Study Points

Sleep Disorders

Course #98883 - $50 • 10 Hours/Credits

  • Back to Course Home
  • Participation Instructions
    • Review the course material online or in print.
    • Complete the course evaluation.
    • Review your Transcript to view and print your Certificate of Completion. Your date of completion will be the date (Pacific Time) the course was electronically submitted for credit, with no exceptions. Partial credit is not available.
  1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of normal sleep?

    THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SLEEP

    Sleep is an active body process marked by suspended consciousness, diminished sensory activity, relaxed musculature, reduced ability to react to stimuli, and other changes in brain activity that correspond with distinct sleep phases. Despite being necessary to humans, the basis for the need of sleep is still poorly understood. To date, the consequences of sleep deficit are the best indication of the functions sleep serves.

    Click to Review
  2. Biologic "clocks" located throughout the body manage circadian rhythms. These are all controlled and coordinated by the

    THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SLEEP

    The sleep-wake cycle consists of approximately 8 hours of sleep and 16 hours of wakefulness in healthy adults and is controlled by two internal factors: circadian rhythms and sleep homeostasis [20]. Circadian rhythms are "physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a roughly 24-hour cycle, responding primarily to light and darkness in an organism's environment" [21]. Biologic "clocks" located throughout the body manage circadian rhythms in individual body systems; these are all controlled and coordinated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), or "master clock," located in the hypothalamus. The SCN's circadian rhythm has an endogenous component but is also driven by external cues from the environment, called zeitgebers [22]. The light-dark cycle is the overwhelmingly dominant zeitgeber for humans. Light acts on photosensitive ganglion cells in the retina that send signals directly to the SCN, providing synchronization with the particular environment. Thus, the body is able to adapt (in some cases with difficulty) and correct the sleep-wake cycle relative to differing light-dark conditions (e.g., when travelling to a different time zone).

    Click to Review
  3. The primary zeitgeber in humans is

    THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SLEEP

    Although the primary zeitgeber in humans is the light-dark cycle, there are other influential nonphotic cues, including exercise, temperature, and various social cues, that influence the regulation of various biologic processes (e.g., body temperature, hormone production) [23,26,27]. Researchers propose that sleep patterns may be influenced by other important zeitgebers, including sound, temperature, and the earth's magnetic field, that are as yet unproven or only considered weak factors [28,29]. Given that light is such a powerful influence and that humans are sensitive to very low levels of light, it is difficult to study the effects of these other possible cues. (Blind individuals typically have "free running" circadian rhythms ≥25 hours and are often the subject of zeitgeber investigations.) Some zeitgebers, such as aberrant work schedules, alarm clocks, artificial light, radio, television, and time-zone change, are known to cause disruptions to the natural sleep-wake cycle.

    Click to Review
  4. In a healthy adult, most sleep time is spent in

    THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SLEEP

    Approximately 50% of time is spent in stage 2 sleep during an adult's normal night's sleep [20,34]. Arousal is more difficult during this phase, and the low-voltage, intermixed pattern continues. Brainwave activity slows to the theta range (4 Hz to 7 Hz). Sleep spindles (and associated K-complexes) are the defining characteristic of stage 2 sleep. Spindles are short bursts of vertex rhythmic activity between 12 and 16 Hz (typically 14 Hz) lasting about 0.5 seconds. Sleep spindles begin at 6 to 8 weeks of age and continue throughout life [34,35,36].

    Click to Review
  5. According to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, approximately how many unique sleep disorders are there?

    OVERVIEW OF SLEEP DISORDERS

    As discussed, there are more than 80 official sleep disorders defined in the current AASM diagnostic and coding manual, the ICSD-3 [2]. The ICSD-3 uses a pragmatic framework for categorizing sleep disorders based primarily on pathophysiology, if known, and also phenomenology and organ system methodology [2]. Unlike in original versions, disorders are no longer grouped into three major classes: dyssomnias, parasomnias, and sleep disturbances associated with mental, neurologic, or other medical disorders. Instead, the ICSD-3 contains seven major categories of sleep disorders [2]:

    • Insomnia

    • Sleep-related breathing disorders

    • Central disorders of hypersomnolence

    • Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders

    • Parasomnias

    • Sleep-related movement disorders

    • Other sleep disorders

    Click to Review
  6. Which of the following is NOT one of the three conditions used to identify insomnia?

