Works Cited

1. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Evaluation and Treatment of Hypogonadism in Adult Male Patients. Available at Last accessed October 27, 2022.

2. Aagaard P. Making muscles "stronger:" exercise, nutrition, drugs. J Musculoskel Neuron Interact. 2004;4(2):165-174.

3. Adachi M, Takayanagi R. Effect of anabolic steroids on osteoporosis. Clin Calcium. 2008;18(10):1451-1459.

4. Arvary D, Pope HG Jr. Anabolic-androgenic steroids as a gateway to opioid dependence. New Engl J Med. 2000;342(20):1532.

5. Bain J. The many faces of testosterone. Clin Interv Aging. 2007;2(4):567-576.

6. Basson R, Wierman ME, van Lankveld J, Brotto L. Summary of the recommendations on sexual dysfunctions in women. J Sex Med. 2010;7(1 Pt 2):314-326.

7. Midzak AS, Chen H, Papadopoulos V, Zirkin BR. Leydig cell aging and the mechanisms of reduced testosterone synthesis. Mol CellEndocrinol. 2009;299(1):23-31.

8. Knapp PE, Storer TW, Herbst KL, et al. Effects of a supraphysiological dose of testosterone on physical function, muscle performance, mood, and fatigue in men with HIV-associated weight loss. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;294(6):E1135-E1143.

9. Bhasin S, Woodhouse L, Casaburi R, et al. Older men are as responsive as young men to the anabolic effects of graded doses of testosterone on the skeletal muscle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(2):678-688.

10. Bhasin S, Storer TW, Berman N, et al. The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men. N Engl J Med. 1996;335(1):1-7.

11. Bhasin S, Calof OM, Storer TW, et al. Drug insight: testosterone and selective androgen receptor modulators as anabolic therapies for chronic illness and aging. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2006;2(3):146-159.

12. Narayanan R, Mohler ML, Bohl CE, Miller DD, Dalton JT. Selective androgen receptor modulators in preclinical and clinical development. Nucl Recept Signal. 2008;6:e010.

13. Borst SE, Mulligan T. Testosterone replacement therapy for older men. Clin Interv Aging. 2007;2(4):561-566.

14. Ip EJ, Trinh K, Tenerowicz MJ, Pal J, Lindfelt TA, Perry PJ. Characteristics and behaviors of older male anabolic steroid users.J Pharm Pract. 2015;28(5):450-456.

15. Hildebrandt T, Langenbucher JW, Flores A, Harty S, Berlin HA. The influence of age of onset and acute anabolic steroid exposure on cognitive performance, impulsivity, and aggression in men. Psychol Addict Behav. 2014;28(4):1096-1104.

16. Brower KJ. Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2002;4(5):377-387.

17. Lindqvist AS, Moberg T, Ehrnborg C, Eriksson BO, Fahlke C, Rosén T. Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014;24(6):1000-1005.

18. Chen J, Kim J, Dalton JT. Discovery and therapeutic promise of selective androgen receptor modulators. Mol Interv. 2005;5(3):173-188.

19. Lundholm L, Frisell T, Lichtenstein P, Långström N. Anabolic androgenic steroids and violent offending: confounding by polysubstance abuse among 10,365 general population men. Addiction. 2015;110(1):100-108.

20. Oberlander JG, Henderson LP. The Sturm und Drang of anabolic steroid use: angst, anxiety, and aggression. Trends Neurosci. 2012;35(6):382-392.

21. Choong K, Lakshman KM, Bhasin S. The physiological and pharmacological basis for the ergogenic effects of androgens in elite sports. Asian J Androl. 2008;10(3):351-363.

22. Clarke BL, Khosla S. Androgens and bone. Steroids. 2009;74(3):296-305.

23. Cohen J, Collins R, Darkes J, Gwartney D. A league of their own: demographics, motivations and patterns of use of 1,955 male adult non-medical anabolic steroid users in the United States. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007;4(12):1-14.

