Works Cited

Chronic Pain Syndromes: Current Concepts and Treatment Strategies

Course #98702 - $60 • 15 Hours/Credits

  • Back to Course Home
  • Participation Instructions

1. International Association for the Study of Pain. IASP Terminology. Available at https://www.iasp-pain.org/Education/Content.aspx?ItemNumber=1698. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

2. American Medical Association. Module 8 Pain Management: Assessing and Treating Persistent Nonmalignant Pain: Common Persistent Pain Conditions. Available at https://cme.ama-assn.org/Activity/1729078/Detail.aspx. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

3. Institute of Medicine. Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2011.

4. Werner A, Malterud K. It is hard work behaving as a credible patient: encounters between women with chronic pain and their doctors. Soc Sci Med. 2003;57(8):1409-1419.

5. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Health Care Guideline: Assessment and Management of Chronic Pain. Available at http://formsus.datasus.gov.br/novoimgarq/33266/6201476_353278.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

6. National Institutes of Health. Symptom management in cancer: pain, depression, and fatigue. Consens State Sci Statements. 2002;19(4):1-29.

7. Worley SL. New directions in the treatment of chronic pain. P&T. 2016;41:107-115.

8. Schatman ME. The American chronic pain crisis and the media: about time to get it right? J Pain Res. 2015;8:885-887.

9. Watson CPN. Opioids in chronic noncancer pain: more faces from the crowd. Pain Res Manage. 2012;17(4):263-275.

10. Häuser W, Tölle TR. Meta-analyses of pain studies: what we have learned. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2015;29:131-146.

11. World Health Organization. Cancer Pain Relief, 2nd ed. Available at http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/37896/1/9241544821.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

12. Woolf CJ, Salter MW. Neuronal plasticity: increasing the gain in pain. Science. 2000;288(5472):1765-1769.

13. McCarberg BH, Nicholson BD, Todd KH, Palmer T, Penles L. The impact of pain on quality of life and the unmet needs of pain management: results from pain sufferers and physicians participating in an Internet survey. Am J Ther. 2008;15(4):312-320.

14. International Association for the Study of Pain. Acute Pain Medicine: Where Is the Evidence? Available at https://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-iasp/files/production/public/Content/ContentFolders/GlobalYearAgainstPain2/AcutePainFactSheets/4-Evidence.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

15. Woolf CJ. Pain: moving from symptom control toward mechanism-specific pharmacologic management. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140:441-451.

16. Reichling DB, Levine JD. Critical role of nociceptor plasticity in chronic pain. Trends Neurosci. 2009;32(12):611-618.

17. von Hehn CA, Baron R, Woolf CJ. Deconstructing the neuropathic pain phenotype to reveal neural mechanisms. Neuron. 2012;73(4):638-652.

18. Widerström-Noga EG, Finnerup NB, Siddall PJ. Biopsychosocial perspective on a mechanisms-based approach to assessment and treatment of pain following spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2009;46(1):1-12.

19. American Society of Anesthesiologists. Practice guidelines for chronic pain management. Anesthesiology. 2010;112(4):810-833.

20. Latremoliere A, Woolf CJ. Central sensitization: a generator of pain hypersensitivity by central neural plasticity. J Pain. 2009;10:895-926.

21. Costigan M, Scholz J, Woolf CJ. Neuropathic pain: a maladaptive response of the nervous system to damage. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2009;32:1-32.

22. Chou R, Qaseem A, Snow V, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: a joint clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(7):478-491.

23. Woolf CJ. What is this thing called pain? J Clin Invest. 2010;120(11):3742-3744.

24. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Adult Cancer Pain: Version 3.2019. Available at https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/pain.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

25. Chen H, Lamer TJ, Rho RH, et al. Contemporary management of neuropathic pain for the primary care physician. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004;79(12):1533-1545.

26. Dworkin RH, O'Connor AB, Backonja M, et al. Pharmacologic management of neuropathic pain: evidence-based recommendations. Pain. 2007;132(3):237-251.

27. Voscopoulos C, Lema M. When does acute pain become chronic? Br J Anaesth. 2010;105(S1):i69-i85.

28. International Association for the Study of Pain. Clinical Updates: Visceral Pain. Available at https://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-iasp/files/production/public/Content/ContentFolders/Publications2/PainClinicalUpdates/Archives/PCU05-6_1390263870315_22.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

29. International Association for the Study of Pain. Acute vs. Chronic Presentation of Visceral Pain. Available at https://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-iasp/files/production/public/Content/ContentFolders/GlobalYearAgainstPain2/VisceralPainFactSheets/3-AcuteVsChronic.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

30. International Association for the Study of Pain. Chronic Chest Pain. Available at https://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-iasp/files/production/public/Content/ContentFolders/GlobalYearAgainstPain2/VisceralPainFactSheets/8-ChestPain.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

31. Wesselman U, Baranowski AP, Börjesson M, et al. Emerging therapies and novel approaches to visceral pain. Drug Discov Today Ther Strateg. 2009;6(3):89-95.

