Study Points

Counseling Unemployed Clients

Course #76932 - $20 • 5 Hours/Credits

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  • Participation Instructions
    • Review the course material online or in print.
    • Complete the course evaluation.
    • Review your Transcript to view and print your Certificate of Completion. Your date of completion will be the date (Pacific Time) the course was electronically submitted for credit, with no exceptions. Partial credit is not available.
  1. Long-term unemployment is defined as those who are unemployed for

    DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

    According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, someone who is employed holds a job, while someone who does not have a job but is available for work and/or has actively looked for work in the prior four weeks is considered unemployed [4]. Individuals who do not fall into either of these two categories are considered not to be in the labor force. For example, a full-time mother caring for her children and the household who is not holding a paid job or looking for work is categorized as not in the labor force. Long-term unemployment is defined as those who are unemployed for 27 weeks or more [5]. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics defines displaced workers as individuals 20 years of age and older who have lost or left a job because the company, plant, or factory closed or moved, their position changed or was eliminated, or there was insufficient work [6]. In this course, the general term "job loss" will be used to capture the concept of displacement. Finally, although this course focuses on those who are unemployed, some of the concepts will apply to employment insecurity. Employment insecurity is defined as unease or apprehension about the continuity of a job [7].

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  2. As of June 2018, 47% of unemployed individuals were unemployed due to

    UNEMPLOYMENT TRENDS IN THE UNITED STATES

    As noted, the unemployment rate in June 2018 was 4% [1]. Because the unemployment rate changes monthly, it can be difficult to have a clear picture of the problem. Since 2008, employment has decreased in the mining, construction, information, wholesale trade, and government sectors while rising in health care, retail trade, financial activities, transportation, warehousing, and food services [1]. Among those who were unemployed in June 2018, approximately 47% were unemployed due to layoffs or jobs ending and 12.4% had left a job voluntarily [1]. In terms of race/ethnicity and gender, the unemployment rate appears to be highest among black/African American men and women (Table 1).

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  3. Which of the following racial groups has the highest unemployment rate in the United States?

    UNEMPLOYMENT TRENDS IN THE UNITED STATES

    As noted, the unemployment rate in June 2018 was 4% [1]. Because the unemployment rate changes monthly, it can be difficult to have a clear picture of the problem. Since 2008, employment has decreased in the mining, construction, information, wholesale trade, and government sectors while rising in health care, retail trade, financial activities, transportation, warehousing, and food services [1]. Among those who were unemployed in June 2018, approximately 47% were unemployed due to layoffs or jobs ending and 12.4% had left a job voluntarily [1]. In terms of race/ethnicity and gender, the unemployment rate appears to be highest among black/African American men and women (Table 1).

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  4. The unemployment rate decreases as educational and ability level increases for individuals 25 years of age and older.

    UNEMPLOYMENT TRENDS IN THE UNITED STATES

    The unemployment rate decreases as educational and ability level increases for individuals 25 years of age and older [1]. Individuals 16 years of age and older without a disability have a lower unemployment rate compared to those with a disability.

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  5. Extrinsic work values focus on

    MOTIVATIONS AND MEANINGS OF WORK

    In general, the literature has classified three typologies of work values or motivations: extrinsic, intrinsic, and social/relational [10]. Extrinsic values focus on job security, with an emphasis on income for general life maintenance and security [10]. One of the basic functions of work is a means for survival, to meet basic needs for subsistence [11]. Work also functions as a pathway to material, social, and financial power, which then allows one access to various resources [11].

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  6. Incentives and rewards are stimuli that lead employees to associate certain behaviors with risks or poor outcomes.

    MOTIVATIONS AND MEANINGS OF WORK

    Others have categorized work values or motivations similarly but have employed different terms. Blustein argues that work "functions as the focal point for individuals as they interact with the social, political, and economic world. In effect, when people work or consider work, they are engaging in an overt and complex relationship with their social world" [13]. In essence, work is not a discrete entity that is separated from other domains of life. Rather, work and other dimensions of life intersect, dynamically influencing all aspects of human functioning [13]. Some classify work motivation theories according to two major categories: exogenous and endogenous processes [14]. Exogenous processes refer to external rewards or incentives, while endogenous processes are internal factors, such as expectations and attitudes, that mediate behaviors. Exogenous theories regarding work motivation include [14]:

    • Incentive-reward theory: Incentives and rewards are stimuli that lead employees to associate certain behaviors with a benefit. This triggers a positive psychologic state that helps to maintain the desired behavior.

