Works Cited

Cyberbullying and Harassment

Course #96424 - $30 -

  • Back to Course Home
  • Participation Instructions
    • Review the course material online or in print.
    • Complete the course evaluation.
    • Review your Transcript to view and print your Certificate of Completion. Your date of completion will be the date (Pacific Time) the course was electronically submitted for credit, with no exceptions. Partial credit is not available.

1. Patchin JW, Hinduja S. Bullies move beyond the schoolyard: a preliminary look at cyberbullying. Youth Violence Juv Justice. 2006;4(2):148-169.

2. Ybarra ML, Mitchell KJ. Youth engaging in online harassment: associations with caregiver-child relationships, Internet use, and personal characteristics. J Adolesc. 2004;27(3):319-336.

3. Li Q. A cross-cultural comparison of adolescents' experience related to cyberbullying. Educ Res. 2008;50(3):223-234.

4. Premsky M. Digital natives: digital immigrants. On the Horizon. 2001;9(5):1-6.

5. Herther NK. Digital natives and immigrants. Online. 2009;33(6):14-21.

6. Pew Research Center. Internet/Broadband Fact Sheet. Available at Last accessed July 7, 2023.

7. U.S. Census Bureau. Computer and Internet Access in the United States: 2015. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

8. Pew Research Center. Mobile Fact Sheet. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

9. Pew Research Center. U.S. Smartphone Use in 2015. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

10. Walsh SP, White KM, Young RM. Over-connected? A qualitative phenomenon of the relationship between Australian youths and their mobile phones. J Adolesc. 2008;31(1):77-92.

11. Pew Research Center. Teens, Social Media and Technology Overview, 2015. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

12. The Nielson Company. U.S. Teen Mobile Report: Calling Yesterday, Texting Today, Using Apps Tomorrow. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

13. Pew Research Center. Social Media Fact Sheet. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

14. What Is It? Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

15. Pew Research Center. How Parents Monitor their Teen's Digital Behavior. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

16. Guillén MF, Suárez SL. Explaining the global digital divide: economic, political, and sociological drivers of cross-national Internet use. Soc Forces. 2005;84(2):681-708.

17. Wasserman IM, Richmond-Abbott M. Gender and the Internet: causes of variation in access, level, and scope of use. Soc Sci Q. 2005;86(1):252-270.

18. Cyberbullying Research Center. New National Bullying and Cyberbullying Data. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

19. Sheridan LP, Grant T. Is cyberstalking different? Psychology, Crime & Law. 2007;13(6):627-640.

20. Olweus D. A profile of bullying at school. Educ Leadersh. 2003;60(6):12-19.

21. Mitchell KJ, Wolak J, Finkelhor D. Trends in youth reports of sexual solicitations, harassment and unwanted exposure to pornography on the Internet. J Adolesc Health. 2007;40(2):116-126.

22. Vandebosch H, Van Cleemput K. Defining cyberbullying: a qualitative research into the perceptions of youngsters. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2008;11(4):499-503.

23. Hinduja S, Patchin JW. Cyberbullying Fact Sheet: What You Need To Know About Online Aggression. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

24. What is Cyberbullying? Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

25. Cyber Bullying Statistics. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

26. Ybarra ML, Espelage DL, Mitchell KJ. The co-occurrence of Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation victimization and perpetration: associations with psychosocial indicators. J Adolesc Health. 2007;41(6 Suppl 1):S31-S41.

27. Boyd DM, Ellison NB. Social network sites: definition, history, and scholarship. J Comput Mediat Commun. 2008;13(1):210-230.

28. 5 Different Types of Cyberbullying. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

29. Mishna F, McLuckie A, Saini M. Real-world dangers in an online reality: a qualitative study examining online relationships and cyber abuse. Soc Work Res. 2009;33(2):107-118.

30. Calvete E, Orue I, Estévez A, Villardón L, Padilla P. Cyberbullying in adolescents: modalities and aggressors' profile. Comput Human Behav. 2010;26(5):1128-1135.

31. Reeckman B, Cannard L. Cyberbullying. Youth Studies Australia. 2009;28(2):41-49.

32. Cassidy W, Jackson M, Brown KN. Sticks and stones can break my bones, but how can pixels hurt me? Students' experiences with cyber-bullying. Sch Psychol Int. 2009:30(4):383-402.

33. Strom PS, Strom RD. Cyberbullying by adolescents: a preliminary assessment. Educ Forum. 2005;70(1):21-36.

34. O'Donovan E. Sexting and student discipline. District Administration. 2010;46(3):60-64.

35. Lenhart A. Teens and Sexting. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

36. Raskauskas J, Stoltz AD. Involvement in traditional and electronic bullying among adolescents. Dev Psychol. 2007;43(3):564-575.

