Study Points

Club Drugs

Course #96992 - $15 • 3 Hours/Credits

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  1. Rave parties, or raves, began in England in the

    BACKGROUND

    Rave parties, or raves, began in England in the 1980s and spread to the United States in the early 1990s. These events are marathon dance parties held in clandestine locations, including warehouses, nightclubs, and farm fields, accompanied by extravagant light shows with themes emphasizing harmony, empathy, and a sense of belonging. Club drugs are used to increase feelings of closeness with others and to heighten the experience through sensory enhancement, visual distortion, and illusion [3]. Alcohol is generally not sold at raves, but designer and other drugs are obtainable and affordable. Also, "power drinks" are often sold. These drinks consist of fruit juice mixed with amino acid powders and B vitamins to replenish fluids lost during strenuous marathon dancing [4].

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  2. Which of the following statements regarding raves and club drugs is FALSE?

    BACKGROUND

    Rave parties, or raves, began in England in the 1980s and spread to the United States in the early 1990s. These events are marathon dance parties held in clandestine locations, including warehouses, nightclubs, and farm fields, accompanied by extravagant light shows with themes emphasizing harmony, empathy, and a sense of belonging. Club drugs are used to increase feelings of closeness with others and to heighten the experience through sensory enhancement, visual distortion, and illusion [3]. Alcohol is generally not sold at raves, but designer and other drugs are obtainable and affordable. Also, "power drinks" are often sold. These drinks consist of fruit juice mixed with amino acid powders and B vitamins to replenish fluids lost during strenuous marathon dancing [4].

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  3. According to the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2017, approximately what percentage of high school students had used MDMA at least once during their lifetimes?

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    Club drug use may be described as a youth movement. While college is frequently the time of first MDMA use, use in high school students has become more common. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2017 reported that 4.0% of high school students nationwide had used MDMA at least once during their lifetimes [41]. A total of 2.6% of high school seniors had consumed MDMA during the previous year, and approximately 0.9% admitted to being current users. A higher prevalence among Hispanics was also found [42].

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  4. What racial/ethnic group has a higher prevalence of MDMA use?

    EPIDEMIOLOGY

    Club drug use may be described as a youth movement. While college is frequently the time of first MDMA use, use in high school students has become more common. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2017 reported that 4.0% of high school students nationwide had used MDMA at least once during their lifetimes [41]. A total of 2.6% of high school seniors had consumed MDMA during the previous year, and approximately 0.9% admitted to being current users. A higher prevalence among Hispanics was also found [42].

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  5. After oral ingestion, MDMA reaches peak plasma concentration within

    MDMA

    MDMA reaches peak plasma concentration within two to four hours following oral ingestion. Its half-life is approximately eight hours, and metabolism occurs primarily through the hepatic enzyme CYP2D6 [17,18].

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  6. MDMA ingestion can trigger psychiatric disturbances, including

    MDMA

    The alteration of perception initiated by MDMA use may be experienced as dysphorogenic, and MDMA-naïve subjects have reported anxiety, mild depersonalization or derealization, moderate thought disorder, and poor coordination. MDMA ingestion can trigger psychiatric disturbances, including depression, panic attacks, and persisting perception disorder ("flashbacks"). It has been proposed that these disturbances are more likely to emerge in individuals with a vulnerability to mental illness [2]. Experienced MDMA users taking the drug under controlled conditions have frequently reported impaired decision-making ability, difficulty in concentrating, and decreased mathematics performance [8].

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  7. Patients admitted to the emergency department for MDMA toxicity may present with which of the following?

    MDMA

    Patients admitted to the emergency department for MDMA toxicity typically present with agitation, anxiety, tachycardia, hypertension, or hyperthermia. There is no antidote for MDMA toxicity; treatment is limited to supportive care [9,20].

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  8. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the pharmacology of gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB)?

    GAMMA HYDROXYBUTYRATE (GHB)

    GHB increases brain dopamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine and interacts with the opioid system. It is involved in the regulation of GABA, serotonin, and acetylcholine. GHB also inhibits dopamine release and activates tyrosine hydroxylase, which together act to increase the central dopamine levels associated with the reinforcing effects of GHB [2].

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  9. Which of the following is NOT an adverse effect of ketamine?

    KETAMINE

    Low doses of ketamine are associated with feelings of relaxation, while higher doses can produce dreamlike states, hallucinations, visual distortions, and unpleasant sensations of near-death experience. Some common effects of ketamine use are delirium, amnesia, and depression. Adverse effects include nausea, immobility, abnormally low body temperature, anxiety, dissociation, depression, recurrent flashbacks, impaired attention, learning disability, and symptoms of schizophrenia. Cognitive dysfunction related to attention, learning, and memory can result from chronic abuse [2].

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  10. Due to its anterograde amnestic effects, which of the following club drugs is most commonly associated with drug-induced sexual assault?

    CLUB DRUGS AND FACILITATION OF SEXUAL ASSAULT

    Several club drugs have been implicated for use in sexual assault because victims have difficulty resisting the attack due to the profoundly sedating and intoxicating drug effects. GHB has effects that are similar to alcohol, and a combination of alcohol and GHB puts a potential victim at heightened risk of loss of consciousness. Flunitrazepam causes similar symptoms. Due to its anterograde amnestic effects (inability to recall events taking place while under the influence of the drug), flunitrazepam is more commonly used in drug-induced sexual assault [2,9]. The memory problems associated with both drugs and the fact that GHB clears from the body within 12 hours make detection difficult and increase the complexity of attempts to prosecute perpetrators utilizing these drugs [22]. In addition to GHB and flunitrazepam, ketamine is being used increasingly as a "date rape drug" due to its dissociative effect [17].

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