    INSOMNIAS

    The term insomnia is defined generally as difficulty with initiation, duration, consolidation, or quality of sleep. It is commonly applied when three conditions are satisfied: ample time and opportunity for sleep, persistent sleep difficulty, and daytime dysfunction associated with sleep deficit [2].

    Click to Review
  7. For patients with chronic insomnia, which of the following conditions can trigger arousal near bedtime?

    INSOMNIAS

    Preoccupation with general health and wellness may predispose individuals to chronic insomnia, and repression and internalization of disturbing feelings may be a common trait [2]. It may appear that patients are overly anxious, and in fact, recurrent thoughts of poor sleep performance may trouble these individuals in the morning and afternoon and attain a peak at night. However, generalized anxiety is not the norm for chronic insomnia sufferers. Screening for comorbid general anxiety is recommended when symptoms seem to extend beyond an emphasis on disordered sleep [2]. Environmental and biologic sleep cues often become triggers for heightened sleep anxiety and arousal. For example, when the sun sets and darkness falls, thoughts of poor previous nights' sleep and sleep performance anxiety may begin. In healthy individuals, feelings of drowsiness lead to increased calm, but fatigue can cause panic and distress in those with chronic insomnia. Patients may think, "I feel tired, but I know that if I go to bed I will not be able to fall asleep," or, "I feel tired now, but I am going to feel even worse tomorrow morning when I am not able to sleep tonight." This may be, or become, true as the patient ruminates about sleep and stresses.

    Subjective or objective deficits with daily functioning are noticed in individuals with chronic insomnia. These may manifest as depression, lethargy, or a desire to limit activities or work. Work productivity may suffer, as may academic performance.

    Patients often readily express sleep anxiety and may acknowledge their ability to sleep normally in unfamiliar settings [2]. The lack of environmental triggers in unfamiliar environments can help prevent sleep performance worry.

    Click to Review
  8. The practice of sleep hygiene involves all of the following, EXCEPT:

    INSOMNIAS

    Establishing a bedtime ritual involves deciding upon an activity or series of activities that provide conditioned sleep cues and consistently repeating those activities each night. The first part of the ritual should involve quitting challenging, engaging, or stressful tasks (e.g., paying bills, playing video games, watching television) and resolving any lingering worries (e.g., quarrels, dwelling problems). Some people find that if tasks are incomplete or issues are left unresolved, making a to-do list for the next day will help to clear their mind [48]. Next, patients should focus on relaxation for 20 or 30 minutes. During this time, they might read, listen to relaxing music, take a warm bath, or practice meditation and/or deep-breathing exercises. There are many other lifestyle modifications that can reduce the likelihood of developing a sleep disorder or can lead to a reduction of symptoms of an existing disorder. The following guidelines are all components of proper sleep hygiene and should be included as part of patient education for any sleep disorder [11,48]:

    • Large, heavy meals should be avoided late in the day, as should spicy, new, or exotic foods.

    • Alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine should be avoided for at least four to six hours before bedtime. Alcohol initially acts as a sedative, but as the effect wears off, it can cause individuals to wake during the night. Chocolate, coffee, tea, and many other beverages contain caffeine and should be avoided at night.

    • Long naps should not be part of a normal day. Occasional, light (30-minute) naps are permissible, but regular naps interrupt the sleep-wake cycle and can make falling asleep difficult at night. Patients should be able to remain awake throughout the day, and if this is not possible, this indicates insufficient sleep and/or a sleep disorder.

    • Upon waking in the morning, individuals should seek out sunlight. Exposure to bright sunlight helps regulate the sleep-wake cycle. This is especially important for older adults and those who do not leave the house regularly.

    • Patients should be encouraged to engage in at least 20 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per day, a minimum of two to three hours before bedtime. Vigorous exercise is best performed in the afternoon or earlier in the day, while relaxing exercises (e.g., deep breathing, light yoga, meditation) may be performed before bedtime. Exercise performed earlier in the day helps deepen sleep.

    • The bed should be used only for sleep and sex. Patients who do not fall asleep within 15 to 20 minutes of being in bed should get out of bed and engage in an uncomplicated or relaxing activity in low-light conditions until they feel drowsy. Taking a bath, reading, or having a small snack is recommended; watching television, doing work, or engaging in other mentally engaging activities is not. One should not lie in bed trying to force sleep.

    Click to Review
  9. Which of the following is NOT a successful nonpharmacologic treatment for patients with chronic insomnia?