37. Anderson M. A Majority of Teens Have Experienced Some Form of Cyberbullying. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

38. Finkelhor D, Mitchell KJ, Wolak J. Online Victimization: A Report on the Nation's Youth. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

39. Ybarra ML, Mitchell KJ. Instant messaging may put young people at risk of harassment. Nurs Stand. 2008;22(31):17.

40. Tynes BM, Giang MT, Williams DR, Thompson GN. Online racial discrimination and psychological adjustment among adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2008;43(6):565-569.

41. Martin M. Computer and Internet Use in the United States, 2018. Available at Last accessed November 27, 2023.

42. Finn J. A survey of online harassment at a university campus. J Interpers Violence. 2004;19(4):468-483.

43. Kennedy MA, Taylor MA. Online Harassment and Victimization of College Students. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

44. Macdonald CD, Roberts-Pittman B. Cyberbullying Among College Students: Prevalence and Demographic Differences. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

45. Burke S, Yick-Flanagan A, Oomen-Early J, Walker A. Using Social Networking Sites to Explore Cyberabuse Among U.S. Women. Paper presented at: American Public Health Association 138th Annual Meeting and Expo; November 6, 2010; Denver, CO.

46. Mishna F, Khoury-Kassabri M, Gadalla T, Daciuka J. Risk factors for involvement in cyberbullying: victims, bullies and bully-victims. Children and Youth Services Review. 2012;34(1): 63-70.

47. Peter I-K, Petermann F. Cyberbullying: a concept analysis of defining attributes and additional influencing factors. Computers in Human Behavior. 2018;86:350-366.

48. Price M, Dalgleish J. Cyberbullying experiences, impacts and coping strategies as described by Australian young people. Youth Studies Australia. 2010;29(2):51-59.

49. Hokoda A, Lu H-HA, Angeles M. School bullying in Taiwanese adolescents. Journal of Emotional Abuse. 2006;6(4):69-90.

50. Mishna F, Saini M, Solomon S. Ongoing and online: children and youth's perceptions of cyber bullying. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2009;31:1222-1228.

51. Ybarra ML, Mitchell KJ. Prevalence and frequency of Internet harassment instigation: implications for adolescent health. J Adolesc Health. 2004:41(2):189-195.

52. Kiriakidis SP, Kavoura A. Cyberbullying: a review of the literature on harassment through the internet and other electronic means. Fam Community Health. 2010;33(2):82-93.

53. Williams KR, Guerra NG. Prevalence and predictors of internet bullying. J Adolesc Health. 2007;41(6):S14-S21.

54. Ybarra ML, Diener-West M, Leaf PJ. Examining the overlap in Internet harassment and school bullying: implications for school intervention. J Adolesc Health. 2007;41(6 Suppl 1):S42-S50.

55. Willard NE. Cyberbullying and Cyberthreats: Responding to the Challenge of Online Social Cruelty, Threats, and Distress. Champaign, IL: Research Press; 2007.

56. Mesch GS. Parental mediation, online activities and cyberbullying. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2009;12(4):387-393.

57. Juvonen J, Gross EF. Extending the school grounds? Bullying experiences in cyberspace. J Sch Health. 2008;78(9):46-54.

58. Patchin JW, Hinduja S. Traditional and nontraditional bullying among youth: a test of general strain theory. Youth Soc. 2011;43(2):727-751.

59. Agnew R. Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminol. 1992;30(1):47-87.

60. Suler J. The online disinhibition effect. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2004;7(3):321-326.

61. Huang Y, Chou C. An analysis of multiple factors of cyberbullying among junior high school students in Taiwan. Comput Human Behav. 2010;26(6):1581-1590.

62. Whitty MT. Liberating or debilitating? An examination of romantic relationships, sexual relationships and friendships on the Net. Comput Human Behav. 2008;24(5):1837-1850.

63. Pew Research Center. 10 Facts About Americans and Online Dating. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

64. Pew Research Center. Online Dating and Relationships. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

65. Jerin R, Dolinsky B. You've got mail! You don't want it: cyber-victimization and on-line dating. Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture. 2001;9(1):15-21.

66. Couch D, Liamputtong P. Online dating and mating: the use of the Internet to meet sexual partners. Qual Health Res. 2008;18(2):268-279.

67. Bent-Goodly TB. Eradicating domestic violence in the African American community. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2001;2(4):316-330.

68. Schechter S, Ganley A. Domestic Violence: A National Curriculum for Family Preservation Practitioners. San Francisco, CA: Family Violence Prevention Fund; 1995.

69. Smith SG, Chen J, Basile KC, et al. The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010–2012 State Report. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

70. National Network to End Domestic Violence. Technology-Facilitated Stalking: What You Need to Know. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

71. Finn J, Atkinson T. Promoting the safe and strategic use of technology for victims of intimate partner violence: evaluation of the Technology Safety Project. J Fam Violence. 2009;24(1):53-59.

72. Southworth C, Finn J, Dawson S, Fraser C, Tucker S. Intimate partner violence, technology, and stalking. Violence Against Women. 2007;13(8):842-856.

