Works Cited

1. Westerfield J, Holcomb S Jensen S (eds). Current Trends in Diabetes Management: A Guide for the Healthcare Professional. 7th ed. Nashville, TN: Healthways; 2008.

2. Welch GW, Jacobson AM, Weinger K. Psychosocial issues and type 2 diabetes. In: Goldstein BJ, Müller-Wieland D (eds). Type 2 Diabetes: Principles and Practice. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare; 2008: 83-95.

3. Katon W, Unutzer J, Fan M, Williams JW, Schoenbaum M, Lin EHB, Hunkeler EM. Cost-effectiveness and net benefit of enhanced treatment of depression for older adults with diabetes and depression. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(2):265-270.

4. American Diabetes Association. Mental Health: Understanding Diabetes and Mental Health. Available at Last accessed November 15, 2022.

5. Mensing C (ed). The Art and Science of Diabetes Self-Management Education: Desk Reference. 4th ed. Chicago, IL: American Association of Diabetes Educators; 2017.

6. Kant R, Yadav P, Barnwal S, Dhiman V, Abraham B, Gawande K. Prevalence and predictors of depression in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Educ Health Promot. 2021;10:352.

7. Mezuk B, Eaton WW, Albrecht S, Hill-Golden S. Depression and type 2 diabetes over the lifespan. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(12):2383-2390.

8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Statistics Report. Available at Last accessed November 15, 2022.

9. American Diabetes Association. Statistics About Diabetes. Available at Last accessed November 15, 2022.

10. Goldstein BJ, Müller-Wieland D (eds). Type 2 Diabetes: Principles and Practice. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare; 2008.

11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National and State Diabetes Trends. Available at Last accessed November 15, 2022.

12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Diabetes Translation. Maps of Trends in Diagnosed Diabetes, April 2017. Available at Last accessed November 15, 2022.

13. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2022. Diabetes Care. 2021;45(Suppl 1):S1-S264.

14. American Diabetes Association. Gestational Diabetes. Available at Last accessed November 15, 2022.

15. Childs BP, Cypress M, Spollett G (eds). Complete Nurse's Guide to Diabetes Care. 2nd ed. Alexandria, VA: American Diabetes Association; 2010.

16. Polonsky WH, Fisher L, Earles J, et al. Assessing psychosocial distress in diabetes: development of the Diabetes Distress Scale. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(3):626-631.

17. Edelman SV, Henry RR. Diagnosis and Management of Type 2 Diabetes. 12th ed. New York, NY: Professional Communications, Inc.; 2013.

18. Heim C, Plotsky PM, Nemeroff CB. Importance of studying the contributions of early adverse experience to neurobiological findings in depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29(4):641-648.

19. Agid O, Kohn Y, Lerer B. Environmental stress and psychiatric illness. Biomed Pharmacother. 2000;54(3):135-141.

20. Nestler EJ, Barrot M, DiLeone RJ, Eisch AJ, Gold SJ, Monteggia LM. Neurobiology of depression. Neuron. 2002;34(1):13-25.

21. Sinha R. Chronic stress, drug use, and vulnerability to addiction. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1141:105-130.

22. Krishnan V, Nestler EJ. The molecular neurobiology of depression. Nature. 2008;455(7215):894-902.

23. Gelenberg AJ, Thase ME. Performance improvement CME: improving outcomes in depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71(8):e19.

24. Drevets WC, Price JL, Furey ML. Brain structural and functional abnormalities in mood disorders: implications for neurocircuitry models of depression. Brain Struct Funct. 2008;213(1-2):93-118.

25. National Library of Medicine. Available at Last accessed November 15, 2022.

26. Venes D (ed). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company; 2013.

27. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.

28. Misri S. Shouldn't I Be Happy? Emotional Problems of Pregnant and Postpartum Women. New York, NY: The Free Press; 1995.

29. Joy S, Templeton HB, Mattingly PJ. Postpartum Depression. Available at Last accessed November 15, 2022.

30. Mental Health: Postpartum Depression. Available at Last accessed November 15, 2022.

31. Kozhimannil KB, Pereira MA, Harlow BL. Association between diabetes and perinatal depression among low-income mothers. JAMA. 2009;301(8):842-847.

32. Pace R, Rahme E, Da Costa D, Dasgupta K. Association between gestational diabetes mellitus and depression in parents: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Epidemiol. 2018;10:1827-1838.

33. American Diabetes Association. Mental Health Workbook: Chapter 3: Diabetes Distress. Available at Last accessed November 15, 2022.

