Works Cited

1. Walensky RP, Houry D, Jernigan DB, Bunnell R, Layden J, Iademarco MF. Sexually transmitted infections treatment guidelines, 2021. MMWR. 2021;70(4):1-192.

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Statistics. Available at Last accessed June 7, 2023.

3. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Final Recommendation Statement: Sexually Transmitted Infections: Behavioral Counseling. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

4. Crosby RA, Charnigo RA, Weathers C, Caliendo AM, Shrier LA. Condom effectiveness against non-viral sexually transmitted infections: a prospective study using electronic daily diaries. Sex Transm Infect. 2012;88(7):484-489. 

5. Holmes KK, Levine R, Weaver M. Effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82(6):454-461.

6. Warner L, Stone KM, Macaluso M, Buehler JW, Austin HD. Condom use and risk of gonorrhea and chlamydia: a systematic review of design and measurement factors assessed in epidemiologic studies. Sex Transm Dis. 2006;33(1):36-51.

7. Hernández-Romieu AC, Siegler AJ, Sullivan PS, Crosby R, Rosenberg ES. How often do condoms fail? A cross-sectional study exploring incomplete use of condoms, condom failures and other condom problems among black and white MSM in southern USA. Sex Transm Infect. 2014;90(8):602-607.

8. D'Anna LH, Margolis AD, Warner L, et al. Condom use problems during anal sex among men who have sex with men (MSM): findings from the Safe in the City study. AIDS Care. 2012;24(8):1028-1038.

9. Steiner MJ, Cates W Jr, Warner L. The real problem with male condoms is nonuse. Sex Transm Dis. 1999;26(8):459-462.

10. Hatcher RA. Contraceptive Technology. 21st ed. New York, NY: Ardent Media; 2018.

11. Minuk GY, Bohme CE, Bowen TJ, et al. Efficacy of commercial condoms in the prevention of hepatitis B virus infection. Gastroenterology. 1987;93(4):710-714.

12. Martin ET, Krantz E, Gottlieb SL, et al. A pooled analysis of the effect of condoms in preventing HSV-2 acquisition. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(13):1233-1240.

13. Gallo MF, Kilbourne-Brook M, Coffey PS. A review of the effectiveness and acceptability of the female condom for dual protection.Sex Health. 2012;9(1):18-26.

14. Mantell JE, Kelvin EA, Exner TM, Hoffman S, Needham S, Stein ZA. Anal use of the female condom: does uncertainty justify provider inaction? AIDS Care. 2009;21(9):1185-1194.

15. Morris BJ, Wamai RG. Biological basis for the protective effect conferred by male circumcision against HIV infection. Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23(3):153-159.

16. Gray RH, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9562):657-666.

17. Bailey RC, Moses S, Parker CB, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9562):643-656.

18. Tobian AA, Serwadda D, Quinn TC, et al. Male circumcision for the prevention of HSV-2 and HPV infections and syphilis. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(13):1298-1309.

19. Gray R, Kigozi G, Kong X, et al. The effectiveness of male circumcision for HIV prevention and effects on risk behaviors in a posttrial follow-up study. AIDS. 2012;26(5):609-615.

20. Mehta SD, Moses S, Parker CB, Kawango A, Maclean I, Bailey RC. Circumcision status and incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, genital ulcer disease, and HIV infection. AIDS. 2012;26(9):1141-1149.

21. McCormack S, Ramjee G, Kamali A, et al. PRO2000 vaginal gel for prevention of HIV-1 infection (Microbicides Development Programme 301): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9749):1329-1337.

22. Skoler-Karpoff S, Ramjee G, Ahmed K, et al. Efficacy of Carraguard for prevention of HIV infection in women in South Africa: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2008;372(9654):1977-1987.

23. Wilkinson D, Tholandi M, Ramjee G, Rutherford GW. Nonoxynol-9 spermicide for prevention of vaginally acquired HIV and other sexually transmitted infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials including more than 5000 women. Lancet Infect Dis. 2002;2(10):613-617.

