Works Cited

1. The North American Menopause Society. NAMS Expert Advice: Perimenopause and Premature FAQs. Available at Last accessed October 21, 2022.

2. Sievert LL. Menopause across cultures: clinical considerations. Menopause. 2014;21(4):421-423.

3. U.S. Census Bureau. Women's History Month. Available at Last accessed October 21, 2022.

4. U.S. Census Bureau. Age and Sex Composition in the United States: 2016. Available at Last accessed October 21, 2022.

5. Dillaway HE. (Un)changing menopausal bodies: how women think and act in the face of a reproductive transition and gendered beauty ideal. Sex Roles. 2005;53(1-2):1-17.

6. Castillo RJ. Culture and Mental Illness: A Client-Centered Approach. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company; 1997.

7. Good B, Good MJD. The meaning of symptoms: a cultural hermeneutic model for clinical practice. In: Eisenberg L, Kleinman A (eds). The Relevance of Social Science for Medicine. Boston, MA: D. Reidel Publishing Company; 1981: 165-196.

8. Atwood JD, McElgun L, Celin Y, McGrath J. The socially constructed meanings of menopause: another case of manufactured madness? J Couple Relatsh Ther. 2008;7(2):150-174.

9. Gordon MM. Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion and National Origins. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1964.

10. Lum D. Culturally Competent Practice: A Framework for Growth and Action. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole; 1999.

11. Hodge JL, Struckmann DK, Trost LD. Cultural Bases of Racism and Group Oppression: An Examination of Traditional "Western" Concepts, Values, and Institutional Structures Which Support Racism, Sexism, and Elitism. Berkeley, CA: Two Riders Press; 1975.

12. Sue DW, Sue D. Counseling the Culturally Different: Theory and Practice. 7th ed. New York, NY: Wiley; 2015.

13. Liao L, Lunn S, Baker M. Midlife menopause: male partners talking. Sex Relation Ther. 2015;30(1):167-180.

14. Choi H. Understanding adolescent depression in ethnocultural context. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2002;25(2):71-85.

15. Bhui K, Dinos S. Health beliefs and culture: essential considerations for outcome measurement. Disease Management & Health Outcomes. 2008;16(6):411-419.

16. Carranza-Lira S, Quiroz González BN, Alfaro Godinez HC, May Can AM. Comparison of climacteric symptoms among women in Mexico City and women of a Mayan community of Yucatan. Ginecol Obstet Mex. 2012;80(10):644-649.

17. Thurston WE, Vissandjée B. An ecological model for understanding culture as a determinant of women's health. Crit Public Health. 2005;15(3):229-242.

18. Lorber J. Paradoxes of Gender. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; 1994.

19. Cifcili SY, Akman M, Demirkol A, Unalan PC, Vermeire E. "I should live and finish it:" a qualitative inquiry into Turkish women's menopause experience. BMC Fam Pract. 2009;10:2.

20. Lanza di Scalea T, Matthews KA, Avis NE, et al. Role stress, role reward, and mental health in a multiethnic sample of midlife women: results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2012;21(5):481-489.

21. McCrea F. The politics of menopause: the "discovery" of a deficiency disease. Social Problems. 1983;31(1):111-123.

22. Burkard T, Moser M, Rauch M, Jick SS, Meier CR. Utilization pattern of hormone therapy in UK general practice between 1996 and 2015: a descriptive study. Menopause. 2019;26(7):741-749.

23. MacPherson KI. Menopause as disease: the social construction of a metaphor. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 1981;3(2):95-113.

24. Spira M, Berger B. The evolution of understanding menopause in clinical treatment. Clin Soc Work J. 1999;27(3):259-273.

25. Murtagh MJ, Hepworth J. Narrative review of changing medical and feminist perspectives on menopause: from femininity and ageing to risk and choice. Psychology, Health & Medicine. 2005;10(3):276-290.

26. Sellman S. The Myths and Truths of Women's Hormones. Available at Last accessed October 21, 2022.

27. Voda AM, Ashton CA. Fallout from the Women's Health Study: a short-lived vindication for feminists and the resurrection of hormone therapies. Sex Roles. 2006;54(5-6):401-411.

28. Winterich J. Gender, Medicine and the Menopausal Body: How Biology and Culture Influence Women's Experiences with Menopause. Available at Last accessed October 20, 2022.

29. Randal J. Menopause is "by no means confined to the woman," doctor said. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94(15):1117.