    • Goal theory: When goals are clearly identified and defined but challenging and attractive, individuals will perform at a higher level.

    • Personal and material resource theory: This theory describes conditions that assist in facilitating employees' goals and promoting motivation. These conditions might include maximizing individuals' competencies in the workplace or having materials in the workplace to facilitate task completion.

    • Group and norm theory: At work, the group includes colleagues and peers. The group can serve as a means for promoting certain norms and sanctions and also as a monitoring mechanism for performance.

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  7. Expectancy-valence theory is an example of a theory of endogenous factors influencing work performance.

    MOTIVATIONS AND MEANINGS OF WORK

    Theories regarding endogenous factors that influence work performance include [14]:

    • Expectancy-valence theory: In general, individuals are motivated when they know that efforts they expend will yield performance and achieve objectives.

    • Self-efficacy theory: Individuals who have a greater sense of confidence in their abilities are more likely to have higher standards related to work and their performance. They will also have more favorable attitudes about their work, which promotes a greater commitment to the work task.

    • Equity theory: Overall, individuals seek justice and are motivated by fair and equitable treatment. When employees perceive that their inputs (e.g., ability, time, talent) are balanced with the outcomes (e.g., money, promotions, benefits), they are more motivated to work well.

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  8. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of meaningfulness at work?

    MOTIVATIONS AND MEANINGS OF WORK

    Six key characteristics have been proposed to facilitate meaningfulness in work [13,15]:

    • Social purpose and usefulness: Individuals find meaning in their work when they can see that their tasks contribute to the overall good of society.

    • Autonomy: Autonomy and self-determination are defined as the feeling or belief that one has control of his/her life and direction. Employees will feel that their work is meaningful when they believe they are independently exercising their talents, skills, competencies, and professional judgment.

    • Opportunities for professional development and learning: In general, individuals will find meaning in their work if they feel they are growing professionally and moving forward rather than remaining stagnant. When there are avenues for learning new skills and new ways of thinking, individuals feel they are improving themselves.

    • Moral connectedness: Employees will find work meaningful when the work is guided by a code of ethics, responsibility, and morality.

    • Quality of relationships: Sense of connectedness is crucial in life, and individuals strive for relational connectedness in their workplace. When employees have positive and supportive working relationships, they are more likely to find their work meaningful. A spirit of collaboration among colleagues also facilitates meaning.

    • Recognition: Both extrinsic rewards, like salary raises and promotions, and intrinsic rewards, such as earning the respect of colleagues, contribute to individuals finding meaning in their work.

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  9. Finding meaning as a result of experiencing a sense of community at work is an example of

    MOTIVATIONS AND MEANINGS OF WORK

    However, creating meaning at and through work has also been categorized by stage or level. According to one consulting firm, three predominant themes, organized by micro, mezzo, and macro levels, contribute to a feeling of meaning at work [16]:

    • Individual (micro) level: Employees find meaning when they can identify their sense of self at work, find a balance between work and personal lives, and view personal and organization values as being consistent.

    • Organizational (mezzo) level: Meaning is found when employees experience a sense of community at work and a feeling that they are contributing to something bigger than themselves. Motivated workers see themselves contributing to the organization's success and can find supportive relationships with their work peers and colleagues.

    • Societal (macro) level: Employees find meaning when they feel they are part of an organization that assumes a social and corporate responsibility and are proud to be affiliated with their employer.

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  10. Role conflict, which can develop in relationships of those who are unemployed, is defined as

    CONSEQUENCES OF UNEMPLOYMENT

    Role conflict occurs when an individual's beliefs about his or her proper role and the role of a partner contradict with reality. For example, an individual who has aspired to be a stay-at-home parent who is forced by his or her partner's unemployment to return to work, becoming the main income for the family, may feel resentment, anger, and loss of identity. Role ambiguity occurs when each party has ill-defined expectations about his or her roles. Role overload is a possible reaction when expectations about roles are excessive relative to the resources available. For example, if a woman who has reluctantly returned to working outside the house is still expected to complete all or most household chores, she will likely quickly become overwhelmed and stressed. Finally, role incongruity develops when individuals' beliefs, values, and self-concepts are dissonant with role expectations.