24. Conway AJ, Handelsman DJ, Lording DW, Stuckey B, Zajac JD. Use, misuse and abuse of androgens: the Endocrine Society of Australia consensus guidelines for androgen prescribing. Med J Aust. 2000;172:220-224.

25. Corrigan B. Anabolic steroids and the mind. Med J Aust. 1996;165:222-226.

26. Couto-Silva AC, Trivin C, Adan L, Lawson-Body E, Souberbielle JC, Brauner R. Management of boys with short stature and delayed puberty. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2005;18(8):807-813.

27. Cramer RJ. Letter to the House of Representatives: Anabolic Steroids are Easily Purchased without a Prescription and Present Significant Challenges to Law Enforcement Officials. Available at Last accessed October 27, 2022.

28. Crawford BA, Liu PY, Kean MT, Bleasel JF, Handelsman DJ. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of androgen effects on muscle and bone in men requiring long-term systemic glucocorticoid treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88(7):3167-3176.

29. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Anabolic steroids. Substance Abuse Treatment Advisory. 2006:5(3).

30. Dhar R, Stout CW, Link MS, Homoud MK, Weinstock J, Estes NA III. Cardiovascular toxicities of performance-enhancing substances in sports. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005;80(10):1307-1315.

31. Australia Standing Committee on Environment, Recreation and the Arts. Drugs in Sport: Second Report of the Senate Standing Committee. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service; 1990.

32. Ferreira IM, Verreschi IT, Nery LE, et al. The influence of 6 months of oral anabolic steroids on body mass and respiratory muscles in undernourished COPD patients. Chest. 1998;114(1):19-28.

33. Fitch KD. Androgenic-anabolic steroids and the Olympic Games. Asian J Androl. 2008;10(3):384-390.

34. Gold SM, Voskuhl RR. Estrogen and testosterone therapies in multiple sclerosis. Prog Brain Res. 2009;175:239-251.

35. Gooren LJ. Olympic sports and transsexuals. Asian J Androl. 2008;10(3):427-432.

36. Pope HG Jr, Kanayama G, Hudson JI. Risk factors for illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid use in male weightlifters: a cross-sectional cohort study. Biol Psychiatry. 2012;71(3):254-261.

37. Gruber AJ, Pope HG Jr. Psychiatric and medical effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use in women. Psychother Psychosom. 2000;69(1):19-26.

38. Mills JN. Controversies in diagnosis and treatment of hypogonadism. Current Sexual Health Reports. 2014;6(2):89-93.

39. Hall RC, Hall RC. Abuse of supraphysiologic doses of anabolic steroids. South Med J. 2005;98(5):550-555.

40. Handelsman DJ. Testosterone: use, misuse and abuse. Med J Aust. 2006;185(8):436-439.

41. Handelsman DJ, Heather A. Hormone doping: detection and deterrence: androgen abuse in sports. Asian J Androl. 2008;10:403-415.

42. Hermansson G. Doping Trade: Business for The Big Ones. Available at Last accessed October 27, 2022.

43. Hochberg Z, Pacak K, Chrousos GP. Endocrine withdrawal syndromes. Endocr Rev. 2003;24(4):523-538.

44. Jenkinson DM, Harbert AJ. Supplements and sports. Am Fam Physician. 2008;78(9):1039-1046.

45. Kamel NS, Gammack J, Cepeda O, Flaherty JH. Antioxidants and hormones as antiaging therapies: high hopes, disappointing results. Cleve Clin J Med. 2006;73(12):1049-1056,1058.

46. Kanayama G, Barry S, Hudson JI, Pope HG Jr. Body image and attitudes toward male roles in anabolic-androgenic steroid users.Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:697-703.

47. Kanayama G, Hudson JI, Pope HG Jr. Long-term psychiatric and medical consequences of anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse: a looming public health concern? Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;98(1-2):1-12.

48. Kanayama G, Browser KJ, Wood RI, Hudson JI, Pope HG Jr. Anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: an emerging disorder. Addiction. 2009;104(12):1966-1978.