24. Fihn SD, Boyko EJ, Normand EH, et al. Association between use of spermicide-coated condoms and Escherichia coli urinary tract infection in young women. Am J Epidemiol. 1996;144(5):512-520.

25. Microbicides: What Are Microbicides? Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

26. Rosenberg MJ, Davidson AJ, Chen JH, Judson FN, Douglas JM. Barrier contraceptives and sexually transmitted diseases in women: a comparison of female-dependent methods and condoms. Am J Public Health. 1992;82(5):669-674.

27. de Bruyn G, Shiboski S, van der Straten A, et al. The effect of the vaginal diaphragm and lubricant gel on acquisition of HSV-2.Sex Transm Infect. 2011;87(4):301-305.

28. Ramjee G, van der Straten A, Chipato T, et al. The diaphragm and lubricant gel for prevention of cervical sexually transmitted infections: results of a randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2008;3(10):e3488.

29. Myer L, Kuhn L, Stein ZA, Wright TC Jr, Denny L. Intravaginal practices, bacterial vaginosis, and women's susceptibility to HIV infection: epidemiological evidence and biological mechanisms. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5(12):786-794.

30. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Infection Treatment Guidelines, 2021: Provider Resources. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

31. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines, 2021: Screening Recommendations and Considerations Referenced in Treatment Guidelines and Original Sources. Available at Last accessed May 18, 2023.

32. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2021;326(10):949-956.

33. Pathela P, Braunstein SL, Blank S, Schillinger JA. HIV incidence among men with and those without sexually transmitted rectal infections: estimates from matching against an HIV case registry. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57(8):1203-1209.

34. Pathela P, Braunstein SL, Schillinger JA, Shepard C, Sweeney M, Blank S. Men who have sex with men have a 140-fold higher risk for newly diagnosed HIV and syphilis compared with heterosexual men in New York City. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;58(4):408-416.

35. Branson BM, Handsfield HH, Lampe MA. Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings. MMWR. 2006;55(RR14):1-17.

36. National Institute of Child Health and Development. What Are Some Types of Sexually Transmitted Diseases or Sexually Transmitted Infections (STDs/STIs)? Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

37. McQuillan G, Kruszon-Moran D, Flagg EW, Paulose-Ram R. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Type 2 in Persons Aged 14–49: United States, 2015–2016. NCHS data brief, no. 304. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2018.

38. Bradley H, Markowitz LE, Gibson T, McQuillan GM. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2—United States, 1999–2010. J Infect Dis. 2014;209(3):325-333.

39. Kimberlin DW, Rouse DJ. Clinical practice: genital herpes. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(19):1970-1977.

40. Benedetti JK, Zeh J, Corey L. Clinical reactivation of genital herpes simplex virus infection decreases in frequency over time. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131(1):14-20.

41. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance Case Definitions for Current and Historical Conditions. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

42. Herpes Simplex Virus (Genital Herpes Test, Oral Herpes, HSV Test). Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

43. Van Der Pol B, Warren T, Taylor SN, et al. Type-specific identification of anogenital herpes simplex virus infections by use of a commercially available nucleic acid amplification test. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50(11):3466-3471.

44. Wald A, Huang ML, Carrell D, Selke S, Corey L. Polymerase chain reaction 
for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA on mucosal surfaces: comparison with HSV isolation in cell culture. J Infect Dis. 2003;188(9):1345-1351.

45. Bernstein DI, Bellamy AR, Hook EW 3rd, et al. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and antibody response to primary infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in young women. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56(3):344-351.

46. LeGoff J, Péré H, Bélec L. Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in the clinical laboratory. Virol J. 2014;11:83.

47. Ngo TD, Laeyendecker O, La H, Hogrefe W, Morrow RA, Quinn TC. Use of commercial enzyme immunoassays to detect antibodies to the herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein G in a low-risk population in Hanoi, Vietnam. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15(2):382-384.

48. Ryder N, Jin F, McNulty AM, Grulich AE, Donovan B. Increasing role of herpes simplex virus type 1 in first-episode anogenital herpes in heterosexual women and younger men who have sex with men, 1992–2006. Sex Transm Infect. 2009;85(6):416-419.

49. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists: management of herpes in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;109(6):1489-1498.

50. Gnann JW Jr, Whitley RJ. Clinical practice: genital herpes. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(7):666-674.

51. Heslop R, Roberts H, Flower D, Jordan V. Interventions for men and women with their first episode of genital herpes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;30(8):CD010684.

52. Garland SM, Steben M. Genital herpes. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2014;28(7):1098-1110.

53. Hofstetter AM, Rosenthal SL, Stanberry LR. Current thinking on genital herpes. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2014;27(1):75-83.

54. Le Cleach L, Trinquart L, Do G, et al. Oral antiviral therapy for prevention of genital herpes outbreaks in immunocompetent and nonpregnant patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(8):CD009036.

55. Romanowski B, Marina RB, Roberts JN, Valtrex HS230017 Study Group. Patients' preference of valacyclovir once-daily suppressive therapy versus twice-daily episodic therapy for recurrent genital herpes: a randomized study. Sex Transm Dis. 2003;30(3):226-231.

56. Goldberg LH, Kaufman R, Kurtz TO, et al. Long-term suppression of recurrent genital herpes with acyclovir: a 5-year benchmark.Arch Dermatol. 1993;129(5):582-587.

57. Fife KH, Crumpacker CS, Mertz GJ, Hill EL, Boone GS. Recurrence and resistance patterns of herpes simplex virus following cessation of ≥6 years of chronic suppression with acyclovir. J Infect Dis. 1994;169(6):1338-1341.

58. Bartlett BL, Tyring SK, Fife K, et al. Famciclovir treatment options for patients with frequent outbreaks of recurrent genital herpes: the RELIEF trial. J Clin Virol. 2008;43(2):190-195.

59. Wald A, Selke S, Warren T, et al. Comparative efficacy of famciclovir and valacyclovir for suppression of recurrent genital herpes and viral shedding. Sex Transm Dis. 2006;33(9):529-533.

60. Henry RE, Wegmann JA, Hartle JE, Christopher GW. Successful oral acyclovir desensitization. Ann Allergy. 1993;70(5):386-388.

61. Tobian AA, Grabowski MK, Serwadda D, et al. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2 after initiation of antiretroviral therapy.J Infect Dis. 2013;208(5):839-846.

62. Posavad CM, Wald A, Kuntz S, et al. Frequent reactivation of herpes simplex virus among HIV-1-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 2004;190(4):693-696.

63. DeJesus E, Wald A, Warren T, et al. Valacyclovir for the suppression of recurrent genital herpes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects. J Infect Dis. 2003;188(7):1009-1016.

64. Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, et al. Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(5):427-439.

65. Mujugira A, Magaret AS, Celum C, et al. Daily acyclovir to decrease herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) transmission from HSV-2/HIV-1 coinfected persons: a randomized controlled trial. J Infect Dis. 2013;208(9):1366-1374.

66. Pinninti SG, Kimberlin DW. Maternal and neonatal herpes simplex virus infections. Am J Perinatol. 2013;30(2):113-119.

67. Briggs GC, Towers CV, Forinash AB. BriggsDrugs in Pregnancy and Lactation. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2021.

68. Stone KM, Reiff-Eldridge R, White AD, et al. Pregnancy outcomes following systemic prenatal acyclovir exposure: Conclusions from the international acyclovir pregnancy registry, 1984–1999. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004;70(4):201-207.

69. Hollier LM, Wendel GD. Third trimester antiviral prophylaxis for preventing maternal genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) recurrences and neonatal infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(1):CD004946.

70. Pinninti SG, Angara R, Feja KN, et al. Neonatal herpes disease following maternal antenatal antiviral suppressive therapy: a multicenter case series. J Pediatr. 2012;161(1):134-138.

71. Gilbert LK, Wyand F. Genital herpes education and counselling: testing a one-page 'FAQ' intervention. Herpes. 2009;15(3):51-56.