73. Beran T, Li Q. The relationship between cyberbullying and school bullying. Journal of Student Wellbeing. 2007;1(2):15-33.

74. Ybarra ML. Linkages between depressive symptomatology and Internet harassment among young regular Internet users. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2004;7(2):247-257.

75. Ybarra ML, Leaf PJ, Diener-West M. Sex differences in youth-reported depressive symptomatology and unwanted Internet sexual solicitation. J Med Internet Res. 2004;6(1):e5.

76. Patchin JW, Hinduja S. Cyberbullying and self-esteem. J Sch Health. 2010;80(12):614-621.

77. Hinduja S, Patchin JW. Bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide. Arch Suicide Res. 2010;14(3):206-221.

78. Delmonico DL, Griffin EJ. Cybersex and the e-teen: what marriage and family therapists should know. J Marital Fam Ther. 2008;34(4):431-444.

79. Diamanduros T, Downs E, Jenkins SJ. The role of school psychologists in the assessment, prevention, and intervention of cyberbullying. Psychol Sch. 2008;45(8):693-704.

80. Noll JG, Shenk CE, Barnes JE, Haralson KJ. Association of maltreatment with high-risk Internet behaviors and offline encounters. Pediatrics. 2013;2012-1281.

81. Pew Research Center. Online Harassment 2017. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

82. Liau AK, Khoo A, Ang PH. Factors influencing adolescents' engagement in risky Internet behavior. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2005;8(6):513-520.

83. Wolak J, Finkelhor D, Mitchell KJ, Ybarra ML. Online "predators" and their victims: myths, realities and implications for prevention and treatment. Am Psychol. 2008;63(2):111-128.

84. Dowell EB, Burgess AW, Cavanaugh DJ. Clustering of Internet risk behaviors in a middle school student population. J Sch Health. 2009;79(11):547-553.

85. Liau A, Khoo A, Ang P. Parental awareness and monitoring of adolescent Internet use. Curr Psychol. 2008;27(4):217-233.

86. Hertz M, David-Ferdon C. Electronic Media and Youth Violence: A CDC Issue Brief for Educators and Caregivers. Available at Last accessed July 31,2023.

87. Gini G, Albiero P, Benelli B, Altoè G. Determinants of adolescents' active defending and passive bystanding behavior in bullying. J Adolesc. 2008;31(1):93-105.

88. Hinduja S, Patchin JW. Preventing Cyberbullying: Top Ten Tips for Teens. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

89. Roberts AR. Contemporary Perspectives on Crisis Intervention and Prevention. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1991.

90. Alexy EM, Burgess AW, Baker T, Smoyak SA. Perceptions of cyberstalking among college students. Brief Treat Crisis Interv. 2005;5(3):279-289.

91. Woolley N. Crisis theory: a paradigm of effective intervention with families of critically ill people. J Adv Nurs. 1990;15(2):1402-1408.

92. Pew Research Center. One in Four Black Americans Have Faced Online Harassment Because of Their Race or Ethnicity. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

93. Cyberbullying Research Center. State Cyberbullying Laws. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

94. U.S. Department of Justice. Domestic Violence. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

95. Pew Internet Research. Teens, Technology and Friendships. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

96. Hinduja S, Patchin J. Preventing Cyberbullying: Top Ten Tips for Educators. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

97. Faucher C, Jackson M, Cassidy W. Cyberbullying among university students: gendered experiences, impacts, and perspectives. Education Research International. 2014;2014: 698545.

98. Mehari KR, Farrell AD, Le AH. Cyberbullying among adolescents: measures in search of a construct. Psychol Violence. 2014; 4(4):399-415.

99. Compton L, Campbell MA, Mergler A. Teacher, parent and student perceptions of the motives of cyberbullies. Soc Psychol Educ. 2014;17(3):383-400.

100. Slonje R, Smith PK, Frisén A. The nature of cyberbullying, and strategies for prevention. Comput Human Behav. 2013;29(1):26-32.

101. Lenhart A, Madden M, Smith A, Purcell K, Zickuhr K, Rainie L. Teens, Kindness and Cruelty on Social Network Sites: How American Teens Navigate the New World of "Digital Citizenship."Washington, DC: Pew Research Center Internet & American Life Project; 2011.

102. Kowalski RM, Giumetti GW, Schroeder AN, Lattanner MR. Bullying in the digital age: a critical review and meta-analysis of cyberbullying research among youth. Psychol Bull. 2014;140(4):1073-1137.

103. Peskin F, Markham CM, Addy RC, et al. Prevalence and patterns of sexting among ethnic minority urban high school students. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2013;16(6):454-459.