30. Offman A, Kleinplatz P. Does PMDD belong in the DSM? Challenging the medicalization of women's bodies. Can J Hum Sex. 2004;13(1):17-27.

31. Chino M, Debruyn L. Building true capacity: indigenous models for indigenous communities. Am J Public Health. 2006;96(4):596-599.

32. Ejiogu N, Norbeck JH, Mason MA, Cromwell BC, Zonderman AB, Evans MK. Recruitment and retention strategies for minority or poor clinical research participants: lessons from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study. Gerontologist. 2011;51(Suppl 1):S33-S45.

33. Thornton JE. Myths of aging or ageist stereotypes. Educ Gerontol. 2002;28(4):301-312.

34. Fung HH. Aging in culture. Gerontologist. 2013;53(3):369-377.

35. Kao RS, Lam ML. Asian American elderly. In: Lee E (ed). Working with Asian Americans: A Guide for Clinicians. New York, NY: The Guilford Press; 1997: 208-223.

36. Axelson JA. Counseling and Development in a Multicultural Society. 3rd ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company; 1999.

37. Willis W. Families with African American roots. In: Lynch EW, Hanson MJ (eds). Developing Cross-Cultural Competence: A Guide to Working with Children and Their Families. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Company; 1998: 165-202.

38. Bergner D, Dimen M, Eichenbaum L, Lieberman J, Feldmann Secrest M. The changing landscape of female desire: the growing chasm between "hotness" and sexual obsolescence in a digitized, surgicized, and pornographized world. Psychoanalytic Perspectives. 2012;9(2):163-202.

39. Pertot S. Sex therapy and the cultural construction of sexuality. Contemporary Sexuality. 2006;40(4):9-13.

40. Brown JD. Mass media influences on sexuality. J Sex Res. 2002;39(1):42-45.

41. Schmidt M. Anglo Americans and sexual child abuse. In: Fontes LA (ed). Sexual Abuse in Nine North American Cultures: Treatment and Prevention. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 1995: 156-175.

42. Rouse-Arnett M, Long Dilworth J. Early influences on African American women's sexuality. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy. 2006;18(3):39-61.

43. Kane M. How are sexual behaviors of older women and older men perceived by human service students? J Soc Work Educ. 2008;27(7):723-743.

44. Taylor A, Gosney MA. Sexuality in older age: essential considerations for healthcare professionals. Age Ageing. 2011;40(5):538-543.

45. Spring L. Older women and sexuality: are we still just talking lube? Sexual and Relationship Therapy. 2015;30(1):4-9.

46. Konrad AM, Harris C. Desirability of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory items for women and men: a comparison between African Americans and European Americans. Sex Roles. 2002;47(5-6):259-271.

47. Vaterlaus J, Skogrand L, Chaney C. Help-seeking for marital problems: perceptions of individuals in strong African American marriages. Contemp Fam Ther. 2015;37(1):22-32.

48. Kerrigan D, Andrinopoulos K, Johnson R, Parham P, Thomas T, Ellen JM. Staying strong: gender ideologies among African-American adolescents and the implications for HIV/STI prevention. J Sex Res. 2007;44(2):172-180.

49. Lai DWL. Abuse and neglect experienced by aging Chinese in Canada. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect. 2011;23(4):326-347.

50. Uba L. Asian Americans: Personality Patterns, Identity, and Mental Health. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 1994.

51. Watson RS, Ebrey PB (eds). Marriage and Inequality in Chinese Society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press; 1991.

52. Ayón C, Marsiglia FF, Bermudez-Parsai M. Latino family mental health: exploring the role of discrimination and familismo. J Community Psychol. 2010;38(6):742-756.

53. Raffaelli M, Ontai LL. Gender socialization in Latino/a families: results from two retrospective studies. Sex Roles. 2004;50(5-6):287-299.

54. Derry P. What do we mean by "the biology of menopause?" Sex Roles. 2002;46(1-2):13-23.

55. Pimenta F, Leal I, Maroco J, Ramos C. Menopause Symptoms' Severity Inventory (MSSI-38): assessing the frequency and intensity of symptoms. Climacteric. 2012;15(2):143-152.

56. Rostosky SS, Travis CB. Menopause research and the dominance of the biomedical model 1984–1994. Psychol Women Q. 1996;20(2):285-312.

57. Meyer V. Medicalized menopause, U.S. style. Health Care Women Int. 2003;24(9):822-830.

58. Utz RL. Like mother, (not) like daughter: the social construction of menopause and aging. Journal of Aging Studies. 2011;25(2):143-154.