72. Rosenthal SL, Zimet GD, Leichliter JS, et al. The psychosocial impact of serological diagnosis of asymptomatic herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. Sex Transm Infect. 2006;82(2):154-158.

73. Miyai T, Turner KR, Kent CK, Klausner J. The psychosocial impact of testing individuals with no history of genital herpes for herpes simplex virus
type 2. Sex Transm Dis. 2004;31(9):517-521.

74. Ross K, Johnston C, Wald A. Herpes simplex virus type 2 serological testing and psychosocial harm: a systematic review. Sex Transm Infect. 2011;87(7):594-600.

75. Lewis RM, Laprise J-F, Gargano JW, et al. Estimated prevalence and incidence of disease-associated human papillomavirus types among 15-59-year-olds in the United States. Sex Transm Dis. 2021;48:273-277.

76. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Approves First Injectable Treatment for HIV Pre-Exposure Prevention. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

77. National Center for HIV/AIDS. 2018 Quick Reference Guide: Recommended Laboratory HIV Testing Algorithm for Serum or Plasma Specimens. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

78. American Association for Clinical Chemistry. AACC Guidance Document on Cervical Cancer Detection: Screening, Surveillance, and Diagnosis. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

79. Chesson HW, Ekwueme DU, Saraiya M, Watson M, Lowy DR, Markowitz LE. Estimates of the annual direct medical costs of the prevention and treatment of disease associated with human papillomavirus in the United States. Vaccine. 2012;30(42):6016-6019.

80. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Information for Clinician. Available at Last accessed May 18, 2023.

81. National Cancer Institute. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

82. UN AIDS. Global HIV/AIDS Statistics, 2021. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

83. Meites E, Szilagyi PG, Chesson HW, et al. Human papillomavirus vaccination for adults: updated recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR. 2019;68(32):698-702. 

84. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Approves Expanded Use of Gardasil 9 to Include Individuals 27 through 45 Years Old. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

85. Markowitz LE, Hariri S, Lin C, et al. Reduction in human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence among young women following HPV vaccine introduction in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2003–2010. J Infect Dis. 2013;208(3):385-393.

86. Flagg EW, Schwartz R, Weinstock H. Prevalence of anogenital warts among participants in private health plans in the United States, 2003: potential impact of human papillomavirus vaccination. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(8):1428-1435.

87. Markowitz LE, Liu G, Hariri S, Steinau M, Dunne EF, Unger ER. Prevalence of HPV after introduction of the vaccination program in the United States. Pediatrics. 2016;137(3):e1-e9.

88. Mayhew A, Mullins TL, Ding L, et al. Risk perceptions and subsequent sexual behaviors after HPV vaccination in adolescents. Pediatrics. 2014;133(3):404-411.

89. Garland SM, Steben M, Sings HL, et al. Natural history of genital warts: analysis of the placebo arm of 2 randomized phase III trials of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2009;199(6):805-814.

90. British Association for Sexual Health and HIV. UK National Guidelines on the Management of Anogenital Warts, 2015. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

91. Gotovtseva EP, Kapadia AS, Smolensky MH, Lairson DR. Optimal frequency of imiquimod (Aldara) 5% cream for the treatment of external genital warts in immunocompetent adults: a meta-analysis. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35(4):346-351.

92. Baker DA, Ferris DG, Martens MG, et al. Imiquimod 3.75% cream applied daily to treat anogenital warts: combined results from women in two randomized, placebo-controlled studies. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2011(p1):806105.

93. Domingues E, Chaney KC, Scharf MJ, Wiss K. Imiquimod reactivation of lichen planus. Cutis. 2012;89(6):276-277, 283.

94. Patel U, Mark NM, Machler BC, Levine VJ. Imiquimod 5% cream induced psoriasis: a case report, summary of the literature and mechanism. Br J Dermatol. 2011;164(3):670-672.

95. Stockfleth E, Beti H, Orasan R, et al. Topical polyphenon E in the treatment of external genital and perianal warts: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158(6):1329-1338.