104. Ringrose J, Gill R, Livingstone S, Harvey L. A Qualitative Study of Children, Young People and "Sexting:" A Report Prepared for the NSPCC. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

105. Slonje R, Smith PK. Cyberbullying: another main type of bullying? Scand J Psychol. 2008;49:147-154.

106. Patchin JW. Summary of Our Research (2004–2016). Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

107. Jones LM, Mitchell KJ, Finkelhor D. Trends in youth Internet victimization: findings from three youth Internet safety surveys 2000–2010. J Adolesc Health. 2012;50(2):179-186.

108. Chang FC, Chiu CH, Miao NF, et al. Predictors of unwanted exposure to online pornography and online sexual solicitation of youth. J Health Psychol. 2014;21(6):1107-1118.

109. Gibb ZG, Devereux PG. Who does that anyway? Predictors and personality correlates of cyberbullying in college. Comput Human Behav. 2014;38:8-16.

110. Cénat JM, Hébert M, Blais M, et al. Cyberbullying, psychological distress and self-esteem among youth in Quebec schools. J Affect Disord. 2014;169(1):7-9.

111. Pew Research Center. Teens, Social Media and Technology, 2022. Available at Last accessed November 27, 2023.

112. Barlett CP, Gentile DA, Anderson CA, et al. Cross-cultural differences in cyberbullying behavior: a short-term longitudinal study. J Cross Cult Psychol. 2014;45(2):300-313.

113. Li Q. A cross-cultural comparison of adolescents' experience related to cyberbullying. Educ Res. 2008;50:223-234.

114. Santana D. Virtuous or vitriolic: the effect of anonymity on civility in online newspaper reader comment boards. Journalism Practice. 2014;8(1):18-33.

115. Barlett CP, Gentile DA, Chew C. Predicting cyberbullying from anonymity. Psychol Pop Media Cult. 2016;5(2):171-180.

116. D'Auria JP. Cyberbullying resources for youth and their families. J Pediatr Health Care. 2014;28(2):e19-e22.

117. Doane AN, Pearson MR, Kelley ML. Predictors of cyberbullying perpetration among college students: an application of the theory of reasoned action. Comput Human Behav. 2014;36:154-162.

118. Baas N, de Jong MDT, Drossaert CHC. Children's perspectives on cyberbullying: insights based on participatory research. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2013;16:248-253.

119. Bao W, Haas A, Chen X, Pi Y. Repeated strains, social control, social learning, and delinquency: testing an integrated model of strain theory in China. Youth Soc. 2014;46(3):402-424.

120. Jang H, Song J, Kim R. Does the offline bully-victimization influence cyberbullying behavior among youths? Application of general strain theory. Comput Human Behav. 2014;31:85-93.

121. Couch D, Liamputtong P, Pitts M. What are the real and perceived risks of online dating? Perspectives from online daters. Health Risk Soc. 2012;14(7-8):697-714.

122. O'Day RD. Rapists, sexual offenders, and child molesters: who is your romantic "match?" Why dating websites should perform criminal background checks. Valparaiso University Law Review. 2013;48(1):329-368.

123. Shimizu A. Domestic violence in the digital age: towards the creation of a comprehensive cyberstalking statute. Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law & Justice. 2013;28(1):116-137.

124. Congressional Documents and Publications. Brown Joins Domestic Violence Advocate to Outline Need for "Do Not Track" Internet and Smartphone Privacy Legislation: "Do Not Track" Bill Would Safeguard Consumers from Companies that Track Users' Whereabouts, Give Domestic Violence Victims Additional Safeguard Against GPS-Enabled Smartphone Stalking. Available at Last accessed July 24, 2023.

125. Nixon CL. Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health. Adolesc Health Med Ther. 2014;1(5):143-158.

126. Dredge R, Gleeson J, Garcia X. Presentation of Facebook and risk of cyberbullying victimization. Comput Human Behav. 2014;40:16-22.

127. Parris LN, Varjas K, Meyers J. The Internet is a mask: high school students' suggestions for preventing cyberbullying. West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(5):587-592.

128. Sasson H, Mesch G. Parental mediation, peer norms and risky online behavior among adolescents. Comput Human Behav. 2014;33:32-38.

129. Simmons KD, Bynum YP. Cyberbullying: six things administrators can do. Education. 2014;134(4):452-456.

130. Teo T. Do digital natives differ by computer self-efficacy and experience? An empirical study. Interactive Learning Environments. 2016;24(7):1725-1739.

131. El Asam A, Samara M. Cyberbullying and the law: a review of psychological and legal challenges. Comput Human Behav. 2016;65:127-141.

132. Barlett CP, Helmstetter K, Gentile DA. The development of a new cyberbullying attitude measure. Comput Human Behav. 2016;64:906-913.

133. Smoker M, March E. Predicting perpetration of intimate partner cyberstalking: gender and the Dark Tetrad. Comput Human Behav. 2017;72:390-396.

134. Hutson E. Cyberbullying in adolescence. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2016;39(1):60-70.

135. Vranjes I, Baillien E, Vandebosch H, Erreygers S, De Witte H. The dark side of working online: towards a definition and an emotion reaction model of workplace cyberbullying. Comput Human Behav. 2017;69:324-334.