49. Kanayama G, Brower KJ, Wood RI, Hudson JI, Pope HG Jr. Treatment of anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: emerging evidence and its implications. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010;109(1-3):6-13.

50. Kanayama G, Pope HG, Cohane G, Hudson JI. Risk factors for anabolic-androgenic steroid use among weightlifters: a case-control study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003;71(1):77-86.

51. Kanayama G, Hudson JI, Pope HG Jr. Features of men with anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: a comparison with nondependent AAS users and with AAS nonusers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;102(1-3):130-137.

52. Kaufman JM, Vermeulen A. The decline of androgen levels in elderly men and its clinical and therapeutic implications. Endocr Rev. 2005;26(6):833-876.

53. Kicman AT. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154(3):502-521.

54. Advani A. Introduction: defining the role of testosterone in the male. J Pharm Pract. 2011;24(4):365.

55. Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM (eds). Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016.

56. Kuhn CM. Anabolic steroids. Recent Prog Horm Res. 2002;57:411-434.

57. Kutscher EC, Lund BC, Perry PJ. Anabolic steroids: a review for the clinician. Sports Med. 2002;32(5):285-296.

58. Leder B. Gonadal steroids and bone metabolism in men. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2007;14(3):241-246.

59. Leit RA, Pope HG Jr, Gray JJ. Cultural expectations of muscularity in men: the evolution of Playgirl centerfolds. Int J Eat Disord. 2001;29(1):90-93.

60. van Amsterdam J, Hartgens F. Acute and chronic adverse reaction of anabolic-androgenic steroids. Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin. 2014;288(1):1111-1114.

61. Jenssen IH, Johannessen KB. Aggression and body image concerns among anabolic androgenic steroid users, contemplators, and controls in Norway. Body Image. 2015;12:6-13.

62. Madeo B, Zirilli L, Caffagni G, et al. The osteoporotic male: overlooked and undermanaged? Clin Interv Aging. 2007;2(3):305-312.

63. Zarrouf FA, Artz S, Griffith J, Sirbu C, Kommor M. Testosterone and depression: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Psychiatr Pract. 2009;15(4):289-305.

64. Malone DA Jr. Pharmacological therapies of anabolic androgenic steroid addiction. In: Miller NS, Gold MS (eds). Pharmacological Therapies for Drug and Alcohol Addictions. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker Inc; 1995.

65. McGrath KC, McRobb LS, Heather AK. Androgen therapy and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008;4(1):11-21.

66. Mendenhall CL, Moritz TE, Rosell GA, et al. Protein energy malnutrition in severe alcoholic hepatitis: diagnosis and response to treatment. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1995;19(4):248-265.

67. Mendenhall CL, Anderson S, Garcia-Pont P, et al. Short-term and long-term survival in patients with alcoholic hepatitis treated with oxandrolone and prednisolone. N Engl J Med. 1984;311(23):1464-1470.

68. Mooradian AD, Morley JE, Korenman SG. Biological actions of androgens. Endocr Rev. 1987;8(1):1-28.

69. Hembree WC, Cohen-Kettenis P, Delmarre-van de Waal HA, et al. Endocrine treatment of transsexual persons: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol. 2009;94(9):3132-3154.

70. Morley JE, Kaiser FE, Perry HM 3rd, et al. Longitudinal changes in testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone in healthy older men. Metabolism. 1997;46(4):410-413.

71. Kanayama G, Kean J, Hudson JI, Pope HG Jr. Cognitive deficits in long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013;130(1-3):208-214.

72. Mulligan T, Iranmanesh A, Gheorghiu S, Godschalk M, Veldhuis JD. Amplified nocturnal luteinizing hormone (LH) secretory burst frequency with selective attenuation of pulsatile (but not basal) testosterone secretion in healthy aged men: possible Leydig cell desensitization to endogenous LH signaling: a clinical research center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995;80:3025-3031.