96. Gross G, Meyer KG, Pres H, Thielert C, Tawfik H, Mescheder A. A randomized, double-blind, four-arm parallel-group, placebo-controlled Phase II/III study to investigate the clinical efficacy of two galenic formulations of polyphenon E in the treatment of external genital warts. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21(10):1404-1412.

97. Filley CM, Graff-Richard NR, Lacy JR, Heitner MA, Earnest MP. Neurologic manifestations of podophyllin toxicity. Neurology. 1982;32(3):308-311.

98. Conard PF, Hanna N, Rosenblum M, Gross JB. Delayed recognition of podophyllum toxicity in a patient receiving epidural morphine. Anesth Analg. 1990;71(2):191-193.

99. Silverberg MJ, Ahdieh L, Munoz A, et al. The impact of HIV infection and immunodeficiency on human papillomavirus type 6 or 11 infection and on genital warts. Sex Transm Dis. 2002;29(8):427-435.

100. Silverberg MJ, Thorsen P, Lindeberg H, Grant LA, Shah KV. Condyloma in pregnancy is strongly predictive of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101(4):645-652.

101. De Panfilis G, Melzani G, Mori G, Ghidini A, Graifemberghi S. Relapses after treatment of external genital warts are more frequent in HIV-positive patients than in HIV-negative controls. Sex Transm Dis. 2002;29(3):121-125.

102. Schlecht HP, Fugelso DK, Murphy RK, et al. Frequency of occult high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer within anal condylomata in men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51(1):107-110.

103. Massad LS, Xie X, Darragh T, et al. Genital warts and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: natural history and effects of treatment and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;118(4):831-839.

104. American Association for Clinical Chemistry. Viral Hepatitis. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

105. Brook G, Bhagani S, Kulasegaram R, et al. United Kingdom national guideline on the management of the viral hepatitides A, B and C, 2015. Int J STD AIDS. 2016;27(7):501-525.

106. Bell BP, Shapiro CN, Alter MJ, et al. The diverse patterns of hepatitis A epidemiology in the United States: implications for vaccination strategies. J Infect Dis. 1998;178(6):1579-1584.

107. Bower WA, Nainan OV, Han X, Margolis HS. Duration of viremia in hepatitis A virus infection. J Infect Dis. 2000;182(1):12-17.

108. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020 Viral Hepatitis Surveillance Report. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

109. Nelson NP, Link-Gelles R, Hofmeister MG, et al. Update: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for use of hepatitis A vaccine for postexposure prophylaxis and for preexposure prophylaxis for international travel. MMWR. 2018;67(43):1216-1220.

110. Sharapov UM, Bulkow LR, Negus SE, et al. Persistence of hepatitis A vaccine induced seropositivity in infants and young children by maternal antibody status: 10-year follow-up. Hepatology. 2012;56(2):516-522.

111. Ott JJ, Irving G, Wiersma ST. Long-term protective effects of hepatitis A vaccines: a systematic review. Vaccine. 2012;31(1):3-11.

112. Raczniak GA, Bulkow LR, Bruce MG, et al. Long-term immunogenicity of hepatitis A virus vaccine in Alaska 17 years after initial childhood series. J Infect Dis. 2013;207(3):493-496.

113. Klevens RM, Kruszon-Moran D, Wasley A, et al. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus antibodies in the U.S.: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Public Health Rep. 2011;126(4):522-532.

114. Winokur PL, Stapleton JT. Immunoglobulin prophylaxis for hepatitis A. Clin Infect Dis. 1992;14(2):580-586.

115. Thompson ND, Perz JF, Moorman AC, Holmberg SD. Nonhospital health care-associated hepatitis B and C virus transmission: United States, 1998–2008. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150(1):33-39.

116. Busch K, Thimme R. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2015;204(1):5-10.

117. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Health Professionals. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

118. Lok AS, McMahon BJ. Chronic hepatitis B: update 2009. Hepatology. 2009;50(3):661-662.

119. Mast EE, Margolis HS, Fiore AE, et al. A comprehensive immunization strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) part 1: immunization of infants, children, and adolescents. MMWR. 2005;54(RR16):1-31.