    INSOMNIAS

    Certain forms of chronic insomnia tend to be less amenable to control with simple nonpharmacologic and brief sedative-hypnotic modes of treatment. Some form of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), utilizing stimulus control, relaxation training, and sleep restriction therapies, sequentially or in combination, achieves the best results [46,49]. Stimulus control therapy, which is akin to maintaining strict sleep hygiene, has been extensively studied and is the most recommended modality for initial insomnia treatment [43]. However, because sleep cues and other practices learned with sleep hygiene/stimulus control may become (or may already be) a cause of arousal, it is unlikely that all clinical subtypes will benefit significantly from this form of therapy.

    Click to Review
  10. When prescribing sedative-hypnotics for patients with insomnia, clinicians should

    INSOMNIAS

    Hypnotic drugs are best utilized when nonpharmacologic measures do not achieve symptom reduction, when insomnia causes serious impairment, or when an immediate response is desired [54]. The following are best practice guidelines regarding the prescription and use of sedative-hypnotics [54,59]:

    • Avoid these agents or exercise caution if patient has a history of substance abuse, acute cerebrovascular accident, myasthenia gravis, or respiratory impairment.

    • Prescribe hypnotics only for short durations (one to two weeks) and intermittently (based on symptom resolution).

    • Watch for requests for escalating doses or resistance to tapering/discontinuing hypnotic.

    • Hypnotics should be discontinued gradually. Be alert for adverse effects (especially rebound insomnia) and withdrawal phenomena when titrating doses.

    • The lowest effective dose should be prescribed.

    Click to Review
  11. Central sleep apnea due to Cheyne-Stokes breathing is primarily associated with

    SLEEP-RELATED BREATHING DISORDERS

    Only obstructive sleep apnea syndrome will be discussed in detail in this section, as the other sleep-related breathing disorders are comparatively rare and/or mainly associated with other medical conditions. For example, central sleep apnea due to Cheyne-Stokes breathing is primarily associated with congestive heart failure and stroke, and primary central sleep apneas of infancy or prematurity are associated with premature birth and low birth weight, occurring in 25% of infants weighing <2,500 g and 84% of infants weighing <1,000 g [2]. Others are extremely rare. It is estimated that there are perhaps a total of 200 congenital central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome cases worldwide [2].

    Click to Review
  12. Typical nasopharyngeal abnormalities in adults with chronic obstructive sleep apnea include

    SLEEP-RELATED BREATHING DISORDERS

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction caused by repetitive narrowing or collapse of the pharyngeal airway during sleep, resulting in reductions (hypopneas) or pauses (apneas) in breathing, in spite of abdominal and chest movements; reduced blood oxygen saturation (less than 50% in some patients); and frequent arousals (potentially hundreds per night) [2,62]. Loud snoring coupled with periods of silence lasting at least 10 seconds, but often 20 to 30 seconds, are features of the syndrome. Gasping may occur instead of snoring, especially in children and adolescents; however, most patients with obstructive sleep apnea begin loud snoring in childhood. Patients may have grown accustomed to the excessive sleepiness, mental dullness, depression, frequent night awakenings, dry mouth, and morning headaches that accompany the disorder [2]. Alcohol use can increase snoring intensity, as can excess weight gain and obesity. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea often have nasopharyngeal abnormalities [2]. Adult patients typically have a generalized narrowing of the upper airway, and enlarged adenoids and/or tonsils are commonly seen in children.

    Click to Review
  13. An apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) scale score of 7 would indicate

    SLEEP-RELATED BREATHING DISORDERS

    If a patient presents with complaints of excessive daytime sleepiness or non-restful sleep and a history of snoring, obstructive sleep apnea should be suspected. A comprehensive medical history and physical evaluation should be obtained, and various objective sleep studies (e.g., polysomnography, portable monitors, MSLT) should be completed to confirm the diagnosis. The AHI scale has been developed to quantify and standardize the degree of obstructive sleep apnea severity. The score is determined by adding the number of apnea and hypopnea events during a patient's overnight sleep study, dividing the total number of events by the minutes of sleep, and finally multiplying the result by 60. For example, if a patient sleeps 8 hours (480 minutes) and has 120 apnea events and 80 hypopnea events (200 total events), the calculation for this patient would be 200 events ÷ 480 minutes × 60, for an AHI score of 25. A normal cutoff for AHI has never been defined in an epidemiologic study of healthy people. Most sleep centers use a cutoff of 5 to 10 episodes per hour. The severity of obstructive sleep apnea is arbitrarily defined and differs widely between centers. Recommendations for cutoff levels on AHI include 5 to 15 episodes per hour for mild, 15 to 30 episodes per hour for moderate, and more than 30 episodes per hour for severe [65]. In the example, the patient has an AHI score of 25, or moderate obstructive sleep apnea.