73. Narayanan R, Mohler ML, Bohl CE, Miller DD, Dalton JT. Selective androgen receptor modulators in preclinical and clinical development. Nucl Recept Signal. 2008;6:e010.

74. Neaves WB, Johnson L, Porter JC, Parker R Jr, Petty CS. Leydig cell number, daily sperm production, and serum gonadotropin levels in aging men. J Clinical Endocrinol Metab. 1984;59(4):756-763.

75. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Research Report: Anabolic Steroid Abuse. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2006.

76. Nieschlag E, Behre HM, Bouchard P, et al. Testosterone replacement therapy: current trends and future directions. Hum Reprod Update. 2004;10(5):409-419.

77. Olivardia R, Pope HG Jr, Hudson JI. Muscle dysmorphia in male weightlifters: a case-control study. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157(8):1291-1296.

78. Parkinson AB, Evans NA. Anabolic androgenic steroids: a survey of 500 users. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(4):644-651.

79. Perry PJ, Andersen KH, Yates WR. Illicit anabolic steroid use in athletes: a case series analysis. Am J Sports Med. 1990;18(4):422-428.

80. Pope HG Jr, Wood RI, Rogol A, Nyberg F, Bowers L, Bhasin S. Adverse health consequences of performance-enhancing drugs: an Endocrine Society scientific statement. Endocr Rev. 2014;35(3):341-375.

81. Petersson A, Garle M, Holmgren P, Druid H, Krantz P, Thiblin I. Toxicological findings and manner of death in autopsied users of anabolic androgenic steroids. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;81(3):241-249.

82. Phillips KA, Hollander E. Treating body dysmorphic disorder with medication: evidence, misconceptions, and a suggested approach. Body Image. 2008;5(1):13-27.

83. Polsky B, Kotler D, Steinhart C. Treatment guidelines for HIV-associated wasting. HIV Clin Trials. 2004;5(1):50-61.

84. Pope HG, Kanayama G, Ionescu-Pioggia M, Hudson JI. Anabolic steroid users' attitudes towards physicians. Addiction. 2004;99(9):1189-1194.

85. Pope HG Jr, Katz DL. Homicide and near-homicide by anabolic steroid users. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990;51(1):28-31.

86. Pope HG Jr, Katz DL. Psychiatric and medical effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use: a controlled study of 160 athletes. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994;51(5):375-382.

87. Pope HG Jr, Katz D: Psychiatric effects of anabolic steroids. Psychiatr Ann. 1992;22:24-29.

88. Pope HG Jr. Kouri EM, Hudson JI. Effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on mood and aggression in normal men: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;57(2):133-140.

89. Pope HG Jr, Cohane GH, Kanayama G, Siegel AJ, Hudson JI. Testosterone gel supplementation for men with refractory depression: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:105-111.

90. Pope HG Jr, Kanayama G. Bodybuilding's dark side: clues to anabolic steroid use. Current Psychiatry. 2004;3(12):1-8.

91. Pope CG, Pope HG, Menard W, Fay C, Olivardia R, Phillips KA. Clinical features of muscle dysmorphia among males with body dysmorphic disorder. Body Image. 2005;2(4):395-400.

92. Pope HG Jr., Olivardia R, Gruber A, Borowiecki J. Evolving ideals of male body image as seen through action toys. Int J Eat Disord. 1999;26(1):65-72.

93. Pope HG, Gruber AJ, Mangweth B, et al. Body image perception among men in three countries. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:1297-1301.

94. Pope HG Jr. Olivardia R, Borowiecki JJ 3rd, Cohane GH. The growing commercial value of the male body: a longitudinal survey of advertising in women's magazines. Psychother Psychosom. 2001;70(4):189-192.

95. Reid IR, Wattie DJ, Evans MC, Stapleton JP. Testosterone therapy in glucocorticoid-treated men. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156(11):1173-1177.