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  11. According to investment theory, lack of family income can impact a child's cognitive development.

    CONSEQUENCES OF UNEMPLOYMENT

    Children may also be negatively affected by parental job loss. Two theoretical frameworks can provide an understanding of how parental unemployment affects the well-being of children. The first is investment theory, which argues that job loss inevitably affects income and a family's capability to purchase resources and goods, such as food, schooling, housing, and extracurricular activities, all of which can affect a child's learning and socialization [24]. Based on this theory, lack of family income can impact a child's cognitive development. As parents experience financial challenges in providing the basic necessities, they often have to sacrifice investing in activities or resources that promote their children's personal, social, and academic development [25].

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  12. An intervention that provides direct or in-kind subsidies to mitigate the economic stressors of unemployment is based on

    CONSEQUENCES OF UNEMPLOYMENT

    THEORIES REGARDING THE CONSEQUENCES OF UNEMPLOYMENT

    Theory Major Assumptions
    Economic deprivation modelThis theory focuses on the lack of financial resources that stem from unemployment. Lack of financial resources leads the unemployed to face challenges in acquiring the basic necessities of life. An intervention that stems from this theory argues for providing direct or in-kind subsidies to mitigate the economic stressors.
    Control theoryThis theory focuses on the control the individual perceives he/she has to master or respond to in the environment, in this case, the stressors emanating from job loss. Those with an internal locus of control look within themselves and attribute blame to themselves. Those with an external locus of control look to external or environmental factors to explain their situation. Interventions involve counseling to help clients reframe their attributions of blame and providing concrete resources to assist clients in regaining their sense of control.
    Stress theoriesThese theories focus on the stress mechanisms triggered by a host of complex factors involving environmental stimuli (e.g., job loss), psychosocial factors (e.g., coping mechanisms, social supports, roles) and psychobiologic factors (e.g., genetic, physiologic, and biologic programming). Interventions would then focus on teaching stress management techniques.
    Social support theoriesThese theories focus on individuals' social supports and networks and how they serve to buffer against stressors. Social supports include friends, family, neighborhoods, community, religion, and other institutional supports. Interventions guided by this category of theory focus on identifying and garnering social supports to help individuals and families mitigate stress.
    Latent function modelThis theory emphasizes that work is more than just a means to provide economic resources; it offers a range of "latent" functions, including structured activity, intellectual stimulation, social status, social support, and personal identity and worth. Interventions would involve psychologic counseling to explore the meanings of work for those who are unemployed.
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  13. According to one study, self-esteem was more profoundly affected by unemployment in

    CONSEQUENCES OF UNEMPLOYMENT

    Unemployment has debilitating consequences to self-esteem and self-concept. Feelings of self-doubt about one's competence, direction in life, and future possibilities are common in unemployed individuals. In a survey study of 201 unemployed adults, researchers found that self-esteem was more profoundly affected for men compared to women, despite the fact the female participants indicated they experienced greater financial deprivation [31]. The authors speculate that beliefs about money and the perception of the traditional (gendered) breadwinner role are much stronger for men. Furthermore, the study showed that the assumption of alternative social roles positively influenced self-esteem more in unemployed women than men. For example, for men to assume more responsibilities in the household did not help bolster self-esteem at all. Finally, the level of social support was related to self-esteem, again more so for women than men. Men's self-esteem was not affected by the presence of social support networks [31].

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  14. Marriage appears to buffer against negative mental health consequences of unemployment in

    CONSEQUENCES OF UNEMPLOYMENT

    The correlation between unemployment and mental health is not as straightforward as it appears, and there are many other variables that mediate this relationship, including gender, marital status, and occupational social class. In general, there are gender differences in unemployment and mental health, with unemployed men experiencing higher levels of mental health problems compared to women [29]. Marriage appears to buffer against mental health problems for unemployed women in the higher occupational social class group. However, it appears to have a reverse effect for men in the lower occupational social class group [29].

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  15. In addition to the five stages of coping borrowed from Kübler-Ross's grief model, what extra stage has been proposed for persons dealing with unemployment?

