Works Cited

Dental Treatment of Patients with Mental Disorders

Course #56740 - $56 • 8 Hours/Credits

  • Back to Course Home
  • Participation Instructions
    • Review the course material online or in print.
    • Complete the course evaluation.
    • Review your Transcript to view and print your Certificate of Completion. Your date of completion will be the date (Pacific Time) the course was electronically submitted for credit, with no exceptions. Partial credit is not available.

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mental Health. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/index.htm. Last accessed February 11, 2021.

2. Reeves WC, Strine TW, Pratt LA, et al. Mental illness surveillance among adults in the United States. MMWR. 2011;60(3):1-32.

3. Clark DB. Dental care for the patient with bipolar disorder. J Can Dent Assoc. 2003;69(1):20-24.

4. Durand MV, Barlow DH. Essentials of Abnormal Psychology. 8th ed. Boston, MA: Cengage; 2019.

5. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.

6. University of Florida Health. Bipolar Disorder. Available at https://ufhealth.org/bipolar-disorder. Last accessed February 11, 2021.

7. National Institute of Mental Health. Bipolar Disorder. Available at https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/bipolar-disorder/index.shtml. Last accessed February 11, 2021.

8. Grohol JM. How Long is a Typical Bipolar Episode? Available at https://psychcentral.com/blog/how-long-is-a-typical-bipolar-episode#1. Last accessed February 11, 2021.

9. Montgomery DB. NICE guidelines for investigating efficacy in bipolar disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2001;11(1):79-88.

10. Nurnberger JL, Gershon ES. The genetics of affective disorders. In: Friedman E (ed). Depression and Antidepressants and Implications for Cause and Treatment. New York, NY: Raven Press; 1983: 75-98.

11. Fattal O, Budur K, Vaughan AJ, Franco K. Review of the literature on major mental disorders in adult patients with mitochondrial diseases. Psychosomatics. 2006;47(1):1-7.

12. Lewitzka U, Severus E, Bauer R, Ritter P, Müller-Oerlinghausen B, Bauer M. The suicide prevention effect of lithium: more than 20 years of evidence-a narrative review. Int J Bipolar Disord. 2015;3(1):32.

13. Wynn RL, Meiller TF, Crossley HL. Drug Information Handbook for Dentistry. 21st ed. Hudson, OH: Lexi-Comp; 2015.

14. American Dental Association. ADA/PDR Guide to Dental Therapeutics. 5th ed. Chicago, IL: American Dental Association; 2009.

15. Page MM. Psychotropic drugs and dentistry. Aust Prescr. 2007;30:98-101.

16. National Institute of Mental Health. Statistics. Available at https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/index.shtml. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

17. Gartlehner G, Hansen RA, Morgan LC, et al. Second-Generation Antidepressants in the Pharmacologic Treatment of Adult Depression. An Update of the 2007 Comparative Effectiveness Review. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2011.

18. Wang PS, Lane M, Olfson M, Pincus HA, Wells KB, Kessler RC. Twelve-month use of mental health services in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(6):629-640.

19. Mitchell AJ, Chan M, Bhatti H, et al. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and adjustment disorder in oncological, haematological, and palliative-care settings: a meta-analysis of 94 interview-based studies. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12(2):160-174.

20. Strine TW, Mokdad AH, Balluz LS, et al. Depression and anxiety in the United States: findings from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Psychiatr Serv. 2008;59:1383-1390.

21. Chapman DP, Perry GS, Strine TW. The vital link between chronic disease and depressive disorders. Prev Chronic Dis. 2005;2:A14.

22. Gursky TM, Haight R, Hardwig J, et al. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Adult Depression in Primary Care. 17th ed. Available at https://www.icsi.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Depr.pdf. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

23. American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.; 2010. (Reaffirmed October 31, 2015.)

24. Bartlett D. Caring for the Poisoned Patient. Sacramento, CA: NetCE; 2018.

25. Verma A, Yadav S, Sachdeva A. Dental consequences and management in patients with major depressive disorder. Journal of Innovative Dentistry. 2011;1(3).