59. Wood JM, Koch PB, Mansfield PK. Women's sexual desire: a feminist critique. J Sex Res. 2006;43(3):236-244.

60. Pollis CA. An assessment of the impacts of feminism on sexual science. J Sex Res. 1988;25(1):85-105.

61. Ballard K, Kuh D, Wadsworth M. The role of the menopause in women's experiences of the "change of life." Sociology of Health & Illness. 2001;23(4):397-424.

62. Dillaway H, Byrnes M, Miller S, Rehan S. Talking "among us:" how women from different racial-ethnic groups define and discuss menopause. Health Care Women Int. 2008;29(7):766-781.

63. Downey JI. What women want: psychodynamics of women's sexuality in 2008. J Am Acad Psychoanal Dyn Psychiatry. 2009;37(2):253-268.

64. Jones J. Embodied meaning: menopause and the change of life. Soc Work Health Care. 1994;19(3-4):43-65.

65. Martin E. The Woman in the Body: A Cultural Analysis of Reproduction. Boston, MA: Beacon Press; 1987.

66. Mansfield PK, Voda AM. From Edith Bunker to the 6:00 news: how and what midlife women learn about menopause. In: Davis ND, Cole E, Rothblum ED (eds). Faces of Women and Aging. New York, NY: The Haworth Press, Inc.; 1993: 89-104.

67. Carlson ES, Li S, Holm K. An analysis of menopause in the popular press. Health Care Women Int. 1997;8(6):557-564.

68. Shoebridge A, Steed L. Discourse about menopause in selected print media. Aust N Z J Public Health. 1999;23(5):475-481.

69. Lyons A, Griffin C. Managing menopause: a qualitative analysis of self-help literature for women at midlife. Social Science and Medicine. 2003;56(8):1629-1642.

70. Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Improving Health for Mid-Life and Older Women. Available at Last accessed October 28, 2019.

71. Bromberger JT, Meyer PM, Kravitz HM, et al. Psychological distress and natural menopause: a multiethnic community study.Am J Public Health. 2001;91(9):1435-1442.

72. Fu S, Anderson D, Courtney M. Cross-cultural menopausal experience: comparison of Australian and Taiwanese women. Nurs Health Sci. 2003;5(1):77-84.

73. Grisso J, Freeman E, Maurin E, Garcia-Espana B, Berlin J. Racial differences in menopause information and the experience of hot flashes. J Gen Intern Med. 1999;14(2):98-103.

74. Gupta P, Sturdee DW, Hunter MS. Mid-age health in women from the Indian subcontinent (MAHWIS): general health and the experience of menopause in women. Climacteric. 2006;9(1):13-22.

75. Avis NE, Stellato R, Crawford S, et al. Is there a menopausal syndrome? Menopausal status and symptoms across racial/ethnic groups. Soc Sci Med. 2001;52(3):345-356.

76. Astbury-Ward EM. Menopause, sexuality and culture: is there a universal experience? Sexual and Relationship Therapy. 2003;18(4):437-445.

77. Rice PL. Pog laus, tsis coj khaub ncaws lawm: the menopause in Hmong women. J Reprod Infant Psychol. 1995;13:79-92.

78. Sampselle CM, Harris V, Harlow SD, Sowers M. Midlife development and menopause in African American and Caucasian women. Health Care Women Int. 2002;23(4):351-363.

79. Kagawa-Singer M, Wu K, Kawanishi Y, et al. Comparison of the menopause and midlife transition between Japanese American and European American women. Med Anthropol Q. 2002;16(1):64-91.

80. Gifford S. The change of life, the sorrow of life: menopause, bad blood and cancer among Italian-Australian working class women. Cult Med Psychiatry. 1994;18(3):299-319.

81. Im EO, Liu Y, Dormire S, Chee W. Menopausal symptom experience: an online forum study. J Adv Nurs. 2008;62(5):541-550.

82. Walter C. The psychosocial meaning of menopause: women's experiences. J Women Aging. 2000;12(3-4):117-131.

83. Padonu G, Holmes-Rovner M, Rothert M, Schmitt N, Kroll J. African-American women's perception of menopause. Am J Health Behav. 1996;20(4):242-251.

84. Dillaway H. Menopause is the "good old:" women's thoughts about reproductive aging. Gender & Society. 2005;19(3):398-417.

85. Adekunle AO, Fawole AO, Okunlola MA. Perceptions and attitudes of Nigerian women about the menopause. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2000;20(5):525-529.