    Click to Review
  14. Using the American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria, what proportion of American adults has at least moderate obstructive sleep apnea?

    SLEEP-RELATED BREATHING DISORDERS

    Obstructive sleep apnea is by far the most common sleep-related breathing disorder [62]. Using the AASM criteria, it is estimated that 1 in 5 American adults has at least mild obstructive sleep apnea and 1 in 15 has at least moderate obstructive sleep apnea [63]. The incidence of the disorder increases with age, and it is two to three times more common in men than in women [62,63,66]. The estimated incidence among various age-groups is [62,66]:

    • Children: 2% to 8% among both sexes

    • 30 to 60 years of age: 4% to 9% of women, 9% to 24% of men

    • 65 to 99 years of age (with an AHI greater than 10): 56% of women, 70% of men

    Click to Review
  15. The only statistically significant risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea is

    SLEEP-RELATED BREATHING DISORDERS

    Many risk factors have been theoretically linked to obstructive sleep apnea. The most widespread factors are alcohol consumption, smoking, overweight and obesity, and hormonal changes related to pregnancy, menopause, and polycystic ovary syndrome [63]. There are conflicting studies for each of these theories, and only overweight and obesity is considered a statistically significant risk factor.

    Click to Review
  16. The preferred method of objective sleep testing for patients with obstructive sleep apnea is

    SLEEP-RELATED BREATHING DISORDERS

    Objective testing with a standardized method follows suspicion of obstructive sleep apnea to confirm the diagnosis and guide the initiation of treatment. In-laboratory polysomnography is the preferred method of objective sleep testing and is recommended for most patients [41]. At-home testing with portable monitors may be used prior to laboratory testing or to confirm the efficacy of treatments, but it should not be used for individuals with a high degree of comorbidity unless in-laboratory monitoring is not feasible due to safety or mobility issues.

    Click to Review
  17. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is recommended for patients with

    SLEEP-RELATED BREATHING DISORDERS

    According to the American College of Physicians (ACP), the principal initial treatment for obstructive sleep apnea is positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy, which uses forced air to maintain a patent pharyngeal airway [73]. This therapy may be provided in one of three modes: continuous (CPAP), bilevel (BPAP), or autotitrating (APAP), all with or without pressure relief (i.e., partial pressure reduction during expiration) [41,71]. CPAP is the standard mode of PAP therapy; BPAP and APAP are used when CPAP cannot be tolerated. CPAP therapy is also recommended for patients with mild obstructive sleep apnea who have failed to improve with behavior modification or who are unable to enact lifestyle changes and who have symptoms that affect their ability to perform daily tasks and impact their quality of life [71].

    Click to Review
  18. Primary surgical treatment is indicated for patients with obstructive sleep apnea who have

    SLEEP-RELATED BREATHING DISORDERS

    After a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea has been established, it should be determined if patients are appropriate candidates for surgery as a primary, secondary, or adjunct treatment [79]. Candidates should also be screened for comorbidities that would affect the outcome of surgery. This and individual anatomy will dictate which option is chosen. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea who have gross anatomic abnormalities that are correctable (e.g., tonsillar and/or adenoidal hypertrophy, collapse or narrowing of the retropalatal or retrolingual areas) should be considered for primary surgical treatment regardless of the severity of the disorder [41]. Surgery as secondary treatment should be considered for patients who have failed to improve with PAP therapy or with an oral appliance or who cannot tolerate either modality. Upon examination of the upper airway, a patient with a gross obstruction that is deemed likely to interfere with the placement, effectiveness, or tolerance of either oral appliances or PAP should be considered a candidate for surgery as an adjunct treatment [41].