136. Whittaker E, Kowalski RM. Cyberbullying via social media. J Sch Violence. 2015;14(1):11-29.

137. Chang FC, Chiu CH, Miao NF, Chen PH, Lee CM, Chiang JT. Predictors of unwanted exposure to online pornography and online sexual solicitation of youth. J Health Psychol. 2016;21(6):1107-1118.

138. Carter JM, Wilson FL. Cyberbullying: a 21st century health care phenomenon. Pediatr Nurs. 2015;41(3):115-125.

139. Fernando DL. Trolling and the First Amendment: protecting Internet speech in the era of cyberbullies and Internet defamation. University of Illinois Journal of Law, Technology & Policy. 2016;6(1):135.

140. Nandhini BS, Sheeba JI. Online social network bullying detection using intelligence techniques. Procedia Comput Sci. 2015;45: 485-492.

141. Rachoene M, Oyedemi T. From self-expression to social aggression: cyberbullying culture among South African youth on Facebook. Communicatio: South African Journal for Communication Theory and Research. 2015;41(3):302-319.

142. Smith R, Morgan J, Monks C. Students' perceptions of the effect of social media ostracism on wellbeing. Comput Human Behav. 2017;68:276-285.

143. Wachs S, Junger M, Sittichai R. Traditional, cyber and combined bullying roles: differences in risky online and offline activities. Societies. 2015;5(1):109-135.

144. Van Ouytsel J, Walrave M, Vandebosch H. Correlates of cyberbullying and how school nurses can respond. NASN Sch Nurse. 2015;30(3):162-170.

145. Baker T, Pelfrey WV. Bullying victimization, social network usage, and delinquent coping in a sample of urban youth: examining the predictions of general strain theory. Violence Vict. 2016;31(6):1021-1043.

146. Barlett CP, Gentile DA, Chew C. Predicting cyberbullying from anonymity. Psychol Pop Media Cult. 2016;5(2):171-180.

147. Borrajo E, Gamez-Guadix M, Calvete E. Cyberdating abuse: prevalence, context, and relationship with offline dating aggression. Psychol Rep. 2015;116(2):565-585.

148. Reed LA, Tolman RM, Ward LM, Safyer P. Keeping tabs: attachment anxiety and electronic intrusion in high school dating relationships. Comput Human Behav. 2016;58:259-268.

149. Woodlock D. The abuse of technology in domestic violence and stalking. Violence Against Women. 2017;23(5):584-602.

150. Wright M. Adolescents' cyber aggression perpetration and cyber victimization: the longitudinal associations with school functioning. Soc Psychol Educ. 2015;18(4):653-666.

151. González-Cabrera J, Calvete E, León-Mejía A, Pérez-Sancho C, Peinado JM. Relationship between cyberbullying roles, cortisol secretion and psychological stress. Comput Human Behav. 2017;70:153-160.

152. Davis N, Schmidt C. Cyberbullying and cyber abuse intervention: the three-tiered model for schools. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health. 2016;11(3-4):366-377.

153. Bass PF. Living life online: talking to parents about social media. Contemp Pediatr. 2016;33(5):21-24.

154. Pfetsch JS. Empathic skills and cyberbullying: relationship of different measures of empathy to cyberbullying in comparison to offline bullying among young adults. J Genet Psychol. 2017;178(1):58-72.

155. Selkie EM, Fales JL, Moreno MA. Cyberbullying prevalence among us middle and high school-aged adolescents: a systematic review and quality assessment. J Adolesc Health. 2016;58(2):125-133.

156. Montiel I, Carbonell E, Pereda N. Multiple online victimization of Spanish adolescents: results from a community sample. Child Abuse Negl. 2016;52:123-134.

157. Forssell R. Exploring cyberbullying and face-to-face bullying in working life: prevalence, targets and expressions. Comput Human Behav. 2016;58:454-460.

158. Kyriacou C. A psychological typology of cyberbullies in schools. Psychology of Education Review. 2016;40(2):24-27.

159. Goodboy AK, Martin MM. The personality profile of a cyberbully: examining the Dark Triad. Comput Human Behav. 2015;49:1-4.

160. Guo S. A meta-analysis of the predictors of cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Psychol Sch. 2016;53(4):432-453.

161. Pew Research Center. Parenting Children in the Age of Screens. Available at Last accessed November 6, 2020.

162. Lee EB. Cyberbullying: prevalence and predictors among African American young adults. Journal of Black Studies. 2017;48(1):57-73.

163. Martin M. Deconstructing the Digital Divide: Identifying the Supply and Demand Factors That Drive Internet Subscription Rates. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

164. Alfandari R. Approaching the study of cyberbullying towards social workers from a systems perspective. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 2019;48:60-64.