86. Feng Z. Construction of Menopause: An Inquiry of Cultural Influences on Menopause and Its Associated Problems. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association; Atlanta, GA; August 16, 2003.

87. Lee K. Korean urban women's experience of menopause: new life. Health Care Women Int. 1997;18(2):139-148.

88. Loppie CJ. Grandmothers' voice: Mi'kmaq women's vision of mid-life change. Pimatisiwin: A Journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health. 2005;3(2):46-78.

89. Im EO, Meleis AI. A situation-specific theory of Korean immigrant women's menopausal transition. Image J Nurs Sch. 1999;31(4):333-338.

90. Berg JA, Lipson JG. Information sources, menopause beliefs, and health complaints of midlife Filipinas. Health Care Women Int. 1999;20(1):81-92.

91. Chirawatkul S, Patanasri K, Koochaiyasit C. Perceptions about menopause and health practises among women in northeast Thailand. Nurs Health Sci. 2002;4(3):113-121.

92. Anderson D, Melby MK, Sievert LL, Obermeyer CM. Methods used in cross-cultural comparisons of psychological symptoms and their determinants. Maturitas. 2011;70(2):120-126.

93. Jamali S, Javadpour S, Mosalanejad L, Parnian R. Attitudes about sexual activity among postmenopausal women in different ethnic groups: a cross-sectional study in Jahrom, Iran. J Reprod Infertil. 2016;17(1):47-55.

94. Huffman SB, Myers JE. Counseling women in midlife: an integrative approach to menopause. J Couns Dev. 1999;77(3):258-266.

95. Bromberger JT, Kravitz HM, Chang Y, et al. Does risk for anxiety increase during the menopausal transition? Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Menopause. 2013;20(5):488-495.

96. Mackey S, Teo SSH, Dramustic V, Lee HK, Boughton M. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with menopause: a multi-ethnic, qualitative study in Singapore. Health Care Women Int. 2014;35(5):512-528.

97. Evarts BK, Baldwin C. Menopause: a life cycle transition. The Family Journal. 1998;6(3):200-206.

98. Dillaway H. "Why can't you control this?" How women's interactions with intimate partners define menopause and family.J Women Aging. 2008;20(1-2):47-64.

99. Huffman SB, Myers JE, Tingle LR, Bond LA. Menopause symptoms and attitudes of African American women: closing the knowledge gap and expanding opportunities for counseling. J Couns Dev. 2005;83(1):48-56.

100. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. 2011 Women's Health Stats and Facts. Available at Last accessed October 28, 2019.

101. Wilk CA, Kirk MA. Menopause: a developmental stage, not a deficiency disease. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training. 1995;32(2):233-241.

102. Wing Sue D, Gallardo ME, Neville HA (eds). Case Studies in Multicultural Counseling and Therapy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons; 2014.

103. Lee H, Fawcett J, Yang JH, Hann HW. Correlates of hepatitis B virus health-related behaviors of Korean Americans: a situation-specific nursing theory. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2012;44(4):315-322.

104. Matlin MW. From menarche to menopause: misconceptions about women's reproductive lives. Psychol Sci. 2003;45:106-122.

105. Conrad P. The Medicalization of Society: On the Transformation of Human Conditions into Treatable Disorders. Baltimore: MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 2007.

106. Niland P, Lyons AC. Uncertainty in medicine: meanings of menopause and hormone replacement therapy in medical textbooks. Soc Sci Med. 2011;73(8):1238-1245.

107. Padamsee TJ. The pharmaceutical corporation and the "good work" of managing women's bodies. Soc Sci Med. 2011;72(8):1342-1350.

108. Dare JS. Transitions in midlife women's lives: contemporary experiences. Health Care Women Int. 2011;32(2):111-133.

109. Mitchell BA, Lovegreen LD. The empty nest syndrome in midlife families: a multimethod exploration of parental gender differences and cultural dynamics. J Fam Issues. 2009;30(12):1651-1670.

110. Perz J, Ussher JM. "The horror of this living decay:" women's negotiation and resistance of medical discourses around menopause and midlife. Womens Stud Int Forum. 2008;31(4):293-299.

111. Muzacz AK, Akinsulure-Smith AM. Older adults and sexuality: implications for counseling ethnic and sexual minority clients.J Ment Health Couns. 2013;35(1):1-14.

112. Freixas A, Luque B, Reina A. Critical feminist gerontology: in the back room of research. J Women Aging. 2012;24(1):44-58.