26. Gillman PK. Tricyclic antidepressant pharmacology and therapeutic drug interactions updated. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;151(6):737-748.

27. Sinclair LI, Christmas DM, Hood SD, et al. Antidepressant-induced jitteriness/anxiety syndrome: systematic review. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;194(6):483-490.

28. Malamed SF. Handbook of Local Anesthesia. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2016.

29. National Institute of Mental Health. The Numbers Count: Mental Disorders in America. Available at http://www.lb7.uscourts.gov/documents/12-cv-1072url2.pdf. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

30. National Institute of Mental Health. Anxiety Disorders. Available at https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index.shtml. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

31. Baldwin DS, Anderson IM, Nutt DJ, et al. Evidence-based pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a revision of the 2005 guidelines from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2014;28(5):403-439.

32. Psychiatry Online. Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5. Available at https://dsm.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.changes. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

33. Katzman MA, Bleau P, Blier P, et al. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for the management of anxiety, posttraumatic stress and obsessive-compulsive disorders. BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14(Suppl 1):S1.

34. Anxiety and Depression Association of America. Clinical Practice Review for GAD. Available at https://adaa.org/resources-professionals/practice-guidelines-gad. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

35. National Institute of Mental Health. Panic Disorder. Available at https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/panic-disorder.shtml. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

36. Kessler RC, Petukhova M, Sampson NA, Zaslavsky AM, Wittchen H-U. Twelve-month and lifetime prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of anxiety and mood disorders in the United States. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2012;21(3):169-184.

37. Marques L, Robinaugh DJ, LeBlanc NJ, Hinton D. Cross-cultural variations in the prevalence and presentation of anxiety disorders. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011;11(2):313-322.

38. Craske MG, Tsao JC. Assessment and treatment of nocturnal panic attacks. Sleep Med Rev. 2005;9(3):173-184.

39. Katerndahl DA. Chest pain and its importance in patients with panic disorder: an updated literature review. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;10(5):376-383.

40. Cuijpers P, Sijbrandij M, Koole SL, Andersson G, Beekman AT, Reynolds CF 3rd. Adding psychotherapy to antidepressant medication in depression and anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis. Focus. 2014;12(3):347-358.

41. Bandelow B, Reitt M, Röver C, Michaelis S, Görlich Y, Wedekind D. Efficacy of treatments for anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2015;30(4):183-192.

42. Prescriber's Digital Reference. Panic Disorder Treatment. Available at https://www.pdrhealth.com/diseases/panic-disorder/treatment. Last accessed February 11, 2021.

43. Curtis EK. Meth mouth: a review of methamphetamine abuse and its oral manifestations. Gen Dent. 2006;54(2):125-129.

44. American Dental Association. Meth Mouth: How Methamphetamine Use Affects Dental Health. Available at https://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/m/meth-mouth. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

45. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(6):593-602.

46. Stinson FS, Dawson DA, Chou SP, et al. The epidemiology of DSM-IV specific phobia in the USA: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychol Med. 2007;37(7):1047-1059.

47. Katzman MA, Bleau P, Blier P, et al. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for the management of anxiety, posttraumatic stress and obsessive-compulsive disorders. BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14(Suppl 1):S1.

48. Wolitzky-Taylor KB, Horowitz JD, Powers MB, Telch MJ. Psychological approaches in the treatment of specific phobias: a meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev. 2008;28(6):1021-1037.

49. International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. The ISTSS Expert Consensus Treatment Guidelines for Complex PTSD in Adults. Available at http://www.istss.org/ISTSS_Main/media/Documents/ComplexPTSD.pdf. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

50. Nygaard E, Wentzel-Larsen T, Hussain A, Heir T. Family structure and posttraumatic stress reactions: a longitudinal study using multilevel analyses. BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:195.

51. Heir T, Piatigorsky A, Weisaeth L. Longitudinal changes in recalled perceived life threat after a natural disaster. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;194(6):510-514.

52. Neria Y, Olfson M, Gameroff MJ, et al. Long-term course of probable PTSD after the 9/11 attacks: a study in urban primary care.J Trauma Stress. 2010;23(4):474-482.