120. Mast EE, Weinbaum CM, Fiore AE, et al. A comprehensive immunization strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) part II: immunization of adults. MMWR. 2006;55(RR16):1-25.

121. Spradling PR, Xing J, Williams R, et al. Immunity to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection two decades after implementation of universal infant HBV vaccination: association of detectable residual antibodies and response to a single HBV challenge dose. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20(4):559-561.

122. Lu PJ, Byrd KK, Murphy TV, Weinbaum C. Hepatitis B vaccination coverage among high-risk adults 18–49 years, U.S., 2009. Vaccine. 2011;29(40):7049-7057.

123. Weinbaum CM, Williams I, Mast EE, et al. Recommendations for identification and public health management of persons with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. MMWR. 2008;57(RR8):1-20.

124. Mendy M, Peterson I, Hossin S, et al. Observational study of vaccine efficacy 24 years after the start of hepatitis B vaccination in two Gambian villages: no need for a booster dose. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58029.

125. Poovorawan Y, Chongsrisawat V, Theamboonlers A, Leroux-Roels G, Crasta PD, Hardt K. Persistence and immune memory to hepatitis B vaccine 20 years after primary vaccination of Thai infants, born to HBsAg and HBeAg positive mothers. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012;8(7):896-904.

126. Schillie S, Murphy TV, Sawyer M, et al. CDC guidance for evaluating health-care personnel for hepatitis B virus protection and for administering postexposure management. MMWR. 2013;62(RR10):1-19.

127. Schillie S, Wester C, Osborne M, Wesolowski L, Ryerson AB. CDC recommendations for hepatitis C screening among adults—United States, 2020. MMWR. 2020;69(2):1-17.

128. Galbraith JW, Anderson ES, Hsieh YH, et al. High prevalence of hepatitis C infection among adult patients at four urban emergency departments—Birmingham, Oakland, Baltimore, and Boston, 2015–2017. MMWR. 2020;69(19):569-574.

129. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Statistics Overview: HIV Home, Basic Statistics. Available at: Last accessed June 7, 2023.

130. Kahn JO, Walker BD. Acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N Engl J Med. 1998;339(1):33-39.

131. Branson BM, Owen SM, Wesolowski LG, et al. Laboratory Testing for the Diagnosis of HIV Infection: Updated Recommendations. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

132. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV-2 infection surveillance—United States, 1987–2009. MMWR. 2011;60(29): 985-988.

133. Texas Department of Insurance. HIV and Its Transmission FactSheet. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

134. Jin F, Jansson J, Law M, et al. Per-contact probability of HIV transmission in homosexual men in Sydney in the era of HAART. AIDS. 2010;24(6):907-913.

135. Boily MC, Baggaley RF, Wang L, et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis. 2009;9(2):118-129.

136. Weller SC, Davis-Beaty K. Condom effectiveness in reducing heterosexual HIV transmission. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(1):CD003255.

137. Giannou FK, Tsiara CG, Nikolopoulos GK, et al. Condom effectiveness in reducing heterosexual HIV transmission: a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on HIV serodiscordant couples. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2016;16(4):489-499.

138. Smith DK, Herbst JH, Zhang X, Rose CE. Condom effectiveness for HIV prevention by consistency of use among men who have sex with men in the United States. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;68(3):337-344.

139. Clochesy JM, Breu C, Cardin S, et al. Critical Care Nursing. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company; 1996.

140. Millett G, Malebranche D, Mason B, Spikes P. Focusing "down low:" bisexual black men, HIV risk and heterosexual transmission.J Natl Med Assoc. 2005;97(7 Suppl):52S-59S.

141. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ways HIV Can Be Transmitted. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

142. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Truvada for PrEP Fact Sheet: Ensuring Safe a Proper Use. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

143. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Approves Second Drug to Prevent HIV Infection as Part of Ongoing Efforts to End the HIV Epidemic. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

144. Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL, et al. Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(27):2587-2599.