    Click to Review
  19. Oxygen therapy for obstructive sleep apnea has been found to

    SLEEP-RELATED BREATHING DISORDERS

    There are no effective pharmacotherapies for obstructive sleep apnea with the exception of medications used to treat conditions (e.g., hypothyroidism, acromegaly) that can precipitate obstructive sleep apnea or that worsen symptoms of the disorder (e.g., rhinitis) [41]. Patients with persistent daytime sleepiness (despite well-documented improvement in AHI score with PAP or other treatments) may benefit from use of the analeptic modafinil. All other causes of daytime sleepiness must be ruled out and PAP therapy should not be discontinued when taking modafinil. This drug is also used for the treatment of narcolepsy and will be discussed in detail later in this course. In 2019, two drugs, solriamfetol (Sunosi) and pitolisant (Wakix) , were approved by the FDA to improve wakefulness in adult patients with excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy or obstructive sleep apnea. [57,80]. Solriamfetol, a dual dopamine-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, has exhibited robust efficacy in randomized controlled trials. Initial oral dosing is 37.5 mg once daily, titrated up to a maximum dose of 150 mg/day. The most common adverse reaction is headache [57]. Pitolisant is a histamine H3 receptor inverse agonist approved for the treatment of cataplexy or excessive daytime sleepiness in adults with narcolepsy. Initial oral dosing is 8.9 mg once daily for one week, then 17.8 mg once daily for one week. The dose may be further increased based on response and tolerability during the third week to a maximum dose of 35.6 mg once daily. As with solriamfetol, the most common adverse reaction is headache [57]. Oxygen therapy is not considered a useful treatment for obstructive sleep apnea, as it has been found that it can lengthen the duration of apneas [41]. However, it is sometimes used to relieve hypoxemia. Resolution of hypoxemia must be documented to justify continued use, especially in patients with comorbid respiratory disease who are at an increased risk of hypercapnia with oxygen therapy.

    Click to Review
  20. Sleep attacks associated with narcolepsy usually occur

    CENTRAL DISORDERS OF HYPERSOMNOLENCE

    Narcolepsy is a primary disorder of the CNS characterized by recurring episodes (every two to three hours) of extreme sleepiness, sudden and irresistible sleep attacks, disturbed nighttime sleep, and memory problems resulting from sleep deficit [2,81]. Sleep spells (or attacks) usually occur during activities or situations in which sleepiness is common (e.g., as a passenger, in a class with no participation, during movies) and last 10 to 20 minutes, on average. However, they may also occur at times when sleeping is not normal (e.g., while driving, eating, walking, or talking). Individuals will feel rested when they awake, but this sense of refreshment does not last long. Sleepiness soon returns, and the cycle repeats. The disorder strongly features SOREMPs and is associated with several pathologic REM sleep phenomena, including cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations [82].

    Click to Review
  21. The age of onset of narcolepsy is usually

    CENTRAL DISORDERS OF HYPERSOMNOLENCE

    Narcolepsy is the second most common sleep-related disorder in the United States (after obstructive sleep apnea), affecting an estimated 1 in 2,000 individuals or an estimated 135,000 to 200,000 Americans [42]. Men and women are equally affected, but prevalence varies by race/ethnicity. For example, compared with the United States, narcolepsy is more common in Japan and less common in Israel. Narcolepsy with cataplexy is less common, estimated to affect 1 in 3,000 Americans [42]. The age of onset is typically between 7 and 25 years.

    Click to Review
  22. Deficient hypocretin-1 levels are often found in patients with narcolepsy

    CENTRAL DISORDERS OF HYPERSOMNOLENCE

    Laboratory testing may include cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 levels, but the value of this test is debated [2,42,92]. CSF hypocretin sampling is generally not recommended unless MSLTs are inconclusive or unavailable. This is because reduced or absent levels are usually only found in patients with cataplexy [42,92]. Although most narcoleptic patients without cataplexy have normal hypocretin levels, there is a subset who is deficient, including individuals with the HLA-DR2 phenotype, those at a younger age at onset, and patients with shorter mean REM latency periods [91].