53. Schultz SH, North SW, Shields CG. Schizophrenia: a review. Am Fam Physician. 2007;75(12):1821-1829.

54. National Institute of Mental Health. Schizophrenia. Available at https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/schizophrenia/index.shtml. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

55. Clark DB. Dental care for the patient with schizophrenia. Can J Dent Hygiene. 2008;42(1):17-24.

56. National Alliance on Mental Illness. Types of Medication. Available at https://www.nami.org/About-Mental-Illness/Treatments/Mental-Health-Medications/Types-of-Medication. Last accessed February 11, 2021.

57. National Alliance on Mental Illness. Tardive Dyskinesia. Available at https://www.nami.org/Learn-More/Treatment/Mental-Health-Medications/Tardive-Dyskinesia. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

58. Collingwood J. Coping with Atypical Antipsychotic Side Effects. Available at https://psychcentral.com/lib/coping-with-atypical-antipsychotic-side-effects. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

59. Clark DB. Dental care for the patient with schizophrenia. Can J Dent Hygiene. 2008;42(1):17-24.

60. Little JW, Miller CS, Rhodus NL. Dental Management of the Medically Compromised Patient. 9th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier; 2018.

61. Patton L, Glick M. The ADA Practical Guide to Patients with Medical Conditions. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons; 2016.

62. de Waal MW, Arnold IA, Eekhof JA, van Hemert AM. Somatoform disorders in general practice: prevalence, functional impairment and comorbidity with anxiety and depressive disorders. Br J Psychiatry. 2004;184:470-476.

63. Oyama O, Paltoo C, Greengold J. Somatoform disorders. Am Fam Physician. 2007;76(9):1333-1338.

64. Tomar BI, Bhatia NK, Kumar P, Bhatia MS, Shah RJ. The psychiatric and dental interrelationship. Delhi Psychiatry Journal. 2011;14(1):138-142.

65. John Hopkins Medicine. Trigeminal Neuralgia. Available at https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/trigeminal-neuralgia. Last accessed February 11, 2021.

66. American Society of Addiction Medicine. Definition of Addiction. Available at https://www.asam.org/quality-practice/definition-of-addiction. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

67. Yaksh T, Wallace M. Opioids, analgesia, and pain management. In: Brunton L, Hilal-Dandan R, Knollmann BC (eds). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 13th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2017: 355-386.

68. Havens JR, Walker R, Leukefeld CG. Prevalence of opioid analgesic injection among rural nonmedical opioid analgesic users.Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007;87(1):98-102.

69. National Cancer Institute. Cancer Pain. Available at https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/side-effects/pain/pain-hp-pdq. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

70. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Extended-Release (ER) and Long-Acting (LA) Opioid Analgesics Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS). Available at https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/rems/ERLA_opioids_2015.06.26_REMS_document.pdf. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

71. White JM, Irvine RJ. Mechanisms of fatal opioid overdose. Addiction. 1999;94(7):961-972.

72. Schwartz RH. Adolescent heroin use: a review. Pediatrics. 1998;102(6):1461-1466.

73. Wasan AD, Correll DJ, Kissin I, O'Shea S, Jamison RN. Iatrogenic addiction in patients treated for acute or subacute pain: a systematic review. J Opioid Manag. 2006;2(1):16-22.

74. Compton WM, Volkow ND. Major increases in opioid analgesic abuse in the United States: concerns and strategies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;81(2):103-107.

75. McCabe SE, West BT, Morales M, Cranford JA, Boyd CJ. Does early onset of non-medical use of prescription drugs predict subsequent prescription drug abuse and dependence? Results from a national study. Addiction. 2007;102(12):1920-1930.

76. The Partnership for a Drug-Free America. 2012 Partnership Attitude Tracking Study: Teens and Parents. Available at https://drugfree.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/PATS-2012-FULL-REPORT2.pdf. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

77. Reynolds WR, Schwarz ES. Dentists' current and optimal opioid prescribing practices: a proactive review. Mo Med. 2019;116(5):347-350.

78. Nack B, Haas SE, Portnof J. Opioid use disorder in dental patients: the latest on how to identify, treat, refer and apply laws and regulations in your practice. Anesth Prog. 2017;64(3):178-187.