    CONSEQUENCES OF UNEMPLOYMENT

    As noted, Kübler-Ross's stages of grief have been used to understand the psychologic and emotional dynamics of job loss [21]. According to this theory, individuals experiencing grief go through the following stages (though not necessarily in order):

    • Denial

    • Anger

    • Bargaining

    • Depression

    • Acceptance

    In the case of job loss, an individual who first hears about a job loss may experience shock and go through a period of disbelief or denial. A person in this stage might say, "I can't believe I am losing my job" or "I can't believe this is happening to me" [35]. Gradually, individuals might cycle to the anger stage, feeling as though they have been betrayed by the organization. These individuals may feel angry about being laid off, feel hostile toward the company, or feel furious that they have to deal with the problems associated with job loss [35]. As the anger dissipates, bargaining may be used as a coping mechanism. Individuals might attempt to reverse the termination by talking to key parties about how to reverse the process. Some individuals may feel they can bargain with the company to return to work or be given some sort of severance pay [35]. When bargaining efforts fail, sadness and depression can result. This may be mitigated by pre-existing coping mechanisms and social supports. An extra stage, exploration, may appear at this point [35]. Individuals in this stage begin to explore the potential opportunities or possibilities, possibly seeing the job loss as a positive opportunity and keeping an open mind about leaving [35]. Finally, individuals enter the acceptance stage and acknowledge (perhaps in a resigned manner) the job loss by accepting the inevitable and preparing for the transitions and changes. Again, clients may move back and forth through the stages, not necessarily following a linear path.

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  16. Which of the following types of employees is more likely to experience more profound job loss grief?

    CONSEQUENCES OF UNEMPLOYMENT

    Research appears to support the role of job loss in grief reactions separate from experiences of depression and/or anxiety [36]. Of course, there is great variability with the experiences of job loss grief. Employees who have been at companies for longer periods, those with dependents, and those who did not anticipate unemployment and did not receive adequate notice are most likely to experience more profound job loss grief [19].

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  17. Job insecurity and unemployment have negative physiologic ramifications, including increased blood pressure and decreased body mass index.

    CONSEQUENCES OF UNEMPLOYMENT

    Researchers have found that job insecurity and unemployment have negative physiologic ramifications, including increased blood pressure and decreased body mass index [37]. Other studies have linked unemployment and markers of poor health outcomes such as self-reported physical symptoms, greater frequency in the use of medical services, mortality due to suicide, greater use of pension disability benefits, and increased use of tobacco and alcohol [38].

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  18. Which of the following is NOT an example of human capital, a potential mediator of unemployment consequences?

    CONSEQUENCES OF UNEMPLOYMENT

    Work-role centrality refers to the importance attached to work and its role in defining an individual's self-worth and self-concept. Human capital refers to the potential, knowledge, and skills inherent to the individual. Examples of human capital include education, ability, occupational status, and intelligence. Demographic variables include age, marital status, number of children or dependents, gender, socioeconomic status, race, and length of unemployment. Coping strategies (which will be reviewed in greater detail later in this course), or behavioral and cognitive methods used to handle internal and external stressors, are also mediators. Cognitive appraisals are defined as an individual's interpretations or perceptions of being unemployed. This includes an individual's expectations of the job search and being employed, how the individual attributes responsibility for the job loss, and how the individual perceives the stressor (i.e., threat or challenge). Finally, coping resources are internal characteristics and external or environmental sources that can be harnessed to cope or deal with the stressors emanating from job loss [41]. Any of these factors will affect how an individual responds to job loss and the resultant consequences in his or her life.

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  19. One of the predominant barriers to implementing a job action plan is

    COPING MECHANISMS AND JOB LOSS

    Social skills, or individuals' ability to interact and relate with others, can also be helpful. In one qualitative study, researchers examined factors that promoted and hindered success in implementing job action plans [43]. One of the predominant barriers was lack of skills, including poor social skills.

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  20. The chronically unemployed often feel their life circumstances are pre-determined and the result of fate.