165. Jenaro C, Flores N, Frías CP. Systematic review of empirical studies on cyberbullying in adults: what we know and what we should investigate. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 2018;38:113-122.

166. Huang CL, Yang SC, Hsieh LS. The cyberbullying behavior of Taiwanese adolescents in an online gaming environment. Children and Youth Services Review. 2019;106:104461.

167. Craig W, Boniel-Nissim M, King N, et al. Social media use and cyber-bullying: a cross-national analysis of young people in 42 countries. J Adolesc Health. 2020;66(6S):S100-S108.

168. Calabro SM. From the message board to the front door: addressing the offline consequences of race- and gender-based doxxing and swatting. Suffolk University Law Review. 2018;51(1):55-75.

169. Dulovics M, Kamenská J. Analysis of cyber-bullying forms by aggressors in elementary and secondary schools. New Educational Review. 2017;49(3):126-137.

170. Ojeda M, Del R, Hunter S. Longitudinal relationships between sexting and involvement in both bullying and cyberbullying. Journal of Adolescence. 2019;77:81-89.

171. Ansary NS. Cyberbullying: Concepts, theories, and correlates informing evidence-based best practices for prevention. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 2020;50:101343.

172. Pew Research Center. A Majority of Teens Have Been the Target of Cyberbullying, with Name-Calling and Rumor-Spreading Being the Most Common Forms of Harassment. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

173. Thomas S. "What should I do?" Young women's reported dilemmas with nude photographs. Sexuality Research & Social Policy. 2017;15(2):192-207.

174. O'Connor K, Drouin M, Davis J, Thompson H. Cyberbullying, revenge porn and the mid-sized university: victim characteristics, prevalence and students' knowledge of university policy and reporting procedures. Higher Education Quarterly. 2018;72(4):344-359.

175. Watts LK, Wagner J, Velasquez B, Behrens PI. Cyberbullying in higher education: a literature review. Computers in Human Behavior. 2017;69:268-274.

176. Oksanen A, Oksa R, Savela N, Kaakinen M, Ellonen N. Cyberbullying victimization at work: social media identity bubble approach. Computers in Human Behavior. 2020;109:106363.

177. Athanasiou K, Melegkovits E, Andrie EK, et al. Cross-national aspects of cyberbullying victimization among 14–17-year-old adolescents across seven European countries. BMC Public Health. 2018;18:800-815.

178. D'Souza N, Forsyth D, Tappin D, Catley B. Conceptualizing workplace cyberbullying: toward a definition for research and practice in nursing. Journal of Nursing Management. 2018;26(7):842-850.

179. Hinduja S, Patchin JW. Digital Dating Abuse: A Brief Guide for Educators and Parents. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

180. Payne AA, Hutzell KL. Old wine, new bottle? Comparing interpersonal bullying and cyberbullying victimization. Youth & Society. 2017;49(8):1149-1178.

181. Quintana-Orts C, Rey L. Forgiveness and cyberbullying in adolescence: does willingness to forgive help minimize the risk of becoming a cyberbully? Computers in Human Behavior. 2018;81:209-214.

182. Pabian S, Vandebosch H. An investigation of short-term longitudinal associations between social anxiety and victimization and perpetration of traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2016;45:328-339.

183. Chu XW, Fan CY, Liu QQ, Zhou ZK. Cyberbullying victimization and symptoms of depression and anxiety among Chinese adolescents: examining hopelessness as a mediator and self-compassion as a moderator. Computers in Human Behavior. 2018;86:377-386.

184. Chen L, Ho SS, Lwin MO. A meta-analysis of factors predicting cyberbullying perpetration and victimization: from the social cognitive and media effects approach. New Media & Society. 2017;19(8): 1194-1213.

185. Ding Y, Li D, Li X, Xiao J, Zhang H, Wang Y. Profiles of adolescent traditional and cyber bullying and victimization: the role of demographic, individual, family, school, and peer factors. Computers in Human Behavior. 2020;111:106439.

186. Elbedour S, Alqahtani S, El Sheikh Rihan I, Bawalsah JA, Booker-Ammah B, Turner JF Jr. Cyberbullying: roles of school psychologists and school counselors in addressing a pervasive social justice issue. Children and Youth Services Review. 2020;109:104720.

187. Dennehy R, Meaney S, Cronin M, Arensman E. The psychosocial impacts of cybervictimisation and barriers to seeking social support: young people's perspectives. Children and Youth Services Review. 2020;111:104872.

188. Hinduja S, Patchin JW. Cyberbullying Warning Signs: Red Flags that a Child is Involved in Cyberbullying. Available at Last accessed July 31, 2023.

189. Lianos H, McGrath A. Can the general theory of crime and general strain theory explain cyberbullying perpetration? Crime & Delinquency. 2018;64(5):674-700.

190. Wright MF, Wachs S. Does empathy and toxic online disinhibition moderate the longitudinal association between witnessing and perpetrating homophobic cyberbullying? Int Journal of Bullying Prevention. 2020; [Epub ahead of print].