32. Bhuiya FA, Pitts SR, McCaig LF. Emergency Department Visits for Chest Pain and Abdominal Pain: United States, 1999–2008. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db43.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

33. International Association for the Study of Pain. Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome. Available at https://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-iasp/files/production/public/Content/ContentFolders/GlobalYearAgainstPain2/VisceralPainFactSheets/9-FunctionalAPS.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

34. International Association for the Study of Pain. Epidemiology of Abdominal Pain. Available at http://www.hdlb.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/1-Epidemiology.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

35. International Association for the Study of Pain. Acute Pain and Surgery. Available at https://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-iasp/files/production/public/Content/ContentFolders/GlobalYearAgainstPain2/AcutePainFactSheets/7-Surgery.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

36. International Association for the Study of Pain. Interventions: Benefits and Barriers. Available at https://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-iasp/files/production/public/Content/ContentFolders/GlobalYearAgainstPain2/AcutePainFactSheets/2-Interventions.pdf Last accessed July 26, 2019.

37. Patrizi F, Freedman SD, Pascual-Leone A, Fregni F. Novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of chronic abdominal visceral pain. Scientific World J. 2006;6:472-490.

38. International Association for the Study of Pain. The Challenge of Chronic Pancreatitis. Available at https://www.iasp-pain.org/PublicationsNews/NewsletterIssue.aspx?ItemNumber=2060. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

39. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hospital Utilization (in non-Federal Short-Stay Hospitals). Available at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/hospital.htm. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

40. Bruce J, Poobalan AS, Smith WC, Chambers WA. Quantitative assessment of chronic postsurgical pain using the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Clin J Pain. 2004;20(2):70-75.

41. Clarke H, Woodhouse LJ, Kennedy D, Stratford P, Katz J. Strategies aimed at preventing chronic post-surgical pain: comprehensive perioperative pain management after total joint replacement surgery. Physiother Can. 2011;63(3):289-304.

42. Wu CL, Raja SN. Treatment of acute postoperative pain. Lancet. 2011;377(9784):2215-2225.

43. European Association of Urology. Guidelines on Pain Management and Palliative Care. Available at https://uroweb.org/wp-content/uploads/25-Pain-Management_LR.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

44. Chou R, Gordon DB, de Leon-Casasola OA, et al. Management of postoperative pain: a clinical practice guideline from the American Pain Society, the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists' Committee on Regional Anesthesia, Executive Committee, and Administrative Council. J Pain. 2016;17(2):131-157.

45. International Association for the Study of Pain. Classification of Chronic Pain, Second Edition (Revised): Descriptions of Chronic Pain Syndromes and Definitions of Pain Terms. Available at https://www.iasp-pain.org/PublicationsNews/Content.aspx?ItemNumber=1673. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

46. American Society of Anesthesiologists. Practice guidelines for acute pain management in the perioperative setting. Anesthesiology. 2012;116(2):248-273.

47. Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists and Faculty of Pain Medicine. Acute Pain Management: Scientific Evidence. 3rd ed. Melbourne: ANZCA & FPM; 2010.

48. Clarke H, Bonin RP, Orser BA, Englesakis M, Wijeysundera DN, Katz J. The prevention of chronic postsurgical pain using gabapentin and pregabalin: a combined systematic review and meta-analysis. Anesth Analg. 2012;115(2):428-442.

49. Christo PJ, Mazloomdoost D. Cancer pain and analgesia. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2008;1138:278-298.

50. National Cancer Institute. National Cancer Institute: Cancer Pain. Available at https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/side-effects/pain/pain-hp-pdq. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

51. International Association for the Study of Pain. Total Cancer Pain. Available at https://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-iasp/files/production/public/Content/ContentFolders/GlobalYearAgainstPain2/CancerPainFactSheets/TotalCancerPain_Final.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

52. Schmidt BL, Hamamoto DT, Simone DA, Wilcox GL. Mechanism of cancer pain. Mol Interv. 2010;10(3):164-178.

53. International Association for the Study of Pain. Mechanisms of Cancer Pain. Available at https://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-iasp/files/production/public/AM/Images/GYAP/CancerPain_Final.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

54. National Cancer Institute. Palliative Care in Cancer. Available at https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/advanced-cancer/care-choices/palliative-care-fact-sheet. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

55. Jandhyala R, Fullarton JR, Bennett MI. Efficacy of rapid-onset oral fentanyl formulations vs. oral morphine for cancer-related breakthrough pain: a meta-analysis of comparative trials. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2013;46(4):573-580.

56. Choi TY, Lee MS, Kim TH, Zaslawski C, Ernst E. Acupuncture for the treatment of cancer pain: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Support Care Cancer. 2012;20(6):1147-1158.

57. Abrahm JL. A Physician's Guide to Pain and Symptom Management in Cancer Patients. 3rd ed. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press; 2015.

58. Polubinski JP, West L. Implementation of a massage therapy program in the home hospice setting. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2005;30(1):104-106.

59. Raub JA. Psychophysiologic effects of hatha yoga on musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary function: a literature review. J Altern Complement Med. 2002;8(6):797-812.

60. Cepeda MS, Carr DB, Lau J, Alvarez H. Music for pain relief. Cochrane Database System Rev. 2006;(2):CD004843.

61. Reynolds MW, Nabors L, Quinlan A. The effectiveness of art therapy: does it work? J Am Art Ther Assoc. 2000;17(3):207-213.

62. Manchikanti L, Singh V, Datta S, et al. Comprehensive review of epidemiology, scope, and impact of spinal pain. Pain Physician. 2009;12(4):E35-E70.

63. Zhou Y. Principles of pain management. In: Daroff RB (ed). Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Inc.; 2012.

64. Stevans JM, Saper RB. Chronic low back pain. In: Rakel D (ed). Integrative Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Inc.; 2012.