113. Dillaway HE, Burton J. "Not done yet?!" Women discuss the "end" of menopause. Womens Stud. 2011;40(2):149-176.

114. Palacios S, Henderson VW, Siseles N, et al. Age of menopause and impact of climacteric symptoms by geographical region. Climacteric. 2010;13(5):419-428.

115. Ward T, Scheid V, Tuffrey V. Women's mid-life health experiences in urban UK: an international comparison. Climacteric. 2010;13(3):278-288.

116. Kaur S, Walia I, Singh A. How menopause affects the lives of women in suburban Chandigarh, India. Climacteric. 2004;7(2):175-180.

117. Jones EK, Jurgenson JR, Katzenellenbogen JM, Thompson SC. Menopause and the influence of culture: another gap for indigenous Australian women? BMC Womens Health. 2012;12:43.

118. Madden S, St Pierre-Hansen N, Kelly L, et al. First Nations women's knowledge of menopause: experiences and perspectives.Can Fam Physician. 2010;56(9):e331-e337.

119. Im EO. A situation-specific theory of Asian immigrant women's menopausal symptom experience in the U.S. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2010;33(2):143-157.

120. Marnocha SK, Bergstrom M, Dempsey LF. The lived experience of perimenopause and menopause. Contemp Nurse. 2011;37(2): 229-240.

121. Uncu Y, Alper Z, Ozdemir H, et al. The perception of menopause and hormone therapy among women in Turkey. Climacteric. 2007;10(1):63-71.

122. Duffy O, Iversen L, Hannaford PC. The menopause "it's somewhere between a taboo and a job." A focus group study. Climacteric. 2011;14(4):497-505.

123. Senba N, Matsuo H. Effect of a health education program on climacteric women. Climacteric. 2010;13(6):561-569.

124. Pearson QM. Managing depression during the menopausal transition. Adultspan. 2010;9(2):76-87.

125. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.

126. Dillaway HE. Medicalization survived the women's health initiative…but, has discourse opened up? Womens Reprod Health. 2015;2(1):24-28.

127. Sethi B. Health experiences of immigrant visible minority women: a literature review. J Evid Inf Soc Work. 2016;13(6):523-534.

128. Houck JA. Hot and Bothered: Women, Medicine, and Menopause in Modern America. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press; 2009.

129. Fishman JR, Flatt MA, Settersten RA. Bioidentical hormones, menopausal women, and the lure of the "natural" in U.S. anti-aging medicine. Soc Sci Med. 2015;132:79-87.

130. National Institute of Health. Women's Health Initiative. Available at Last accessed October 28, 2019.

131. Erol M. From opportunity to obligation: medicalization of post-menopausal sexuality in Turkey. Sexualities. 2014;17(1/2):43-62.

132. Drimalla H. Debunking midlife myths. Sci Am Mind. 2015;26:58-61.

133. Pickard S. Biology as destiny? Rethinking embodiment in "deep" old age. Aging Soc. 2014;34(8):1279-1291.

134. Yang C, Kenny NJ, Chang T, Chang S. Sex life and role identity in Taiwanese women during menopause: a qualitative study.J Adv Nurs. 2016;72(4):770-781.

135. Abrams JA, Javier SJ, Maxwell ML, Belgrave FZ, Nguyen BA. Distant but relative: similarities and differences in gender role beliefs among African American and Vietnamese American women. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2016;22(2):256-267.

136. Ussher JM, Perz J, Parton C. Sex and the menopausal woman: critical review and analysis. Fem Psychol. 2015;25(4):449-468.

137. Chrisler JC. Teaching taboo topics: menstruation, menopause, and the psychology of women. Psychol Women Q. 2013;37(1):128-132.

138. Baber RJ. East is east and West is west: perspectives on the menopause in Asia and the West. Climacteric. 2014;17(1):23-28.

139. Thurston R, Joffe H. Vasomotor symptoms and menopause: findings from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2011;38:489-501.

140. Morrison LA, Brown DE, Sievert LL, et al. Voices from the Hilo Women's Health Study: talking story about menopause. Health Care Women Int. 2014;35(5):529-548.

141. Makara-Studzińska M, Kryś-Noszczyk KM, Wdowiak A, et al. Comparison of biopsychosocial functioning of women of different nationalities in the perimenopausal period. Prz Menopauzalny. 2014;13(6):339-343.

142. Memon FR, Jonker L, Qazi RA. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions towards menopause among highly educated Asian women in their midlife. Post Reprod Health. 2014;20(4):138-142.