34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 10 Tips for Coping with Diabetes Distress. Available at Last accessed November 15, 2022.

35. Maurer DM. Screening for depression. Am Fam Physician. 2012;85(2):139-144.

36. Welch GW, Jacobson AM, Polonsky WH. The Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale: an evaluation of its clinical utility. Diabetes Care. 1997;20(5):760-766.

37. Hayashino Y, Okamura S, Matsunaga S, et al. The association between Problem Areas in Diabetes scale scores and glycemic control is modified by types of diabetes therapy: diabetes distress and care registry in Tenri (DDCRT 2). Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012;97(3):405-410.

38. Hood KK, Naranjo D, Barnard K. Measuring depression in children and young people. In: Lloyd CE, Pouwer F, Hermanns N (eds). Screening for Depression and Other Psychological Problems in Diabetes: A Practical Guide. New York: Springer Press; 2012: 119-138.

39. Merikangas KR, He JP, Burstein M, et al. Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adolescents: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication–Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;49:980-989.

40. Monaghan M, Singh C, Streisand R, Cogen FR. Screening and identification of children and adolescents at risk for depression during a diabetes clinic visit. Diabetes Spectrum. 2010;23(1):25-31.

41. Kovacs M, Goldston D, Obrosky D, Bonar L. Psychiatric disorders in youths with IDDM: rates and risk factors. Diabetes Care. 1997;20:36-44.

42. Hood KK, Huestis S, Maher A, Butler D. Depressive symptoms in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: association with diabetes-specific characteristics. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:1389-1391.

43. Lawrence JM, Standiford DA, Loots B, et al. Prevalence and correlates of depressed mood among youth with diabetes: the SEARCH for diabetes in youth study. Pediatrics. 2006;117:1348-1358.

44. MHS Assessments. CDI 2. Children's Depression Inventory 2. Available at Last accessed November 15, 2022.

45. CESD-R. Available at Last accessed November 15, 2022.

46. American Psychological Association. Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression. Available at Last accessed November 15, 2022.

47. Helgeson VS, Snyder PR, Escobar O, Siminerio L, Becker D. Comparison of adolescents with and without diabetes on indices of psychosocial functioning for three years. J Pediatr Psychol. 2007;32(7):794-806.

48. Zuckerbrot RA, Cheung A, Jensen PS, Stein REK, Laraque D. Guidelines for adolescent depression in primary care (GLAD-PC): Part I. Practice, preparation, identification, assessment, and initial management. Pediatrics. 2018;141(3):1-21.

49. Kovacs M. Rating scales used to assess depression in school-aged children. Acta Paediatrica. 1980;46:305-315.

50. Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psycholog Meas. 1977;1:385-401.

51. Roberts RE, Andrews JA, Lewinsohn PM, Hops H. Assessment of depression in adolescents using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Psychol Assess. 1990;2:122-128.

52. Pearson S, Schmidt M, Patton G, et al. Depression and insulin resistance. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(5):1128-1133.

53. Molnar MZ, Novak M, Musci I, Lu JL, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Kovesdy CP. Increased risk of incident chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease and mortality in diabetic patients with comorbid depression. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;26:5A.

54. Joseph JJ, Golden SH. Cortisol dysregulation: the bidirectional link between stress, depression, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017;139(1):20-34.

55. Rasgon N. Insulin Resistance in Patients with Major Depression. Available at Last accessed November 15, 2022.

56. Katon W, Pedersen HS, Ribe AR, et al. Effect of depression and diabetes mellitus on the risk for dementia: a national population-based cohort study. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(6):612-619.

57. Markowitz SM, Gonzalez JS, Wilkinson JL, Safren SA. A review of treating depression in diabetes: emerging findings. Psychosomatics. 2011;52(1):1-18.

58. Huang Y, Wei X, Wu T, Chen R, Guo A. Collaborative care for patients with depression and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13:260.

59. Guérin E, Jaafar H, Amrani L, Prud'homme D, Aguer C. Intervention strategies for prevention of comorbid depression among individuals with type 2 diabetes: a scoping review. Front Public Health. 2019;7:35.

60. The MacArthur Initiative on Depression and Primary Care. Depression Management Tool Kit. Available at Last accessed November 15, 2022.

61. National Institute of Mental Health. Depression: What is Depression? Available at Last accessed November 15, 2022.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. Redmon B, Caccamo D, Flavin P, et al. Diagnosis and Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Adults. Bloomington, MN: Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement; 2014. Available at Last accessed November 18, 2022.

Copyright © 2022 NetCE, PO Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.