65. Balagué F, Mannion AF, Pellisé F, Cedraschi C. Non-specific low back pain. Lancet. 2012;379(9814):482-491.

66. Buckalew N, Haut MW, Aizenstein H, et al. Differences in brain structure and function in older adults with self-reported disabling and nondisabling chronic low back pain. Pain Med. 2010;11(8):1183-1197.

67. Jacobs JV, Henry SM, Nagle KJ. Low back pain associates with altered activity of the cerebral cortex prior to arm movements that require postural adjustment. Clin Neurophysiol. 2010;121(3):431-440.

68. Freburger JK, Holmes GM, Agans RP. The rising prevalence of chronic low back pain. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(3):251-258.

69. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Low Back Pain Fact Sheet. Available at https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-Sheets/Low-Back-Pain-Fact-Sheet#top. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

70. Deyo RA, Rainville J, Kent DL. What can the history and physical examination tell us about low back pain? JAMA. 1992;268(6):760-765.

71. Jarvik JG, Deyo RA. Diagnostic evaluation of low back pain with emphasis on imaging. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137(7):586-597.

72. Yoshimoto T, Ochiai H, Shirasawa T, et al. Association between serum lipids and low back pain among a middle-aged Japanese population: a large-scale cross-sectional study. Lipids Health Dis. 2018;17(1):266.

73. Heuch I, Hagen K, Zsart JA. Do abnormal serum lipid levels increase the risk of chronic low back pain? The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e108227.

74. Starkweather A, Julian T, Ramesh D, et al. Circulating lipids and acute pain sensitization: an exploratory analysis. Nurs Res. 2017;66(6):454-461.

75. Mense S. Pathophysiology of low back pain and the transition to the chronic state: experimental data and new concepts. Schmerz. 2001;15(6):413-417.

76. Scuderi GJ, Cuellar JM, Cuellar VG, Yeomans DC, Carragee EJ, Angst MS. Epidural interferon gamma-immunoreactivity: a biomarker for lumbar nerve root irritation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34(21):2311-2317.

77. Smart KM, Blake C, Staines A, Thacker M, Doody C. Mechanisms-based classifications of musculoskeletal pain: part 2 of 3: symptoms and signs of peripheral neuropathic pain in patients with low back (± leg) pain. Man Ther. 2012;17(4):345-351.

78. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Low Back Pain Fact Sheet. Available at https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-Sheets/Low-Back-Pain-Fact-Sheet. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

79. Corwell BN. The emergency department evaluation, management, and treatment of back pain. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2010;28(4):811-839.

80. Mayo Clinic. Myofascial Pain Syndrome. Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/myofascial-pain-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20375444. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

81. Cedars-Sinai. Facet Joint Syndrome. Available at https://www.cedars-sinai.edu/Patients/Health-Conditions/Facet-Joint-Syndrome.aspx. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

82. National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center. Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures at a Glance. 2019 SCI Data Sheet. Available at https://www.nscisc.uab.edu/Public/Facts%20and%20Figures%202019%20-%20Final.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

83. Donnelly C, Eng JJ. Pain following spinal cord injury: the impact on community reintegration. Spinal Cord. 2005;43(5):278-282.

84. Martin BI, Deyo RA, Mirza SK, et al. Expenditures and health status among adults with back and neck problems. JAMA. 2008;299(6):656-664.

85. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Cervical and thoracic spine disorders. In: Hegmann KT (ed). Occupational Medicine Practice Guidelines: Evaluation and Management of Common Health Problems and Functional Recovery in Workers. Elk Grove Village, IL: American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; 2011: 1-332.

86. Hill JC, Dunn KM, Lewis M, et al. A primary care back pain screening tool: identifying patient subgroups for initial treatment. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;59(5):632-641.

87. Hill JC, Whitehurst DG, Lewis M, et al. Comparison of stratified primary care management for low back pain with current best practice (STarT Back): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;378(9802):1560-1571.

88. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Guidelines: Low Back Pain, Adult Acute and Subacute. Available at https://www.icsi.org/guideline/low-back-pain/. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

89. Chou R, Loeser JD, Owens DK, et al. Interventional therapies, surgery, and interdisciplinary rehabilitation for low back pain: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American Pain Society. Spine. 2009;34(10):1066-1077.

90. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Low Back Pain in Adults: Early Management. Available at https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg88/. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

91. Afilalo M, Morlion B. Efficacy of tapentadol ER for managing moderate to severe chronic pain. Pain Physician. 2013;16(1):27-40.

92. Cramer H, Lauche R, Haller H, Dobos G. A systematic review and meta-analysis of yoga for low back pain. Clin J Pain. 2012;29(5):450-460.

93. Teasell RW, McClure JA, Walton D, et al. A research synthesis of therapeutic interventions for whiplash-associated disorder: part 1—overview and summary. Pain Res Manage. 2010;15(5):287-294.

94. Teasell RW, McClure JA, Walton D, et al. A research synthesis of therapeutic interventions for whiplash-associated disorder (WAD): part 3—interventions for subacute WAD. Pain Res Manage. 2010;15(5):305-312.

95. Teasell RW, McClure JA, Walton D, et al. A research synthesis of therapeutic interventions for whiplash-associated disorder (WAD): part 4—noninvasive interventions for chronic WAD. Pain Res Manage. 2010;15(5):313-322.

96. Freeman MD, Croft AC, Rossignol AM, et al. Chronic neck pain and whiplash: a case-control study of the relationship between acute whiplash injuries and chronic neck pain. Pain Res Manage. 2006;11(2):79-83.

97. Howard RP, Bowles AP, Guzman HM, et al. Head, neck, and mandible dynamics generated by "whiplash." Accid Anal Prev. 1998;30(4):525-534.