    COPING MECHANISMS AND JOB LOSS

    Individuals' perspectives regarding hope and the direction of the future can be vehicles to manage stress. Beliefs regarding locus of control, specifically who or what has control of a situation, can influence how stress is experienced. For example, those with internal locus of control believe that characteristics, behaviors, or factors within themselves shape the direction of life events. They have strong self-efficacy and believe they can implement actions and behaviors to accomplish goals [44]. However, those with external locus of control believe that external factors, such as luck, chance, fate, and others with power, are the causes of outcomes [44]. In studies of unemployment, those who have high levels of internal control are more likely to be re-employed, while those with low levels of internal control tend to experience continued unemployment [31]. Logically, it appears that those who are employed have a greater sense of control of their lives and life circumstances while those who have had many bouts of unemployment experience feel less in control of their lives. The chronically unemployed often feel their life circumstances are random and influenced mainly by chance [45].

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  21. Taking a class to learn new skills is an example of

    COPING MECHANISMS AND JOB LOSS

    Problem-solving skills (e.g., analyzing situations, locating and synthesizing information, applying the information to make a decision) can be valuable in seeking and obtaining employment. There are two types of problem-solving skills: active (problem focused) and passive (avoidant or emotional based). Active problem-solving skills are strategies characterized as task-oriented, concrete, and direct. Individuals engaged in active problem solving are taking action to alter the source of stress, with the intent of producing some tangible outcome [46]. This type of problem solving is used when individuals feel something constructive can be done. Examples of active coping skills related to unemployment include [48]:

    • Searching for work or starting one's own business

    • Taking classes to learn new skills

    • Talking with other unemployed individuals

    • Structuring daily life to mimic a workday

    • Networking with others to help find work

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  22. Which measures of social support are better predictors of psychologic well-being in times of stress?

    COPING MECHANISMS AND JOB LOSS

    Social support networks may include friends, family, neighbors, coworkers, and other individuals who provide mutual comfort and assistance. Social support can be viewed in objective or subjective terms. Objectively, one can count the frequency of contact or size of social support, while subjectively, the focus is on the perceived quality of the support. Subjective measures of social support are better predictors of psychologic well-being in times of stress than objective measures [50].

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  23. If a job seeker follows a systematic and linear series of steps when seeking employment, this is referred to as the

    JOB SEARCH BEHAVIOR AND STRATEGIES

    If a job seeker follows a systematic and linear series of steps from start to finish, this is referred to as the sequential model. These job seekers begin with a planning stage followed by active and intense search strategies. According to the sequential model, those who go through the job search stage but who remain unemployed will return to the earlier stages to begin again.

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  24. Which of the following is an example of an informal job lead source?

    JOB SEARCH BEHAVIOR AND STRATEGIES

    In order to understand the different types of job search strategies, it is important first to understand the potential sources of information regarding job opportunities. Job sources are generally categorized as either formal or informal [55]. Formal sources are public venues advertising job leads, such as job postings in newspapers or magazines, online job sites, employment agencies, and career placement centers. Informal sources are private mediators that can provide job leads, including family, relatives, friends, networks, and employees at a target organization.

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  25. Persons using exploratory job search strategies

    JOB SEARCH BEHAVIOR AND STRATEGIES

    Job-seeking behaviors may also be described according to the level of directness. Focused job search strategies involve identifying specific types of jobs one desires based on skill sets and interests, then targeting a small number of employers that fit the criteria. Focused job searchers tend to persevere until they obtain the job they want [58]. On the other hand, haphazard job search strategies do not have a specific focus. Job seekers using these strategies are receptive to jobs that are outside their areas of study, skills, competencies, and long-term professional/vocational goals. These individuals want or need a job more desperately and will use a trial-and-error approach, switching job search strategies several times [58]. Those who use haphazard job search strategies tend to obtain employment more quickly than those using other job search strategies because they are more likely to accept the first job offered. In the middle of this continuum are exploratory job search strategies. Individuals using these strategies pool their job options and gather a range of information from family, friends, and previous employers. They have in mind the type of job they want but will remain receptive to other alternatives [58].

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  26. Individuals experiencing longer periods of unemployment are more likely to engage in the job search process and experience higher levels of motivation.

    JOB SEARCH BEHAVIOR AND STRATEGIES

    Another factor that affects job search behavior is the duration of unemployment and the psychologic well-being of the job seeker. Research indicates that individuals experiencing longer periods of unemployment are more likely to lose motivation and are less engaged in the job search process. These individuals have been referred to as the "scarred worker" [60]. The lives of "scarred workers" are disrupted on multiple fronts (e.g., family, social, economic), and their personal and vocational/professional identities are also threatened. Consequently, their problem-solving skills and self-esteem are similarly affected [60]. This then adversely impacts job searching abilities and motivation.