79. American Dental Association. Opioid Crisis. Available at https://www.ada.org/en/advocacy/advocacy-issues/opioid-crisis. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

80. McFarland KK, Giannini PJ, Fung EYK. Addiction and Oral Health Care. Available at https://decisionsindentistry.com/article/addiction-oral-health-care. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

81. Hser YI, Evans E, Huang YC. Treatment outcomes among women and men methamphetamine abusers in California. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2005;28(1):77-85.

82. Drug Enforcement Administration. Benzodiazepines. Available at https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drug_chem_info/benzo.pdf. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

83. Weissheimer T, Schwengber HE, Gerzson AS, Neto AM. Benzodiazepines for conscious sedation in the dental office. Stomatos. 2016; 22(42).

84. O'Keefe Osborn C. How Long Does Withdrawal From Benzodiazepines Last? Available at https://www.verywellmind.com/benzodiazepine-withdrawal-4588452. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

85. Gold J. Approaches to managing benzodiazepines. Pharmacy Today. 2020;26(3):P41-P54.

86. Schuckit MA. Drug and Alcohol Abuse: A Clinical Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment. 6th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2010.

87. Sullivan MA, Rudnik-Levin F. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse: diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2001;931:251-270.

88. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol Facts and Statistics. Available at https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/brochures-and-fact-sheets/alcohol-facts-and-statistics. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

89. Moses S. Lab Markers of Malnutrition. Available at https://fpnotebook.com/Pharm/Lab/LbMrkrsOfMlntrtn.htm. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

90. Van den Berg H, van der Gaag M, Hendriks H. Influence of lifestyle on vitamin bioavailability. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2002;72(1):53-59.

91. Thomson AD. Mechanisms of vitamin deficiency in chronic alcohol misusers and the development of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Alcohol Alcohol. 2000;35(1):2-7.

92. Zhang P, Bagby GJ, Happel KI, Summer WR, Nelson S. Pulmonary host defenses and alcohol. Front Biosci. 2002;7:d1314-d1330.

93. Vertava Health. Bone Marrow Suppression from Alcohol Abuse. Available at https://vertavahealth.com/alcohol/bone-marrow-suppression. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

94. Malamed SF. Articaine 20 Years Later. Available at https://www.dentallearning.net/articaine-20-years-later. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

95. Gómez-Moreno G, Guardia J, Cutando A. Interaction of paracetamol in chronic alcoholic patients: importance for odontologists. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2008;13(4):E235-E238.

96. Girre C, Hispard E, Palombo S, N'Guyen C, Dally S. Increased metabolism of acetaminophen in chronically alcoholic patients. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1993;17(1):170-173.

97. Seeff LB, Cuccherini BA, Zimmerman HJ, Adler E, Benjamin SB. Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in alcoholics: a therapeutic misadventure. Ann Intern Med. 1986;104(3):399-404.

98. Black M. Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Ann Rev Med. 1984;35:577-593.

99. Kuffner EK, Green JL, Bogdan GM, et al. The effect of acetaminophen (four grams a day for three consecutive days) on hepatic tests in alcoholic patients: a multicenter randomized study. BMC Med. 2007;30:13.

100. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Acetaminophen Prescription Combination Drug Products with More than 325 mg: FDA Statement: Recommendation to Discontinue Prescribing and Dispensing. Available at https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20170406123735/https://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm381650.htm. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

101. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Consumption of cigarettes and combustible tobacco—United States, 2000–2015. MMWR. 2016;65(48):1357-1363.

102. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smokeless Tobacco Use in the United States. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/smokeless/use_us/index.htm. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

103. Lipari RN, Van Horn SL. Trends in Smokeless Tobacco Use and Initiation: 2002 to 2014. Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2017.

104. Wang TW, Asman K, Gentzke AS, et al. Tobacco product use among adults—United States, 2017. MMWR. 2018;67(44):1225-1232.