98. Kasch H, Kongsted A, Qerama E, et al. A new stratified risk assessment tool for whiplash injuries developed from a prospective observational study. BMJ Open. 2013;3(1):e002050.

99. International Association for the Study of Pain. Classification of Chronic Pain, Second Edition (Revised). Available at https://www.iasp-pain.org/PublicationsNews/Content.aspx?ItemNumber=1673. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

100. International Association for the Study of Pain. Whiplash. Available at https://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-iasp/files/production/public/Content/ContentFolders/GlobalYearAgainstPain2/MusculoskeletalPainFactSheets/Whiplash_Final.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

101. Binder A. The diagnosis and treatment of nonspecific neck pain and whiplash. Eura Medicophys. 2007;43(1):79-89.

102. Tanaka N, Atesok K, Nakanishi K, et al. Pathology and treatment of traumatic cervical spine syndrome: whiplash injury.Adv Orthop. 2018;4765050.

103. Spearing NM, Gyrd-Hansen D, Pobereskin LH, Rowell DS, Connelly LB. Are people who claim compensation "cured by a verdict?" A longitudinal study of health outcomes after whiplash. J Law Med. 2012;20(1):82-92.

104. Elliott JM, Noteboom JT, Flynn TW, Sterling M. Characterization of acute and chronic whiplash-associated disorders. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(5):312-323.

105. Ishikawa S, Yokoyama M, Mizobuchi S, et al. Epidural blood patch therapy for chronic whiplash-associated disorder. Anesth Analg. 2007;105(3):809-814.

106. Schneider GM, Smith AD, Hooper A, et al. Minimizing the source of nociception and its concurrent effect on sensory hypersensitivity: an exploratory study in chronic whiplash patients. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010;11:29.

107. Teasell RW, McClure JA, Walton D, et al. A research synthesis of therapeutic interventions for whiplash-associated disorder (WAD): Part 5—surgical and injection-based interventions for chronic WAD. Pain Res Manage. 2010;15(5):323-334.

108. South Australian Centre for Trauma and Injury Recovery. Clinical Guidelines for Best Practice Management of Acute and Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders. Adelaide: South Australian Centre for Trauma and Injury Recovery; 2008.

109. Pastakia K, Kumar S. Acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Open Access Emerg Med. 2011;3:29-32.

110. Meeus M, Nijs J, Hamers V, Ickmans K, Oosterwijck JV. The efficacy of patient education in whiplash associated disorders: a systematic review. Pain Physician. 2012;15(5):351-361.

111. Cameron ID, Wang E, Sindhusake D. A randomized trial comparing acupuncture and simulated acupuncture for subacute and chronic whiplash. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36(26):E1659-E1665.

112. Nystrom NA, Champagne LP, Freeman M, Blix E. Surgical fasciectomy of the trapezius muscle combined with neurolysis of the spinal accessory nerve: results and long-term follow-up in 30 consecutive cases of refractory chronic whiplash syndrome. J Brachial Plex Peripher Nerve Inj. 2010;5:7-13.

113. Jull G, Sterling M, Kenardy J, Beller E. Does the presence of sensory hypersensitivity influence outcomes of physical rehabilitation for chronic whiplash? A preliminary RCT. Pain. 2007;129(1-2):28-34.

114. Griffin A, Leaver A, Moloney N. General exercise does not improve long-term pain and disability in individuals with whiplash-associated disorders: a systematic review. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2017;47(7):472-480.

115. Peterson G, Nilsson D, Trygg J, Peolsson A. Neck-specific exercise improves impaired interactions between ventral neck muscles in chronic whiplash: a randomized controlled ultrasound study. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):9649.

116. Dellve L, Ahlstrom L, Jonsson A, et al. Myofeedback training and intensive muscular strength training to decrease pain and improve work ability among female workers on long-term sick leave with neck pain: a randomized controlled trial. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2011;84(3):335-346.

117. Cramer H, Lauche R, Hohmann C, et al. Randomized-controlled trial comparing yoga and home-based exercise for chronic neck pain. Clin J Pain. 2013;29(3):216-223.

118. Cramer H, Lauche R, Hohmann C, Langhorst J, Dobos G. Yoga for chronic neck pain: a 12-month follow-up. Pain Med. 2013;14(4)541-548.

119. Ritchie C, Ehrlich C, Sterling M. Living with ongoing whiplash associated disorders: a qualitative study of individual perceptions and experiences. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017;18(1):531.

120. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Osteoarthritis. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/osteoarthritis.htm. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

121. Cisternas MG, Murphy L, Sacks JJ, Solomon DH, Pasta DJ, Helmick CG. Alternative methods for defining osteoarthritis and the impact on estimating prevalence in a U.S. population-based survey. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2016;68(5):574-580.

122. Arthritis Foundation. Arthritis By The Numbers. Available at https://www.arthritis.org/Documents/Sections/About-Arthritis/arthritis-facts-stats-figures.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

123. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee: Evidence-Based Guideline. 2nd Edition. Available at https://www.aaos.org/research/guidelines/TreatmentofOsteoarthritisoftheKneeGuideline.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

124. International Association for the Study of Pain. Osteoarthritis-Related Pain. Available at https://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-iasp/files/production/public/Content/ContentFolders/GlobalYearAgainstPain2/MusculoskeletalPainFactSheets/Osteoarthritis_Final.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

125. Lee YC, Nassikas NJ, Clauw DJ. The role of the central nervous system in the generation and maintenance of chronic pain in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and fibromyalgia. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13(2):211.