96. Reid IR, Ibbertson HK, France JT, Pybus J. Plasma testosterone concentrations in asthmatic men treated with glucocorticoids. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1985;291(6495):574.

97. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 1991.

98. Sato SM, Schulz KM, Sisk CL, Wood RI. Adolescents and androgens, receptors and rewards. Horm Behav. 2008;53(5):647-658.

99. Schänzer W. Metabolism of anabolic androgenic steroids. Clin Chem. 1996;42:1001-1020.

100. Schulte HM, Hail M, Boyer M. Domestic violence associated with anabolic steroid abuse. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150(2):348.

101. Schols AM, Soeters PB, Mostert R, Pluymers RJ, Wouters EF. Physiologic effects of nutritional support and anabolic steroids in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a placebo-controlled randomized trial. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 1995;152(4):1268-1274.

102. Shabsigh R, Arver S, Channer KS, et al. The triad of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and the metabolic syndrome. Int J Clin Pract. 2008;62(5):791-798.

103. Sharma S, Arneja A, McLean L, et al. Anabolic steroids in COPD: a review and preliminary results of a randomized trial. Chron Respir Dis. 2008;5(3):169-176.

104. Socas L, Zumbado M, Pérez-Luzardo O, et al. Hepatocellular adenomas associated with anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in bodybuilders: a report of two cases and a review of the literature. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:e27.

105. Spungen AM, Grimm DR, Strakhan M, Pizzolato PM, Bauman WA. Treatment with an anabolic agent is associated with improvement in respiratory function in persons with tetraplegia: a pilot study. Mt Sinai J Med. 1999;66(3):201-205.

106. Stergiopoulos K, Brennan JJ, Mathews R, Setaro JF, Kort S. Anabolic steroids, acute myocardial infarction and polycythemia: a case report and review of the literature. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008;4(6):1475-1480.

107. Sternbach H. Age-associated testosterone decline in men: clinical issues for psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155:1310-1318.

108. Storer TW, Magliano L, Woodhouse L, et al. Testosterone dose-dependently increases maximal voluntary strength and leg power, but does not affect fatigability or specific tension. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88(4):1478-1485.

109. Sturmi JE, Diorio DJ. Anabolic agents. Clin Sports Med. 1998;17(2):261-282.

110. Talih F, Fattal O, Malone D Jr. Anabolic steroid abuse: psychiatric and physical costs. Cleve Clin J Med. 2007;74(5):341-352.

111. Tennant F, Black DL, Voy RO. Anabolic steroid dependence with opioid-type features. N Engl J Med. 1988;319(9):578.

112. Tracz MJ, Sideras K, Boloña ER, et al. Testosterone use in men and its effects on bone health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(6):2011-2016.

113. Uzych L. Anabolic-androgenic steroids and psychiatric-related effects. Can J Psychiatry. 1992;37(1):23-28.

114. Valenti G, Ceresini G, Maggio M. Androgen deficiency in older men. Minerva Ginecol. 2007;59(1):43-49.

115. Vanderschueren D, Vandenput L, Boonen S. Reversing sex steroid deficiency and optimizing skeletal development in the adolescent with gonadal failure. Endocr Dev. 2005;8:150-165.

116. Veldhuis JD, Swart A, Mulligan T, Iranmanesh A. Muting of androgen negative feedback unveils impoverished gonadotropin-releasing hormone/luteinizing hormone secretory reactivity in healthy older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(2):529-535.

117. Veldhuis JD, Urban RJ, Dufau ML. Differential responses of biologically active luteinizing hormone secretion in older versus young men to interruption of androgen negative feedback. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994;79(6):1763-1770.

118. Vermeulen A. Androgen replacement therapy in the aging male: a critical evaluation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(6):2380-2390.

119. Velema MS, Kwa BHB, de Ronde W. Should androgenic anabolic steroids be considered in the treatment regime of selected chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients? Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2012;18(2):118-128.

120. Wald M, Meacham RB, Ross LS, Niederberger CS. Testosterone replacement therapy for older men. J Androl. 2006;27(2):126-132.