143. Enns CZ, Rice JK, Nutt R. Working with diverse women: tools for assessment and conceptualization. In: Enns CZ, Rice J, Nutt RL (eds.). Psychological Practice with Women: Guidelines, Diversity, Empowerment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2015: 31-51.

144. Brown L, Bowden S, Bryant C, et al. Validation and utility of the Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire: links to menopause and well-being trajectories. Maturitas. 2015;82(2):190-196.

145. Jurgenson JR, Jones EK, Haynes E, Green C, Thompson SC. Exploring Australian Aboriginal women's experiences of menopause: a descriptive study. BMC Womens Health. 2014;14(1):47.

146. Jassim GA, Al-Shboul Q. Attitudes of Bahraini women towards the menopause: implications for health care policy. Maturitas. 2008;59(4):358-372.

147. Hakimi S, Simbar M, Ramezani Tehrani F, Zaiery F, Khatami S. Women's perspectives toward menopause: a phenomenological study in Iran. J Women Aging. 2016;28(1):80-89.

148. 148. Çelik AS, Pasinlioğlu T. Effects of imparting planned health education on hot flush beliefs and quality of life of climacteric women. Climacteric. 2017;20(1):25-30.

149. Christoforou A. Uncontrollable bodies: Greek Cypriot women talk about the transition to menopause. Womens Stud Int Forum. 2018;70:9-16.

150. Chalouhi S. Menopause: a complex and controversial journey. Post Reprod Health. 2017;23(3):128-131.

151. Baber RJ, Wright J. A brief history of the International Menopause Society. Climacteric. 2017;20(2):85-90.

152. Hammoudeh D, Coast E, Lewis D, Van der Meulen Y, Leone T, Giacaman R. Age of despair or age of hope? Palestinian women's perspectives on midlife health. Soc Sci Med. 2017;184:108-115.

153. Wray S. Women making sense of midlife: ethnic and cultural diversity. J Aging Stud. 2007;21(1):31-42.

154. Krajewski S. Killer whales and killer women: exploring menopause as a "satellite taboo" that orbits madness and old age. Sex Cult. 2019;23(2):605-620.

155. Luo M, Chui EW. An alternative discourse of productive aging: a self-restrained approach in older Chinese people in Hong Kong.J Aging Stud. 2016;38:27-36.

156. Azar M, Kroll T, Bradbury-Jones C. Lebanese women and sexuality: a qualitative inquiry. Sex Reprod Healthc. 2016;8:13-18.

157. Sinković M, Towler L. Sexual aging: a systematic review of qualitative research on the sexuality and sexual health of older adults. Qual Health Res. 2019;29(9):1239-1254.

158. Erol M. Melting bones: the social construction of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Turkey. Soc Sci Med. 2011;73(10):1490-1497.

159. Im E-O. A feminist approach to research on menopausal symptom experience. Fam Community Health. 2007;30(1Suppl):S15-S23.

160. Sriprasert I, Pantasri T, Piyamongkol W, et al. An International Menopause Society study of vasomotor symptoms in Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand. Climacteric. 2017;20(2):171-177.

161. Im EO, Hu Y, Cheng CY, Ko Y, Chee E, Chee W. Racial/ethnic differences in cognitive symptoms during the menopausal transition. West J Nurs Res. 2019;41(2):217-237.

162. Zhang Y, Zhao X, Leonhart R, et al. A cross-cultural comparison of climacteric symptoms, health-seeking behavior, and attitudes towards menopause among Mosuo women and Han Chinese women in Yunnan, China. Transcult Psychiatry. 2019;56(1):287-301.

163. Yisma E, Eshetu N, Ly S, Dessalegn B. Prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 30–49 years in Gulele sub-city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. BMC Womens Health. 2017;17(1):1-8.

164. Chadha N, Chadha V, Ross S, Sydora BC. Experience of menopause in aboriginal women: a systematic review. Climacteric. 2016;19(1):17-26.

165. Wang M, Gong WW, Hu RY, et al. Age at natural menopause and associated factors in adult women: findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank study in Zhejiang rural area. PLoS One. 2018;13(4):1-13.

166. Ahuja M. Age of menopause and determinants of menopause age: a PAN India survey by IMS. J Midlife Health. 2016;7(3):126-131.

167. Novak B, Lozano-Keymolen D. Childhood disadvantages and the timing of the onset of natural menopause in Latin America and the Caribbean. J Women Aging. 2018;30(4):280-298.