126. Phillips K, Clauw DJ. Central pain mechanisms in chronic pain states: maybe it is all in their head. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2011;25(2):141-154.

127. van Meurs JB, Uitterlinden AG, Stolk L, et al. A functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene is associated with osteoarthritis-related pain. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:628-629.

128. Lluch Girbés E, Nijs J, Torres-Cueco R, López Cubas C. E. Lluch Girbés. Pain treatment for patients with osteoarthritis and central sensitization. Phys Ther. 2013;93(6):842-851.

129. Lluch E, Torres R, Niijs J, Van Oosterwijck J. Evidence for central sensitization in patients with osteoarthritis pain: a systematic literature review. Eur J Pain. 2014;18(10):1367-1375.

130. Hochberg MC, Altman RD, April KT, et al. American College of Rheumatology 2012 recommendations for the use of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies in osteoarthritis of the hand, hip, and knee. Arthritis Care Res. 2012;64(4):465-474.

131. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Chronic pain. In: Hegmann KT (ed). Occupational Medicine Practice Guidelines: Evaluation and Management of Common Health Problems and Functional Recovery in Workers. Elk Grove Village, IL: American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; 2008.

132. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Analgesics for Osteoarthritis: Clinician Research Summary. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK91428/. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

133. Hunter DJ, Felson DT. Osteoarthritis. BMJ. 2006;332(7542):639-642.

134. Pitta M, Davis W 3rd, Argintar EH. Arthroscopic management of osteoarthritis. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2016;24(2):74-82.

135. Siparsky P, Ryzewicz M, Peterson B, Bartz R. Arthroscopic treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: are there any evidence-based indications? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;455:107-112.

136. Laupattarakasem W, Laopaiboon M, Laupattarakasem P, Sumananont C. Arthroscopic debridement for knee osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(1):CD005118.

137. Avouac J, Vicaut E, Bardin T, Richette P. Efficacy of joint lavage in knee osteoarthritis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. Rheumatology. 2010;49(2):334-340.

138. Kirkley A, Birmingham TB, Litchfield RB, et al. A randomized trial of arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis of the knee. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(11):1097-1197.

139. Bellamy N, Campbell J, Robinson V, Gee T, Bourne R, Wells G. Intraarticular corticosteroid for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(2):CD005328.

140. Jüni P, Hari R, Rutjes AW, et al. Intra-articular corticosteroid for knee osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;10:CD005328.

141. Cheung EV, Adams R, Morrey BF. Primary osteoarthritis of the elbow: current treatment options. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2008;16(2):77-87.

142. Poonit K, Zhou X, Xhao B, et al. Treatment of osteoarthritis of the elbow with open or arthroscopic debridement: a narrative review. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2018;19(1):394.

143. Gramstad G, Galatz LM. Management of elbow osteoarthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88:421-430.

144. Chou LB, Coughlin MT, Hansen S Jr, et al. Osteoarthritis of the ankle: the role of arthroplasty. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2008;16(5):249-259.

145. Arthritis Foundation. What is Rheumatoid Arthritis? Available at https://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/rheumatoid-arthritis/what-is-rheumatoid-arthritis.php. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

146. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Available at https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/rheumatoid-arthritis.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Farthritis%2Fbasics%2Frheumatoid.htm. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

147. Johnson K. A suggestion and the larger perspective on the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism remission definitions: comment on the article by Felson et al. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63(11):3643-3644.

148. Scott IC, Steer S, Lewis CM, Cope AP. Precipitating and perpetuating factors of rheumatoid arthritis immunopathology: linking the triad of genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors and autoimmunity to disease pathogenesis. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2011;25(4):447-468.

149. Cooles FA, Isaacs JD. Pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2011;23(3):233-240.

150. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Drug Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis in Adults: An Update. Available at https://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/topics/rheumatoid-arthritis-medicine/research. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

151. Edwards RR, Wasan AD, Bingham CO 3rd, et al. Enhanced reactivity to pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11(3):R61.

152. Singh JA, Saag KG, Bridges SL Jr, et al. 2015 American College of Rheumatology guideline for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016;68(1):1-26.

153. Sakellariou G, Scire CA, Zambon A, et al. Performance of the 2010 classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic literature review and a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013;8:e56528.

154. Van Vollenhoven RF. A New Chapter in Rheumatoid Arthritis Therapeutics. Available at https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/778785. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

155. Arthritis Foundation. Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment. Available at https://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/rheumatoid-arthritis/treatment.php. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

156. Lexicomp Online. Available at https://online.lexi.com/lco/action/login. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

157. Whittle SL, Colebatch AN, Buchbinder R, et al. Multinational evidence-based recommendations for pain management by pharmacotherapy in inflammatory arthritis: integrating systematic literature research and expert opinion of a broad panel of rheumatologists in the 3e Initiative. Rheumatology. 2012;51:1416-1425.

158. Worcester S. 3e Initiative Proposes IA Pain Management Recommendations. Available at https://www.mdedge.com/rheumatology/article/35112/rheumatology/3e-initiative-proposes-ia-pain-management-recommendations. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

159. Kakkar M, Derry S, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. Single dose oral nefopam for acute postoperative pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(3):CD007442.

160. Verleye M, André N, Heulard I, Gillardin JM. Nefopam blocks voltage-sensitive sodium channels and modulates glutamatergic transmission in rodents. Brain Res. 2004;1013(2):249-255.