105. Wong LS, Green HM, Feugate JE, Yadav M, Nothnangel EA, Martins-Green M. Effects of "second-hand" smoke on structure and function of fibroblasts, cells that are critical for tissue repair and remodeling. BMC Cell Biol. 2004;5(1):13.

106. Yuan H, Wong LS, Bhattacharya M. The effects of second-hand smoke on biological processes important in atherogenesis.BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2007;7:1.

107. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lung Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Cancer? Available at https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/lung/basic_info/risk_factors.htm. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

108. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tobacco Use by Geographic Region. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/disparities/geographic/index.htm. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

109. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smokeless Tobacco Use in the United States. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/smokeless/use_us/index.htm. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

110. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Rural Tobacco Use: Research and Interventions. Available at https://www.fda.gov/media/133281/download. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

111. American Cancer Society. Health Risks of Smokeless Tobacco. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/tobacco-and-cancer/smokeless-tobacco.html. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

112. Lunell E, Bergström M, Antoni G, Långström B, Nordberg A. Nicotine deposition and body distribution from a nicotine inhaler and a cigarette studied with positron emission tomography. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996;59(5):593-594.

113. Jarvis MJ. Why people smoke. BMJ. 2004;328(7434):277-279.

114. Couch ET, Chaffee BW, Gansky SA and Walsh MM. The changing tobacco landscape: what dental professionals need to know.J Am Dent Assoc 2016;147(7):561-9.

115. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Fuchs HE, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2021. CA Cancer J Clin. 2021;71(1):7-33.

116. Al Feghali KA, Ghanem AI, Burmeister C, et al. Impact of smoking on pathological features in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. J Cancer Res Ther. 2019;15(3):582-588.

117. American Dental Association. Tobacco Use and Cessation. Available at https://www.ada.org/en/member-center/oral-health-topics/tobacco-use-and-cessation. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

118. Yard D. The Role of Clinicians in Smoking Cessation. Available at https://www.clinicaladvisor.com/home/features/the-role-of-clinicians-in-smoking-cessation. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

119. Leone FT, Zhang Y, Evers-Casey S, et al. Initiating pharmacologic treatment in tobacco-dependent adults: an official American Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;202(2):e5-e31.

120. Doggrell SA. Which is the best primary medication for long-term smoking cessation—nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion or varenicline? Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2007;8(17):2903-2915.

121. Zhong Z, Zhao S, Zhao Y, Xia S. Combination therapy of varenicline and bupropion in smoking cessation: a meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials. Compr Psychiatry. 2019;95:152125.

122. Prochaska JO, Redding CA, Evers KE. The transtheoretical model and stages of change. In: Glanz K, Rimer BK, Viswanath K (eds). Health Behavior and Health Education. 4th ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2008: 97-121.

123. Global Drug Survey. Global Drug Survey: 2020 Executive Summary. Available at https://www.globaldrugsurvey.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/GDS2020-Executive-Summary.pdf. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

124. Ben Amar M. Cannabinoids in medicine: a review of their therapeutic potential. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;105(1-2):1-25.

125. Hart CL. Increasing treatment options for cannabis dependence: a review of potential pharmacotherapies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005;80(2):147-159.

126. De Petrocellis L, Ligresti A, Moriello AS, et al. Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163(2):1479-1494.

127. Grotenhermen F, Russo E (eds). Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential. Binghampton, NY: The Hathworth Press; 2002.

128. Schubart CD, Sommer IE, van Gastel WA, Goetgebuer RL, Kahn RS, Boks MP. Cannabis with high cannabidiol content is associated with fewer psychotic experiences. Schizophr Res. 2011;130(1-3):216-221.

129. Crippa JA, Derenusson GN, Ferrari TB, et al. Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. J Psychopharmacol. 2011;25(1):121-130.

130. Todaro B. Cannabinoids in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2012;10(4):487-492.

131. Grotenhermen F. Review of therapeutic effects. In: Grotenhermen F, Russo E (eds). Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential. New York, NY: Routledge; 2002: 123-142.

132. Ribeiro LIG, Ind PW. Effect of cannabis smoking on lung function and respiratory symptoms: a structured literature review. NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine. 2016;26:16071.