168. Lock M. Encounters with Aging: Mythologies of Menopause in Japan and North America. London: University of California Press; 1993.

169. Erbil N. Attitudes towards menopause and depression, body image of women during menopause. Alex J Med. 2018;54(3):241-246.

170. Tam HTX, Boonmongkon P, Wang X, Guadamuz TE. Skin beauty as erotic capital and production of "luckiness:" a look at menopausal women using hormone therapy replacement for skin treatment in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Asia-Pacific Social Science Review. 2017;17(2):185-195.

171. Bahri N, Roudsari RL, Tohidinik HR, Sadeghi R. Attitudes towards menopause among Iranian women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2016;18:e31012.

172. Flint M. The menopause: reward or punishment? Psychosomatics. 1975;16(4):161-163.

173. Parish SJ, Nappi RE, Kingsberg S. Perspectives on counseling patients about menopausal hormone therapy strategies in a complex data environment. Menopause. 2018;25(8):937-949.

174. Rouhbakhsh M, Kermansaravi F, Shakiba M, Navidian A. The effect of couples education on marital satisfaction in menopausal women. J Women Aging. 2018;8:1-14.

175. Cooper J. Examining factors that influence a woman's search for information about menopause using the socioecological model of health promotion. Maturitas. 2018;116:7378.

176. Rindner L, Strömme G, Nordeman L, Hange D, Rembeck G. Reducing menopausal symptoms for women during the menopause transition using group education in a primary health care setting: a randomized controlled trial. Maturitas. 2017;98:14-19.

177. Hu L, Zhu L, Lyu J, Zhu W, Yang L. Benefits of walking on menopausal symptoms and mental health outcomes among Chinese postmenopausal women. International Journal of Gerontology. 2017;11(3):166-170.

178. Nam EY, Park JY, Lee JY, Jo J, Kim DI. Traditional acupuncture for menopausal hot flashes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Integr Med. 2018;17:119-128.

179. Tonob D, Melby MK. Broadening our perspectives on complementary and alternative medicine for menopause: a narrative review. Maturitas. 2017;99:79-85.

180. Wang X, Wang L, Di J, Zhang X, Zhao G. Prevalence and risk factors for menopausal symptoms in middle-aged Chinese women: a community-based cross-sectional study. Menopause. 2021;28(11):1271-1278.

181. Cohen I. Menstruation and religion: developing a critical menstrual studies approach. In: Bobel C, Winkler IT, Fahs B, Hasson KA, Kissling EA, Roberts TA (eds). The Palgrave Handbook of Critical Menstruation Studies. Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan; 2020: 115-130.

182. Shea JL. Menopause and midlife aging in cross-cultural perspective: findings from ethnographic research in China. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology. 2020;35:367-388.

183. Ussher JM, Hawkey AJ, Perz J. "Age of despair," or "when life starts:" migrant and refugee women negotiate constructions of menopause. Culture, Health & Sexuality. 2019;21(7):741-756.

184. Singh V, Sivakami M. Normality, freedom, and distress: listening to the menopausal experiences of Indian women of Haryana. In: Bobel C, Winkler IT, Fahs B, Hasson KA, Kissling EA, Roberts TA (eds). The Palgrave Handbook of Critical Menstruation Studies. Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan; 2020: 985-999.

185. Thomas AJ, Mitchell ES, Woods NF. The challenges of midlife women: themes from the Seattle Midlife Women's Health study. Women's Midlife Health. 2020;4(8).

186. Kitayama S, Berg MK, Chopik WJ. Culture and well-being in late adulthood: theory and evidence. The American Psychologist. 2020;75(4):567-576.

187. Syme ML, Cohn TJ. Aging sexual stereotypes and sexual expression in mid- and later life: examining the stereotype matching effect. Aging & Mental Health. 2021;25(8):1507-1514.

188. Gui T. "Leftover women" or single by choice: gender role negotiation of single professional women in contemporary China. Journal of Family Issues. 2021;41(11:1956-1978.

189. Yisma E, Ly S. Menopause: a contextualized experience across social structures. In: Choudhury S, Erausquin J, Withers M (eds). Global Perspectives on Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Across the Lifecourse. Cham, Switzerland: Springer; 2018: 391-409.

190. Krajewski S. Advertising menopause: you have been framed. Continuum. 2019;33(1):137-148.

191. Lock M, Kaufert P. Menopause, local biologies, and cultures of aging. American Journal of Human Biology. 2001;13(4):494-504.