161. Novelli A, Díaz-Trelles R, Groppetti A, Fernández-Sánchez MT. Nefopam inhibits calcium influx, cGMP formation, and NMDA receptor-dependent neurotoxicity following activation of voltage sensitive calcium channels. Amino Acids. 2005;28(2):183-191.

162. Richards BL, Whittle SL, Buchbinder R. Neuromodulators for pain management in rheumatoid arthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;1:CD008921

163. Richards BL, Whittle SL, van der Heijde DM, Buchbinder R. Efficacy and safety of neuromodulators in inflammatory arthritis: a Cochrane systematic review. J Rheumatol Suppl. 2012;90:28-33.

164. Rothschild BM. What is the Prevalence of Gout in the US? Available at https://www.medscape.com/answers/329958-10236/what-is-the-prevalence-of-gout-in-the-us. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

165. Roddy E, Doherty M. Epidemiology of gout. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12:223.

166. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Gout. Available at https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/gout Last accessed July 26, 2019.

167. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Arthritis: Gout. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/gout.html. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

168. Choi HK, Mount DB, Reginato AM. Pathogenesis of gout. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143(7):499-516.

169. Khanna D, Fitzgerald JD, Khanna PP, et al. 2012 American College of Rheumatology guidelines for management of gout. Part 1: systematic nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapeutic approaches to hyperuricemia. Arthritis Care Res. 2012;64(10):1431-1446.

170. Martinon F, Glimcher LH. Gout: New insights into an old disease. J Clin Invest. 2006;116(8):2073-2075.

171. Al-Ashkar F. Gout and Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease. Available at http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/rheumatology/gout-and-pseudogout/. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

172. Chohan S, Becker MA, MacDonald PA, Chefo S, Jackson RL. Women with gout: efficacy and safety of urate-lowering with febuxostat and allopurinol. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012;64(2):256-261.

173. Khanna D, Khanna PP, Fitzgerald JD, et al. 2012 American College of Rheumatology guidelines for management of gout. Part 2: therapy and anti-inflammatory prophylaxis of acute gouty arthritis. Arthritis Care Res. 2012;64(10):1447-1461.

174. International Association for the Study of Pain. Epidemiology of Headache. Available at https://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-iasp/files/production/public/Content/ContentFolders/GlobalYearAgainstPain2/HeadacheFactSheets/1-Epidemiology.pdf Last accessed July 26, 2019.

175. Rizzoli P, Mullally WJ. Headache. Am J Med. 2018;131:17-24.

176. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Headaches in Over 12s: Diagnosis and Management. Available at https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg150. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

177. International Headache Society Classification Subcommittee. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd Edition. Available at http://www.ihs-headache.org/ichd-guidelines. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

178. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Guidelines. Headache, Diagnosis and Treatment of. Available at https://www.icsi.org/guideline/headache/. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

179. British Association for the Study of Headache. Guidelines for All Healthcare Professionals in the Diagnosis and Management of Migraine, Tension-Type, Cluster and Medication-Overuse Headache. 3rd ed. London: British Association for the Study of Headache; 2010.

180. Beck E, Sieber WJ, Trejo R. Management of cluster headache. Am Fam Physician. 2005;71(4):717-724.

181. Antonaci F, Dumitrache C, De Cillis I, Allena M. A review of current European treatment guidelines for migraine. J Headache Pain. 2010;11(1):13-19.

182. Sun-Edelstein C, Mauskop A. Role of magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of migraine. Expert Rev Neurother. 2009;9(3):369-379.

183. International Association for the Study of Pain. Migraine and Neurophysiology. Available at http://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-iasp/files/production/public/Content/ContentFolders/GlobalYearAgainstPain2/HeadacheFactSheets/11-Neurophysiology.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

184. Robbins L, Maides J. The Immune System and Headache. Available at https://www.practicalpainmanagement.com/pain/headache/immune-system-headache. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

185. Durham PL, Vause CV. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists in the treatment of migraine. CNS Drugs. 2010;24(7):539-548.

186. Hauge AW, Asghar MS, Schytz HW, Christensen K, Olesen J. Effects of tonabersat on migraine with aura: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Lancet Neurol. 2009;8(8):718-723.

187. Vikelis M, Mitsikostas DD, Rapoport AM. Sumatriptan iontophoretic transdermal system for the acute treatment of migraine. Pain Manag. 2014;4(2):123-128.

188. Silberstein SD, Holland S, Freitag F, et al. Evidence-based guideline update: pharmacologic treatment for episodic migraine prevention in adults. Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Headache Society. Neurology. 2012;78(17):1337-1345.

189. Holland S, Silberstein SD, Freitag F, et al. Evidence-based guideline update: NSAIDs and other complementary treatments for episodic migraine prevention in adults: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Headache Society. Neurology. 2012;78(17):1346-1353.

190. International Association for the Study of Pain. Tension-Type Headache. Available at http://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-iasp/files/production/public/Content/ContentFolders/GlobalYearAgainstPain2/HeadacheFactSheets/3-TensionType.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

191. Fumal A, Schoenen J. Tension-type headache: current research and clinical management. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7(1):70-83.

192. International Association for the Study of Pain. Trigemino-Autonomic Headaches. Available at http://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-iasp/files/production/public/Content/ContentFolders/GlobalYearAgainstPain2/HeadacheFactSheets/4-TrigeminoAutonomic.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

193. Lodi R, Pierangeli G, Tonon C, et al. Study of hypothalamic metabolism in cluster headache by proton MR spectroscopy. Neurology. 2006;66(8):1624-1626.