145. U.S. Public Health Service. Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection in the United States—2021 Update: A Clinical Practice Guideline. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

146. Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Adults and Adolescents with HIV. Available at Last accessed June 7, 2023.

147. INSIGHT START Study Group, Lundgren JD, Babiker AG, et al. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy in early asymptomatic HIV infection. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(9):795-807.

148. TEMPRANO ANRS 12136 Study Group, Danel C, Moh R, et al. A trial of early antiretrovirals and isoniazid preventive therapy in Africa. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(9):808-822.

149. Public Health Agency of Canada. Canadian Guidelines on Sexually Transmitted Infections. Section 6: Specific Populations: Immigrants and Refugees. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

150. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Permits Marketing of First Condom Specifically Indicated for Anal Intercourse. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

151. World Health Organization. Guidelines for the Management of Symptomatic Sexually Transmitted Infections. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

152. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. STI Prevalence, Incidence, and Cost Estimates. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

153. Johnston C, Corey L. Current concepts for genital herpes simplex virus infection: diagnostics and pathogenesis of genital tract shedding. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2016;29:149-161.

154. Johnston C, Gottlieb SL, Wald A. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for herpes simplex virus. Vaccine. 2016;34:2948-2952.

155. Looker KJ, Johnson C, Welton N, et al. The global and regional burden of genital ulcer disease due to herpes simplex virus: a natural history modelling study. BMJ Global Health. 2020;5:e001875.

156. Dropulic LK, Oestreich MC, Pietz HL, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 study of a replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 vaccine, HSV529, in adults with or without HSV infection. J Infect Dis. 2019;220:990-1000.

157. Whitley R, Baines J. Clinical management of herpes simplex virus infections: past, present, and future. F1000 Res. 2018;7:1726.

158. Krishnan R, Stuart PM. Developments in vaccination for herpes simplex virus. Front. Microbiol. 2021;12:798927.

159. Awasthi S, Hook LM, Pardi N, et al. Nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding HSV-2 glycoproteins C, D, E prevents clinical and subclinical genital herpes. Sci Immunol. 2019;4(39):eaaw7083.

160. Egan K, Hook LM, LaTourette P, et al. Vaccines to prevent genital herpes. Trans Res. 2020;220:138-152.

161. Markowitz LE, and Unger ER. Human papillomavirus vaccination. N Engl J Med. 2023;388:1790-1798.

162. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. How Many Cancers Are Linked with HPV Each Year? Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

163. Barnabas RV, Brown ER, Onono MA, et al. Efficacy of single-dose HPV vaccination among young African women. NEJM Evid. 2022;1(5):EVIDoa2100056.

164. Pingali C, Yankey D, Elam-Evans LD, et al. National vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13–17 years—National Immunization Survey – Teen, United States, 2021. MMWR. 2022;71:1101-1108.

165. World Health Organization. WHO Position Paper: Human papillomavirus vaccines (2022 update). Weekly Epidemiological Record. 2022;97(50):645-672.

166. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Risk Behaviors. Available at Last accessed June 12, 2023.

167. Saag MS. HIV infection: screening, diagnosis, and treatment. N Engl J Med. 2021;384:2131-2143.

168. Saag MS, Gandhi RT, Hoy JF, et al. Antiretroviral drugs for treatment and prevention of HIV infection in adults: 2020 recommendations of the International Antiviral Society – USA Panel. JAMA. 2020;324:1651-1669.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Serologic screening for genital herpes infection: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. JAMA. 2023;329(6):502-507. Available at Last accessed June 14, 2023.

2. Fontham ETH, Wolf AMD, Church TR, et al. Cervical cancer screening for individuals at average risk: 2020 guideline update from the American Cancer Society. CA Cancer J Clin. 2020;70(5):321-346. Available at Last accessed June 14, 2023.

3. Terrault NA, Lok ASF, McMahon BJ, et al. Update on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic hepatitis B: AASLD 2018 hepatitis B guidance. Hepatology. 2018;67(4):1560-1599. Available at,_diagnosis,_and_treatment_of.34.aspx. Last accessed June 14, 2023.

Copyright © 2023 NetCE, PO Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.