalra S, Mukherjee JJ, Venkataraman S, et al. Hypoglycemia: the neglected complication. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2013;17(5):819-834.

45. LexiComp Online. Available at Last accessed January 2, 2022.

46. Steinman MA, Beizer JL, DuBeau CE, Laird RD, Lundebjerg NE, Mulhausen P. How to use the American Geriatrics Society 2015 Beers Criteria: a guide for patients, clinicians, health systems, and payors. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015;63(12):e1-e7.

47. Lavan AH, Gallagher PF, O'Mahony D. Methods to reduce prescribing errors in elderly patients with multimorbidity. Clin Interv Aging. 2016;11:857-866.

48. Masnoon N, Shakib S, Kalisch-Ellett L, Caughey GE. What is polypharmacy? A systematic review of definitions. BMC Geriatr. 2017;17(1):230.

49. O'Mahony D, O'Sullivan D, Byrne S, et al. STOPP/START criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people: version 2. Age Ageing. 2015;44(2):213-218.

50. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Reform of Requirements for Long-Term Care Facilities. Available at Last accessed January 2, 2022.

51. American Diabetes Association. Position statement, older adults: standards of medical care in diabetes—2018. Diab Care. 2018;41(Supp 1):S119-S125.

52. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. CMS State Operations Manual Appendix PP: Guidance to Surveyors for Long Term Care Facilities. Available at Last accessed January 2, 2022.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing. Medication. In: Boltz M, Capezuti E, Fulmer T, Zwicker D (eds). Evidence-Based Geriatric Nursing Protocols for Best Practice. 6th ed. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company; 2020. Available at Last accessed January 5, 2022.

2. Bergman-Evans B. Improving medication management for older adult clients residing in long-term care facilities. J Gerontol Nurs. 2013;39(11):11-17. Available at{bef23293-68df-4c4e-8a87-89e254b4bef9}/. Last accessed January 5, 2022.

Copyright © 2022 NetCE, PO Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.