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  27. Which of the following statements regarding the use of Internet technology in a job search is TRUE?

    ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN JOB SEEKING

    One of the advantages of searching for employment via the Internet is the ease, convenience, and amount of information accessible for free or for a relatively nominal fee. However, many job seekers assume that posting their résumés, completing online applications, and waiting for a response will be sufficient [62]. In fact, multiple job search strategies should be employed along with the Internet in order to fully maximize its effectiveness [62].

    More individuals are using social networking sites for personal and professional purposes as well. In 2014, 52% of adults (18 years of age and older) in the United States used two or more social networking sites [63]. As of 2018, 69% of the public used at least one form of social media [70]. The most popular social networking site is Facebook, and 71% of adult social network users have a Facebook account [63]. In addition, 53% of users have an Instagram account, 50% have a LinkedIn account, and 19% have a Twitter account [63]. In general, 50% of users of social networking sites are well-educated, with college degrees or higher, and there are slight gender differences in use, with 66% of users being men. An estimated 73% of social networking users are 30 to 49 years of age and 87% are 18 to 29 years of age. The greatest increase in Internet users is among those age 65 years and older, with 31% of people aged 65 and older use some form of social media in 2018 [63,70].

    Using social networking sites can be a very powerful and focused way to network. Instead of merely showing up to a job fair or a networking event and hoping to meet someone who may be helpful professionally, job seekers can use social networking sites to actively search for and connect with people in specific companies who can potentially refer them to other insiders. Furthermore, social networking sites can be used effectively for job searching purposes if they are viewed as a vehicle for personal branding [64]. Social networking sites such as LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter, and Ning can be used to create a professional identity and convey professional goals.

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  28. What assistance may non-career counselor practitioners provide to clients regarding their résumés?

    PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: THE ROLE OF THE HELPING PROFESSIONAL

    Although many practitioners are not career counselors per se, they still may assist clients with practical job search skills such as résumé writing. Practitioners may review the basic structure of a résumé, refer clients to online sites that offer tips about résumé writing, and quickly review résumés. When reviewing résumés, practitioners can ask simple, practical questions [68]:

    • Are there spelling and grammatical errors?

    • Are objectives written in a manner targeted to a specific job?

    • Are objectives written in a way that indicates what the job seeker can offer to employers (employer-focus) rather than what the job seeker desires (self-centered focus)?

    • Are specific skills mentioned?

    Practitioners can also refer clients to career websites that offer résumé writing and coaching services. These services may require a fee, which varies from company to company. If used, the client may submit information, including demographics, work history, professional experiences, skills, and other relevant facts, which is then used to develop a résumé [69]. In addition to the traditional print résumé, video résumés are also becoming more common. Many online career sites offer tips about video production, and some offer video production services [69].

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  29. Which of the following is an example of a mindfulness intervention for unemployed clients?

    PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: THE ROLE OF THE HELPING PROFESSIONAL

    Mindfulness interventions are viewed as the "third wave" of cognitive-behavioral therapy, incorporating principles of yoga and meditation [53]. Mindfulness is defined as a "type of intentional consciousness, awareness, or a way of being attentive in the present moment that can be learned through meditation" [67]. Through meditation, clients can be taught to deal with anxiety-laden thoughts about unemployment with awareness and acceptance.

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  30. Cognitive-behavioral interventions can empower unemployed clients who are plagued with self-defeating beliefs and thoughts.

    PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: THE ROLE OF THE HELPING PROFESSIONAL

    There are also other, more traditional relaxation and stress management techniques available to cope with anxiety [34]. Cognitive-behavioral interventions focusing on reducing negative thoughts and substituting more realistic positive thoughts, using solutions-focused methods such as role playing for interviews, and implementing and scheduling specific action plans for job searching can empower clients who are plagued with self-defeating beliefs and thoughts [34].

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  • Back to Course Home
  • Participation Instructions
    • Review the course material online or in print.
    • Complete the course evaluation.
    • Review your Transcript to view and print your Certificate of Completion. Your date of completion will be the date (Pacific Time) the course was electronically submitted for credit, with no exceptions. Partial credit is not available.