    Click to Review
  23. The treatment of choice for narcolepsy when the most serious symptom is excessive daytime sleepiness is

    CENTRAL DISORDERS OF HYPERSOMNOLENCE

    Modafinil, a stimulant, was approved for use in the United States in 1998 and is the treatment of choice for narcolepsy when the most serious symptom is excessive daytime sleepiness due to its efficacy, limited adverse effects, and easiness of manipulation [42,92]. To date, researchers have been unable to determine the exact mechanism(s) of action, but modafinil is known to increase the release of monoamines (e.g., dopamine, norepinephrine, histamine) from synapses [93,102]. Therefore, the central histaminergic and dopaminergic systems are suspected to be involved. Unlike with classic CNS stimulants, the coadministration of a dopamine antagonist only partially weakens the effectiveness of modafinil, leading researchers to describe the drug as a wakefulness promoting agent [57,103]. The starting dose is 200 mg, and the usual effective dose is 200–400 mg taken as a single morning dose or as a split dose (first in the morning and then around noon). However, evidence of benefit with a dose greater than 200 mg/day is lacking [57]. There is a low prevalence of common side effects, including headache (13%), nervousness (8%), nausea (5%), and rhinitis, all of which are typically mild [92,94]. More serious side effects have been noted and are mainly allergic/inflammatory reactions, including hives, rash, and swelling. Other severe dermatologic reactions have occurred, such as drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), prompting the FDA to issue a safety labeling change in 2007 [57]. There have been very few instances of DRESS, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and TEN (less than 10 since 1998), and modafinil is considered a safe treatment for excessive daytime sleepiness.

    Click to Review
  24. The initial recommended dose of sodium oxybate for patients with narcolepsy, excessive daytime sleepiness with poor nighttime sleep, and cataplexy is

    CENTRAL DISORDERS OF HYPERSOMNOLENCE

    For patients with excessive daytime sleepiness with poor nighttime sleep and cataplexy, the first-line treatment is sodium oxybate [92]. This drug, also known as gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), is a powerful sedative that has been burdened by the stigma as a party or "date-rape" drug and a performance-enhancing drug [94]. Misuse of the drug can be life-threatening, and steps should be taken to ensure no other sedatives (including alcohol), muscle relaxants, or respiratory depressants are taken concurrently and that sleep disordered breathing is not present or does not develop. Sodium oxybate is restricted and can only be prescribed by those enrolled in the Xyrem Patient Success Program and dispensed by the designated centralized pharmacy [57]. The initial dose is 4.5 g/night in two equal doses [57]. The first dose is taken sitting upright in bed just before sleep; the patient should lie down immediately after dose one; the second dose is taken 2.5 to 4 hours later. (An alarm may be necessary.) The dose can be increased by 1.5 g at two-week intervals up to a maximum dose of 9 g/night [57,92]. Patients usually begin to improve after the first few nights, but the optimal response (even at the starting dose) can take up to 8 to 12 weeks. Adverse effects are common and include headache (9% to 37%), dizziness (8% to 37%), nausea (8% to 40%), vomiting (2% to 23%), pain (9% to 20%), confusion (3% to 17%), sleep disorder (6% to 14%), somnolence (1% to 14%), abdominal pain (3% to 11%), enuresis (3% to 17%), and urinary incontinence (<1% to 14%, usually nocturnal) [57].

    Click to Review
  25. Which of the following polysomnography findings is indicative of idiopathic hypersomnia?

    CENTRAL DISORDERS OF HYPERSOMNOLENCE

    There are many medical conditions that can cause hypersomnia, including Kleine-Levin syndrome, Parkinson disease, dementia, and post-traumatic stress disorder, all of which should be ruled out with a complete medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic workup. Standard sleep studies are used to confirm the diagnosis of idiopathic hypersomnia, including MSLT and polysomnography. The absence of multiple SOREMPs (one or fewer) during MSLT and greater time spent in slow-wave sleep during polysomnography suggest idiopathic hypersomnia [105]. On the other hand, multiple SOREMPs (two or more) are indicative of narcolepsy.

    Click to Review
  26. The most common cognitive symptom associated with recurrent hypersomnia is

    CENTRAL DISORDERS OF HYPERSOMNOLENCE

    All patients with recurrent hypersomnia have various forms of cognitive impairment and altered perception during episodes [108]. Cognitive symptoms include impaired speech (94%), difficulty with concentration (91%), and memory impairment (66%). Altered perception symptoms include dream-like state (81%), derealization (66%), and hypnagogic hallucinations (42%). Many patients experience other psychologic symptoms, including eating behavior disorders (95%), hypersexuality and disinhibition (53%), and depressed mood (53%) [108].

    Click to Review
  27. One factor that may precipitate delayed sleep-wake phase disorder is

    CIRCADIAN RHYTHM SLEEP-WAKE DISORDERS

    Staying up late, with activity and indoor bright lights, can promote the disorder, as can a corresponding reduction in bright morning light [2]. Shift work, changes in schedules, and frequent travel across time zones can also precipitate the disorder. Attempts at retraining, using sleep hygiene and bright light therapy may work, but patients usually maintain a strong desire for "eveningness" despite intervention [2].