192. Voicu I. Disease or release? A content analysis on how is menopause framed in Romanian online media. Technium Social Science Journal. 2020;8:141-148.

193. Delanoë D, Hajri S, Bachelot A, et al. Class, gender and culture in the experience of menopause. a comparative survey in Tunisia and France. Social Science & Medicine. 2012;75(2):401-409.

194. Wang J, Lin Y, Gao L, et al. Menopause-related symptoms and influencing factors in Mosuo, Yi, and Han middle-aged women in China. Frontiers in Psychology. 2022;13.

195. Kracht CL, St. Romain J, Hardee JC, Santoro N, Redman LM, Marlatt KL. "It just seems like people are talking about menopause, but nobody has a solution:" a qualitative exploration of menopause experiences and preferences for weight management among Black women. Maturitas. 2022;157:16-26.

196. Chan S, Gomes A, Singh RS. Is menopause still evolving? Evidence from a longitudinal study of multiethnic populations and its relevance to women's health. BMC Women's Health. 2020;20(1):1-15.

197. Namazi M, Sadeghi R, Moghadam ZB. Social determinants of health in menopause: an integrative review. International Journal of Women's Health. 2019;11:637-647.

198. Amini E, McCormack M. Medicalization, menopausal time and narratives of loss: Iranian Muslim women negotiating gender, sexuality and menopause in Tehran and Karaj. Women's Studies International Forum. 2019;76.

199. Bahri N, Latifnejad Roudsari R. "Moving from uncertainty toward acceptance:" a grounded theory study on exploring Iranian women's experiences of encountering menopause. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2020;41(2):154-164.

200. Ilankoon IMPS, Samarasinghe K, Elgán C. Menopause is a natural stage of aging: a qualitative study. BMC Women's Health. 2021;21(1):1-9.

201. Zou P, Waliwitiya T, Luo Y, et al. Factors influencing healthy menopause among immigrant women: a scoping review. BMC Women's Health. 2021;21(1):1-11.

202. Dillaway H. Living in uncertain times: experiences of menopause and reproductive aging. In: Bobel C, Winkler IT, Fahs B, Hasson KA, Kissling EA, Roberts TA (eds). The Palgrave Handbook of Critical Menstruation Studies. Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan; 2020: 253-267.

203. Rouhbakhsh M, Kermansaravi F, Shakiba M, Navidian A. The effect of couples education on marital satisfaction in menopausal women. Journal of Women & Aging. 2019;31(5):432-445.

204. Caçapava Rodolpho JR, Cid Quirino B, Komura Hoga LA, Lima Ferreira Santa Rosa P. Men's perceptions and attitudes toward their wives experiencing menopause. Journal of Women & Aging. 2016;28(4):322-333.

205. Zamani Zarchi MS, Nooripour R, Oskooei AH, Afrooz GA. The effects of mindfulness-based training on psychological wellbeing and emotion regulation of menopausal women: a quasi-experimental study. Journal of Research & Health. 2020;10(5):295-303.

206. Ashok BV, Rama AV. A convergent and multidisciplinary integration for research in menopause. Journal of Mid-Life Health. 2022;13(1):5-8.

207. Bridges DR, Davidson RA, Odegard PS, Maki IV, Tomkowiak J. Interprofessional collaboration: three best practice models of interprofessional education. Medical Education Online. 2011;16.

208. Solomon P. Inter-professional collaboration: passing fad or way of the future? Physiotherapy Canada. 2010;62(1):47-65.

209. Goodwin S, MacNaughton-Doucet L, Allan J. Call to action: Interprofessional mental health collaborative practice in rural and northern Canada. Canadian Psychology. 2016;57(3):181-187.

210. Pechacek JM, Drake D, Terrell CA, Torkelson C. Interprofessional intervention to support mature women: a case study. Creative Nursing. 2015;21(3):134-143.

211. Stanzel KA, Hammarberg K, Fisher J. Challenges in menopausal care of immigrant women. Maturitas. 2021;150:49-60.

212. Stanzel KA, Hammarberg K, Nguyen T, Fisher J. "They should come forward with the information:" menopause-related health literacy and health care experiences among Vietnamese-born women in Melbourne, Australia. Ethnicity & Health. 2020;27(3):601-616.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Menopause: Diagnosis and Management. Available at Last accessed October 27, 2022.

2. Stuenkel CA, Davis SR, Gompel A, et al. Treatment of Symptoms of the Menopause: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100(11):3975-4011. Available at Last accessed October 27, 2022.

Copyright © 2022 NetCE, PO Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.