133. Portillo KM, Sanderson TR, Gurenlian J. Oral Health Care for Marijuana Users. Available at https://decisionsindentistry.com/article/oral-health-care-marijuana-users. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

134. Joshi S, Ashley M. Cannabis: a joint problem for patients and the dental profession. Br Dent J. 2016;220(11):597-601.

135. Ahrens AGMS, Bressi T. Marijuana as promoter for oral cancer? More than a suspect. Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment. 2007;6(3):117-119.

136. Faustino ISP, Gonzalez-Arriagada WA, Cordero-Torres K, Lopes MA. Candidiasis of the tongue in cannabis users: a report of 2 cases. Gen Dent. 2020;68(5):66-68.

137. Orson FM, Kinsey BM, Singh RA, Wu Y, Kosten TR. Vaccines for cocaine abuse. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5(4):194-199.

138. National Institute on Drug Abuse. What Is Cocaine? Available at https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/cocaine/what-cocaine. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

139. Ries RK, Fiellin DA, Miller SC, Saitz R. Principles of Addiction Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2014.

140. Australian Government Department of Health. Pharmacology of Cocaine. Available at https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/drugtreat-pubs-modpsy-toc~drugtreat-pubs-modpsy-2~drugtreat-pubs-modpsy-2-3~drugtreat-pubs-modpsy-2-3-pcoc. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

141. Brownlow HA, Pappachan J. Pathophysiology of cocaine abuse. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2002;19(6):395-414.

142. Prakash A, Das G. Cocaine and the nervous system. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1993;31(12):575-581.

143. Cornish JW, O'Brien CP. Crack cocaine abuse: an epidemic with many public health consequences. Annu Rev Public Health. 1996;17:259-273.

144. Burnett LB. Cocaine Toxicity. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/813959-overview. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

145. Peters M. The Difference Between Meth and Cocaine. Available at https://lannarehab.com/blog/the-difference-between-meth-and-cocaine. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

146. Chapparro-Gonzalez NT, Fox-Delgado MA, Pineda-Chaparro RT, Perozo-Ferrer BI, Díaz-Amell AR, Torres V. Oral and maxillofacial manifestations in patients with drug addiction. Odontoesstomatologia. 2018;20(32):24-31.

147. Teoh L, Moses G, McCullough MJ. Oral manifestations of illicit drug use. Aust Dent J. 2019;64(3):213-22.

148. Nassar P, Ouanounou A. Cocaine and methamphetamine: pharmacology and dental implications. CanJ Dent Hyg. 2020;54(2):75-82.

149. Kongsakon R, Papadopoulos KI, Saguansiritham R. Mirtazapine in amphetamine detoxification: a placebo-controlled pilot study.Int Clinl Psychopharmacol. 2005;20(5):253-256.

150. Meredith CW, Jaffe C, Ang-Lee K, Saxon AJ. Implications of chronic methamphetamine use: a literature review. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2005;13(3):141-154.

151. Boles SM, Miotto K. Substance abuse and violence: a review of the literature. Aggress Violent Behav. 2003;8(2):155-174.

152. Anglin MD, Burke C, Perrochet B, Stamper E, Dawud-Noursi S. History of the methamphetamine problem. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2000;32(2):137-141.

153. Degenhardt L, Topp L. "Crystal meth" use among polydrug users in Sydney's dance party subculture: characteristics, use patterns and associated harms. Int J Drug Policy. 2003;14(1):17-24.

154. Randall JR, Walld R, Finlayson G, Sareen J, Martens PJ, Bolton JM. Acute risk of suicide and suicide attempts associated with recent diagnosis of mental disorders: a population-based, propensity score-matched analysis. Can J Psychiatry. 2014;59(10):531-538.

155. American Association of Suicidology. Facts and Statistics. Available at https://suicidology.org/facts-and-statistics. Last accessed February 12, 2021.

  • Back to Course Home
  • Participation Instructions
    • Review the course material online or in print.
    • Complete the course evaluation.
    • Review your Transcript to view and print your Certificate of Completion. Your date of completion will be the date (Pacific Time) the course was electronically submitted for credit, with no exceptions. Partial credit is not available.