121. Wines JD Jr, Gruber AJ, Pope HG Jr, Lukas SE. Nalbuphine hydrochloride dependence in anabolic steroid users. Am J Addict. 1999;8(2):161-164.

122. Winters SJ, Sherins RJ, Troen P. The gonadotropin-suppressive activity of androgen is increased in elderly men. Metabolism. 1984;33(11):1052-1059.

123. Wood RI. Anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence? Insights from animals and humans. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2008;29(4):490-506.

124. Woodhouse LJ, Reisz-Porszasz S, Javanbakht M. Development of models to predict anabolic response to testosterone administration in healthy young men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003;284:E1009-E1017.

125. Yang CF, Gray P, Pope HG Jr. Male body image in Taiwan versus the West: Yanggang Zhiqi meets the Adonis complex. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:263-9.

126. Yassin AA, Saad F. Testosterone and erectile dysfunction. J Androl. 2008;29(6):593-604.

127. Cunningham RL, Lumia AR, McGinnis MY. Androgenic anabolic steroid exposure during adolescence: ramifications for brain development and behavior. Horm Behav. 2013;64(2):350-356.

128. Digital Citizens Alliance, Taylor Hooten Foundation. New Poll: Young People Using Steroids and HGH Reaching Epidemic Status. Available at Last accessed October 27, 2022.

129. Miech RA, Johnson LD, O'Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE, Patrick ME. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results On Drug Use 1975–2021. Available at Last accessed October 27, 2022.

130. Bojesen A, Gravholt CH. Klinefelter syndrome in clinical practice. Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2007;4(4):192-204.

131. NIH Consensus Development Panel on Impotence. NIH Consensus Conference: Impotence. JAMA. 1993;270(1):83-90.

132. Kalikow KT. Kids On Meds: Up-To-Date Information About the Most Commonly Prescribed Psychiatric Medications. New York, NY: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc.; 2011.

133. Kishner S, Morello JK. Anabolic Steroid Use and Abuse. Available at: Last accessed October 27, 2022.

134. Dalton JT, Gao W. Androgen receptor. In: Bunce CM, Campbell MJ (eds). Nuclear Receptors, Current Concepts and Future Challenges. London: Springer; 2010.

135. Guimaraes-Ferreira L, Silva Dantas W, Murai I, Duncan MJ, Zanchi NE. Performance enhancement drugs and sports supplements for resistance training. In: Bagchi D, Nair S, Sen CK (eds). Nutrition and Enhanced Sports Performance: Muscle Building, Endurance and Strength. 2nd ed. Houston, TX: Academic Press; 2018.

136. Nieschlag E, Behre HM. Clinical use of testosterone in hypogonadism and other conditions. In: Nieschlag E, Behre HM, Nieschlag S (eds). Testosterone: Action, Deficiency, Substitution. 4th ed. New York, NY: Cambridge; 2012.

137. Davis SR, Davison SL. Current perspectives on testosterone therapy for women. Menopausal Med. 2012;20(2):51-54.

138. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Performance enhancing anabolic steroids abuse in women. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;117:1016-1018.

139. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.

140. Theodosiou P. Russian Doping Scandal "Equivalent to East Germany in the 1980s." Available at Last accessed October 27, 2022.

141. Price S. Everything You Need to Know About the Doping Scandal Rocking the Russian National Team. Available at Last accessed October 27, 2022.

142. Dingle S. Rio 2016: Former East German Athletes with Doping History Warn Russians "It's Not Worth It." Available at Last accessed October 27, 2022.

143. Finkelstein JS, Lee H, Leder BZ, et al. Gonadal steroid-dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men. J Clin Invest. 2016;126(3):1114-1125.

144. Ip EJ, Barnett MJ, Tenerowicz MJ, Perry PJ. The Anabolic 500 Survey: characteristics of male users versus nonusers of anabolic-androgenic steroids for strength training. Pharmacotherapy. 2011;31(8):757-766.