191. Barlett CP, Heath JB, Madison CS, DeWitt CC, Kirkpatrick SM. You're not anonymous online: the development and validation of a new cyberbullying intervention curriculum. Psychology of Popular Media. 2020;9(2):135-144.

192. Peskin MF, Markham CM, Shegog R, et al. Prevalence and correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse among early adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2017;46(2):358-375.

193. Melander L. College students' perceptions of intimate partner cyber harassment. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking. 2010;13:263-268.

194. Fernet M, Lapierre A, Hébert M, Cousineau M-M. A systematic review of literature on cyber intimate partner victimization in adolescent girls and women. Computers in Human Behavior. 2019;100:11-25.

195. Urano Y, Takizawa R, Ohka M, Yamasaki H, Shimoyama H. Cyber bullying victimization and adolescent mental health: the differential moderating effects of intrapersonal and interpersonal emotional competence. Journal of Adolescence. 2020;80: 182-191.

196. Yoon Y, Lee JO, Cho J, et al. Association of cyberbullying involvement with subsequent substance use among adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2019;65(5):613-620.

197. Peluchette JV, Karl K, Wood C, Williams J. Cyberbullying victimization: do victims' personality and risky social network behaviors contribute to the problem? Computers in Human Behavior. 2015;52:424-435.

198. Byrne E, Vessey JA, Pfeifer L. Cyberbullying and social media: information and interventions for school nurses working with victims, students, and families. Journal of School Nursing. 2018;34(1):38-50.

199. Abreu RL, Kenny MC. Cyberbullying and LGBTQ youth: a systematic literature review and recommendations for prevention and intervention. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma. 2018;11(1):81-97.

200. Florang JE. Cyberbullying: new approaches for school counselors. Journal of School Counseling. 2020;18(1):1-24.

201. Pew Research Center. Social Media Use in 2021. Available at Last accessed November 27, 2023.

202. Vogel EA. Digital Divide Persists Even as Americans with Lower Incomes Make Gains in Tech Adoption. Available at Last accessed November 27, 2023.

203. Olweus D, Limber SP. Some problems with cyberbullying research. Current Opinion in Psychology. 2018;19:139-143.

204. Zhang W, Huang S, Lam L, Evans R, Zhu C. Cyberbullying definitions and measurements in children and adolescents: summarizing 20 years of global efforts. Frontiers in Public Health. 2022;10.

205. Campbell M, Xu J. Children and adolescents' understanding of traditional and cyberbullying. Children and Youth Services Review. 2022;139:1-7.

206. Menin D, Guarini A, Mameli C, Skrzypiec G, Brighi A. Was that (cyber)bullying? Investigating the operational definitions of bullying and cyberbullying from adolescents' perspective. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology. 2021;21(2).

207. Huang J, Zhong Z, Zhang H, Li L. Cyberbullying in social media and online games among Chinese college students and its associated factors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021;18(9).

208. Kee DMH, Lutf Al‐Anesi MA, Lutf Al‐Anesi SA. Cyberbullying on social media under the influence of COVID-19. Global Business and Organizational Excellence. 2022;41(6):11-22.

209. Al-Ameedi RTK, Al-Ghizzy MJD. Investigating cyberbullying in electronic communication: a descriptive study. International Journal of English Language Studies. 2022;4(4):97-106.

210. Xu Y, Trzaskawka P. Towards descriptive adequacy of cyberbullying: interdisciplinary studies on features, cases and legislative concerns of cyberbullying. International Journal for the Semiotics of Law. 2021;34:929-943.

211. Yemima CK. The forms of cyberbullying behavior among teenage students: a systematic literature review. Jurnal Bimbingan Dan Konseling Terapan. 2023;7(2):151-160.

212. Bergen E, Davidson J, Schulz A, et al. The effects of using identity deception and suggesting secrecy on the outcomes of adult-adult and adult-child or -adolescent online sexual interactions. Victims and Offenders. 2014;9(3):276-298.

213. Gandolfi CE, Mosillo M, Del Castillo G, et al. Online grooming: an analysis of the phenomenon. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene. 2019;60:E220.

214. Nagata JM, Trompeter N, Singh G, et al. Social epidemiology of early adolescent cyberbullying in the United States. Academic Pediatrics. 2022;22(8):1287-1293.

215. Patchin JW, Hinduja S. Cyberbullying among tweens in the United States: prevalence, impact, and helping behaviors. Journal of Early Adolescence. 2022;42(3):414-430.

216. Patel U, Roesch R. The prevalence of technology-facilitated sexual violence: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Trauma, Violence & Abuse. 2022;23(2):428-443.

217. Bernardo AB, Galve-González C, Cervero A, Tuero E. Cyberbullying in first-year university students and its influence on their intentions to drop out. Higher Education Research & Development. 2023;42(2):275-289.