194. MedlinePlus. Cluster Headache. Available at https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000786.htm. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

195. Leone M, Franzini A, Cecchini AP, Broggi G, Bussone G. Hypothalamic deep brain stimulation in the treatment of chronic cluster headache. Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2010;3(3):187-195.

196. Petersen AS, Barloese MC, Jensen RH. Oxygen treatment of cluster headache: a review. Cephalalgia. 2014;34(13):1079-1087.

197. International Association for the Study of Pain. Medication Overuse Headache. Available at http://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-iasp/files/production/public/Content/ContentFolders/GlobalYearAgainstPain2/HeadacheFactSheets/6-MedicationOveruse.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

198. Bajaj P, Bajaj P, Madsen H, Arendt-Nielsen L. Endometriosis is associated with central sensitization: a psychophysical controlled study. J Pain. 2003;4(7):372-380.

199. Herington JL, Bruner-Tran KL, Lucas JA, Osteen KG. Immune interactions in endometriosis. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2011;7(5):611-626.

200. International Association for the Study of Pain. Global Year Against Pain in Women: Real Women, Real Pain. Available at https://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-iasp/files/production/public/Content/ContentFolders/GlobalYearAgainstPain2/RealWomenRealPainFactSheets/All_English.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

201. Leyland N, Casper R, Laberge P, Singh SS. Endometriosis: diagnosis and management. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2010;32 (7 Suppl 2):S1-S32.

202. Overlapping Conditions Alliance. Chronic Pain in Women: Neglect, Dismissal and Discrimination. 2010.

203. Stratton P, Berkley KJ. Chronic pelvic pain and endometriosis: translational evidence of the relationship and implications. Hum Reprod Update. 2011;17:327-346.

204. McKinnon BD, Bertschi D, Bersinger NA, Mueller MD. Inflammation and nerve fiber interaction in endometriotic pain. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2015;26(1):1-10.

205. Miller EJ, Fraser IS. The importance of pelvic nerve fibers in endometriosis. Womens Health (Lond). 2015;11(5):611-618.

206. Yan D, Liu X, Guo SW. Nerve fibers and endometriotic lesions: partners in crime in inflicting pains in women with endometriosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2017;209:14-24.

207. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice bulletin no. 114: management of endometriosis. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;116(1):223-236.

208. Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Treatment of pelvic pain associated with endometriosis: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2014;101(4):927-935.

209. Johnson NP, Hummelshoj L. Consensus on current management of endometriosis. Human Reproduction. 2013;28(6):1552-1568.

210. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. About Endometriosis. Available at https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/endometri/conditioninfo. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

211. Brown J, Crawford TJ, Allen C, Hopewell S, Prentice A. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain in women with endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;1:CD004753.

212. Wayne PM, Kerr CE, Schyner RN, et al. Japanese-style acupuncture for endometriosis-related pelvic pain in adolescents and young women: results of a randomized sham-controlled trial. J Pediat Adolesc Gynecol. 2008;21(5):247-257.

213. Rubi-Klein K, Kucera-Sliutz E, Nissel H, et al. Is acupuncture in addition to conventional medicine effective as pain treatment for endometriosis? A randomised controlled cross-over trial. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2010;153:90-93.

214. Gregory TB. Chronic pain perspectives: Sickle cell disease: gaining control over the pain. J Fam Pract. 2012;61(9 Suppl):S5-S8.

215. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sickle Cell Disease. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/sicklecell/index.html. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

216. Brawley OW, Cornelius LJ, Edwards LR, et al. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement: hydroxyurea treatment for sickle cell disease. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148(12):932-938.

217. World Health Organization. Sickle-Cell Anaemia. Available at http://apps.who.int/gb/archive/pdf_files/WHA59/A59_9-en.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

218. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The Management of Sickle Cell Disease. Available at https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/guidelines/sc_mngt.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

219. McClish DK, Smith WR, Dahman BA, et al. Pain site frequency and location in sickle cell disease: the PiSCES project. Pain. 2009;145(1-2):246-251.

220. Hsieh MM, Fitzhugh CD, Tisdale JF. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for sickle cell disease: the time is now. Blood. 2011;118(5):1197-1207.

221. Taylor LE, Stotts NA, Humphreys J, Treadwell MJ, Miaskowski C. A review of the literature on the multiple dimensions of chronic pain in adults with sickle cell disease. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2010;40(3):416-435.

222. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Sickle Cell Disease. Available at https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/sickle-cell-disease. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

223. Bodhise P, Dejoie M, Brandon Z, Simpkins S, Ballas S. Non-pharmacological management of sickle cell pain. Hematology. 2004;9(3):235-237.

224. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Shingles: Hope Through Research. Available at https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Hope-Through-Research/Shingles-Hope-Through-Research. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

225. Thakur R, Philip AG. Treating herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: an evidence-based approach. J Family Practice. 2012;61 (9 Suppl):S9-S15.

226. Yawn BP, Saddier P, Wollan PC, St Sauver JL, Kurland MJ, Sy LS. A population-based study of the incidence and complication rates of herpes zoster before zoster vaccine introduction. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007;82(11):1341-1349.

227. Tontodonati M, Ursin T, Polilli E, et al. Post-herpetic neuralgia. Int J Gen Med. 2012;5:861-871.

228. Bennet GJ, Watson CP. Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: past, present and future. Pain Res Manage. 2009;14(4):275-282.