145. Rahnema CD, Crosnoe LE, Kim ED. Designer steroids: over-the-counter supplements and their androgenic component: review of an increasing problem. Andrology. 2015;3(2):150-155.

146. Rastrelli G, Carter EL, Ahern T, et al. Development of and recovery from secondary hypogonadism in aging men: prospective results from the EMAS. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100(8):3172-3182.

147. Khera M, Adaikan G, Buvat J, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of testosterone deficiency: recommendations from the Fourth International Consultation for Sexual Medicine (ICSM 2015). J Sex Med. 2016;13(12):1787-1804.

148. Zhou T, Hu ZY, Zhang HP, et al. Effects of testosterone supplementation on body composition in HIV patients: a meta-analysis of double-blinded randomized controlled trials. Curr Med Sci. 2018;38(1):191-198.

149. Preedy V (ed). Handbook of Nutrition and Diet in Palliative Care. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2019.

150. Kőhalmi KV, Veszeli N, Zotter Z, et al. The effect of long-term danazol treatment on haematological parameters in hereditary angioedema. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2016;11(1):18.

151. Thursz M, Morgan TR. Treatment of severe alcoholic hepatitis. Gastroenterology. 2016;150(8):1823-1834.

152. Avila M, Bansal A, Culberson J, Peiris AN. The role of sex hormones in multiple sclerosis. Eur Neurol. 2018;80(1-2):93-99.

153. Achilli C, Pundir J, Ramanathan P, Sabatini L, Hamoda H, Panay N. Efficacy and safety of transdermal testosterone in postmenopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 2017;107(2):475-482.

154. Bhasin S, Seidman S. Testosterone treatment of depressive disorders in men: too much smoke, not enough high-quality evidence. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019;76(1):9-10.

155. Ring J, Heinelt M, Sharma S, Letourneau S, Jeschke MG. Oxandrolone in the treatment of burn injuries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Burn Care Res. 2020;41(1):190-199.

156. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Steroids and Other Appearing and Performance Enhancing Drugs (APEDs). Available at Last accessed October 27, 2022.

157. Havnes IA, Jørstad ML, Wisløff C. Anabolic-androgenic steroid users receiving health-related information; health problems, motivations to quit and treatment desires. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2019;14(1):20.

158. Gruber AJ, Pope HG Jr. Compulsive weight lifting and anabolic drug abuse among women rape victims. Compr Psychiatry. 1999;40(4):273-277.

159. Zahnow R, McVeigh J, Bates G, et al. Identifying a typology of men who use anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Int J Drug Policy. 2018;55:105-112.

160. U.S. Government Publishing Office. Public Law 113-260: Designer Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2014. Available at Last accessed October 27, 2022.

161. Congressional Budget Office. H.R. 4771: Designer Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2014. Available at Last accessed October 27, 2022.

162. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Anabolic Steroids. Available at Last accessed October 27, 2022.

163. Bertozzi G, Sessa F, Albano GD, et al. The role of anabolic androgenic steroids in disruption of the physiological function in discrete areas of the central nervous system. Mol Neurobiol. 2018;55(7):5548-5556.

164. Unger CA. Hormone therapy for transgender patients. Transl Androl Urol. 2016;5(6):877.

165. Velho I, Fighera TM, Ziegelmann PK, Spritzer PM. Effects of testosterone therapy on BMI, blood pressure, and laboratory profile of transgender men: a systematic review. Andrology. 2017;5(5):881-888.

166. Zahnow R, McVeigh J, Ferris J, Winstock A. Adverse effects, health service engagement, and service satisfaction among anabolic androgenic steroid users. Contemp Drug Probl. 2017;44(1):69-83.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. Johns K, Beddall MJ, Corrin RC. Anabolic steroids for the treatment of weight loss in HIV-infected individuals. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(4):CD005483. Available at Last accessed October 28, 2022.

Copyright © 2022 NetCE, PO Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.