218. Pew Research Center. The State of Online Harassment. Available at Last accessed November 27, 2023.

219. Henares-Montiel J, Benítez-Hidalgo V, Ruiz-Pérez I, Pastor-Moreno G, Rodríguez-Barranco M. Cyberbullying and associated factors in member countries of the European Union: a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies with representative population samples. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022;19:7364.

220. Hasan M, Fatima Y, Cleary A, et al. Geographical variations in the prevalence of traditional and cyberbullying and its additive role in psychological and somatic health complaints among adolescents in 38 European countries. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2023;164:111103.

221. Graf D, Yanagida T, Runions K, Spiel C. Why did you do that? Differential types of aggression in offline and in cyberbullying. Computers in Human Behavior. 2022;128:107107.

222. Tian L, Huang J, Huebner ES. Profiles and transitions of cyberbullying perpetration and victimization from childhood to early adolescence: multi-contextual risk and protective factors. Journal of Youth & Adolescence. 2023;52(2):434-448.

223. Yoo C. What are the characteristics of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators among South Korean students and how do their experiences change? Child Abuse & Neglect. 2021;113(5).

224. Sheikh MMR, Hossan MR, Menih H. Cyberbullying victimization and perpetration among university students in Bangladesh: prevalence, impact and help-seeking practices. Journal of School Violence. 2023;22(2):198-214.

225. Mumford EA, Rothman EF, Maitra P, Sheridan-Johnson J. U.S. young adults' professional help-seeking in response to technology-facilitated abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2023;38(11-12):7063-7088.

226. Exceptional Parent. Cyberbullying: recognizing the signs and helping your child. Exceptional Parent. 2021;51(12):54-55.

227. Barlett CP, Rinker A, Roth B. Cyberbullying perpetration in the COVID-19 era: an application of general strain theory. Journal of Social Psychology. 2021;161(4):466-476.

228. Wang X, Qiao Y, Li W, Dong W. How is online disinhibition related to adolescents' cyberbullying perpetration? Empathy and gender as moderators. Journal of Early Adolescence. 2022;42(5):704-732.

229. Cutbush S, Williams J, Miller S, Gibbs D, Clinton-Sherrod M. Longitudinal patterns of electronic teen dating violence among middle school students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2021;36(5/6):NP2506-NP2526.

230. Ellyson AM, Adhia A, Lyons VH, Rivara FP. Prevalence, age of initiation, and patterns of co-occurrence of digital dating abuse behaviors nationwide. Children & Youth Services Review. 2021;122:105921.

231. Afrouz R. The nature, patterns and consequences of technology-facilitated domestic abuse: a scoping review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. 2023;24(2):913-927.

232. Boethius S, Åkerström M, Hydén M. The double-edged sword: abused women's experiences of digital technology. European Journal of Social Work. 2023;26(3):506-518.

233. Saleem S, Khan NF, Zafar S, Raza N. Systematic literature reviews in cyberbullying/cyber harassment: a tertiary study. Technology in Society. 2022;70(C).

234. Giumetti GW, Kowalski RM. Cyberbullying via social media and well-being. Current Opinion in Psychology. 2022;45.

235. Paluckaitė U, Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė K. Students' engagement in risky online behaviour: the comparison of youth and secondary schools'. Health and Health Psychology. 2016;266-273.

236. Heyeres M, Carter M-A, Lui SM, Low-Lim A, Teo S, Tsey K. Cyberbullying prevention and treatment interventions targeting young people: an umbrella review. Pastoral Care in Education. 2021;39(2):125-151.

237. Yosep I, Hikmat R, Mardhiyah A. Nursing intervention for preventing cyberbullying and reducing its negative impact on students: a scoping review. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare. 2023;26(16):261-273.

238. Salem AAMS, Al-Huwailah AH, Abdelsattar M, et al. Empathic skills training as a means of reducing cyberbullying among adolescents: an empirical evaluation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2023;20(3).

239. Chen Q, Chan KL, Guo S, Chen M, Lo CK-M, Ip P. Effectiveness of digital health interventions in reducing bullying and cyberbullying: a meta-analysis. Trauma, Violence & Abuse. 2023;24(3):1986-2002.

240. Hendry BP, Hellsten L-AM, McIntyre LJ, Smith BRR. Recommendations for cyberbullying prevention and intervention: a Western Canadian perspective from key stakeholders. Frontiers in Psychology. 2023;14.

241. Waters S, Russell WB, Hensley M. Cyberbullying, social media, and character education: why it matters for middle school social studies. Clearing House. 2020;93(4):195-204.

  • Back to Course Home
  • Participation Instructions
    • Review the course material online or in print.
    • Complete the course evaluation.
    • Review your Transcript to view and print your Certificate of Completion. Your date of completion will be the date (Pacific Time) the course was electronically submitted for credit, with no exceptions. Partial credit is not available.