    Click to Review
  28. Sleepwalking typically occurs during

    PARASOMNIAS

    Sleepwalking typically occurs during non-REM sleep stage 3 (slow-wave sleep), which is more common early in the night (during the first-third of sleep) [110]. Episodes last an average of 10 minutes but range from a few minutes to more than 30 minutes. Patients usually return to bed before waking, but some may fall asleep in another location or awaken while sleepwalking [2]. Sleep talking may also be exhibited by these individuals, and sleep terrors may occur at other times. Sleepwalking episodes may occur frequently (several times per night, for several nights) or only rarely or when precipitating factors are present [2].

    Click to Review
  29. In patients with restless legs syndrome, the area most often affected is the

    SLEEP-RELATED MOVEMENT DISORDERS

    Restless legs syndrome, also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, is a neurologic sleep disorder characterized by disagreeable leg sensations that worsen when individuals are at rest (e.g., when seated) and/or at night before bedtime [2]. There is an accompanying urge to move the legs to relieve the unpleasant sensations, which are described as aching, bubbling, creeping, crawling, pulling, searing, and/or tingling; walking, stretching, or shaking usually provides relief [128]. The area between the ankle and the knee is most often affected (usually bilaterally), but the thighs, feet, and, to a lesser extent, the arms may also be affected [2]. Pathologic changes in efficiency of central dopamine neurotransmission are thought to cause the disorder, based on the observation that restless legs syndrome symptoms are relieved by the use of dopaminergic drugs [127]. The secondary (non-idiopathic) form of restless legs syndrome can be caused by a variety of medical conditions. Iron deficiency and uremia are common causes; others include chronic kidney disease, cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency, folate deficiency, diabetes, fibromyalgia, Parkinson disease, peripheral neuropathy, pregnancy, radiculopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren syndrome, use of certain drugs (e.g., caffeine, calcium channel blockers, lithium, neuroleptics), and withdrawal from sedatives [128,129].

    Click to Review
  30. Which of the following medications may be used in the treatment of restless legs syndrome?

    SLEEP-RELATED MOVEMENT DISORDERS

    Anticonvulsants, dopamine agonists, tranquilizers, and opioid narcotics are used to manage symptoms of restless legs syndrome, and iron supplements are used when indicated [127,128]. Dopamine agonists considered effective for restless legs syndrome management include pramipexole and ropinirole, but rotigotine is recommended for long-term therapy [128,134]. These and other antiparkinsonian drugs are also first-line therapies for PLMD and may improve sleep in patients with both disorders. The anticonvulsants gabapentin and pregabalin reduce movement symptoms and neuropathic pain in patients with either restless legs syndrome or PLMD and may also help to improve sleep; however, use of these medications for restless legs syndrome and PLMD is off-label [57,128]. Gabapentin enacarbil is on-label and is preferred over gabapentin for long-term treatment [57,134]. Other treatments for these sleep disorders include stress management, muscle relaxation exercises, and sleep hygiene.

    The initial dosage of pramipexole (immediate-release) is 0.125 mg once daily, two to three hours before bedtime, but higher doses (up to 0.5 mg) are typically required in order to be effective [57]. The maximum recommended dose is 0.5 mg, but doses up to 2 mg daily are occasionally used. The most frequent side effects are nausea (11% to 27%), particularly early in treatment, and headache (16%) [57]. There is no evidence that doses higher than 0.5 mg/day offer benefit [135].

    The initial dose of ropinirole (immediate-release) is 0.25 mg taken one to three hours before bedtime; the dose may be increased to 0.5 mg after two days, to 1 mg after one week, and to a maximum dose of 4 mg at week 7. Common adverse effects include dizziness (6% to 40%), fatigue (8% to 11%), nausea (40% to 60%), somnolence (11% to 40%), syncope (1% to 12%), and viral infection (11%) [57].

    Click to Review

  • Back to Course Home
  • Participation Instructions
    • Review the course material online or in print.
    • Complete the course evaluation.
    • Review your Transcript to view and print your Certificate of Completion. Your date of completion will be the date (Pacific Time) the course was electronically submitted for credit, with no exceptions. Partial credit is not available.