229. Gilden D, Nagel MA, Mahalingam R, et al. Clinical and molecular aspects of varicella zoster virus infection. Future Neurol. 2009;4(1):103-117.

230. Tseng HF, Smith N, Harpaz R, Bialek SR, Sy LS, Jacobsen SJ. Herpes zoster vaccine in older adults and the risk of subsequent herpes zoster disease. JAMA. 2011;305(2):160-166.

231. Lombardo LA, Wallace MS. Assessment and treatment of neuropathic pain. Practical Pain Management. 2013;13(8).

232. Attal N, Cruccu G, Baron R, et al. EFNS guidelines on the pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain: 2010 revision. Eur J Neurol. 2010;17:1113-1123.

233. Dubinsky RM, Kabbani H, El-Chami Z, et al. Practice parameter: treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: an evidence-based report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2004;63:959-965.

234. Rijsdijk M, van Wijck AJ, Meulenhoff PC, et al. No beneficial effect of intrathecal methylprednisolone acetate in postherpetic neuralgia patients. Eur J Pain. 2013;17(5):714-723.

235. Apalla Z, Sotiriou E, Lallas A, Lazaridou E, Loannides D. Botulinum toxin A in postherpetic neuralgia: a parallel, randomized, double-blind, single-dose, placebo-controlled trial. Clin J Pain. 2013;29(10):857-864.

236. Saxena AK, Nasare N, Jain S, et al. A randomized, prospective study of efficacy and safety of oral tramadol in the management of post-herpetic neuralgia in patients from North India. Pain Pract. 2013;13(4):264-275.

237. Amputee Coalition. Limb Loss Statistics. Available at https://www.amputee-coalition.org/resources/limb-loss-statistics/. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

238. Fischer H. A Guide to U.S. Military Casualty Statistics: Operation Freedom's Sentinel, Operation Inherent Resolve, Operation New Dawn, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation Enduring Freedom. Available at https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RS22452.pdf. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

239. Black LM, Persons RK, Jamieson B. Clinical inquiries: what is the best way to manage phantom limb pain? J Fam Pract. 2009;58(3):155-158.

240. Clarke C, Lindsay DR, Pyati S, Buchheit T. Residual limb pain is not a diagnosis: a proposed algorithm to classify postamputation pain. Clin J Pain. 2013;29(6):551-562.

241. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guidelines: Rehabilitation of Lower Limb Amputation: V2.0 – 2017. Available at https://www.healthquality.va.gov/guidelines/Rehab/amp/. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

242. Karanikolas M, Aretha D, Tsolakis I, et al. Optimized perioperative analgesia reduces chronic phantom limb pain intensity, prevalence, and frequency: a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Anesthesiology. 2011;114(5):1144-1154.

243. de Roos C, Veenstra AC, de Jongh A, et al. Treatment of chronic phantom limb pain using a trauma-focused psychological approach. Pain Res Manag. 2010;15(2):65-71.

244. Fang J, Lian YH, Xie KJ, Cai SN. Pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain. Chin Med J (Engl). 2013;126(3):542-549.

245. Knotkova H, Cruciani RA, Tronnier VM, Rasche D. Current and future options for the management of phantom-limb pain. J Pain Res. 2012;5:39-49.

246. Chan BL, Witt R, Charrow AP, et al. Mirror therapy for phantom limb pain. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(21):2206-2207.

247. Herrador Colmenero L, Perez Marmol JM, Martí-Garcia C, et al. Effectiveness of mirror therapy, motor imagery, and virtual feedback on phantom limb pain following amputation: a systematic review. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2018;42(3):288-298.

248. Tilak M, Isaac SA, Fletcher J, et al. Mirror therapy and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for management of phantom limb pain in amputees—a single blinded randomized controlled trial. Physiother Res Int. 2016;21(2):109-115.

249. Barbin J, Seetha V, Casillas JM, Paysant J, Pérennou D. the effects of mirror therapy on pain and motor control of phantom limb in amputees: a systematic review. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2016;59(4):270-275.

250. Abbass K. Efficacy of gabapentin for treatment of adults with phantom limb pain. Ann Pharmacother. 2012;46(12):1707-1711.

251. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2017. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/data/statistics-report/index.html. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

252. Callaghan BC, Hur J, Feldman EL. Diabetic neuropathy: one disease or two? Curr Opin Neurol. 2012;25(5):536-541.

253. Quan D. Diabetic Neuropathy. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1170337-overview#a6. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

254. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Diabetic Neuropathy. Available at https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/preventing-problems/nerve-damage-diabetic-neuropathies?dkrd=hiscr0036. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

255. American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2019. Available at https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/42/Supplement_1/S1. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

256. Davies M, Brophy S, Williams R, Taylor A. The prevalence, severity, and impact of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(7):1518-1522.

257. Abbott CA, Malik RA, van Ross ER, Kulkarni J, Boulton AJ. Prevalence and characteristics of painful diabetic neuropathy in a large community-based diabetic population in the U.K. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(10):2220-2224.

258. Smith HS, Kara DK, Argoff CE. Management of neuropathic pain: current insights and future perspectives. US Neurology. 2012;8(1):57-61.

259. Said G. Diabetic neuropathy: a review. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2007;3:331-340.

260. Schreiber AK, Nones CFM, Reis RC, Chichorro JG, Cunha JM. Diabetic neuropathic pain: physiopathology and treatment.World J Diabetes. 2015;6(3):432-444.

261. Callaghan B, Cheng HT, Stables CL, Smith AL, Feldman EL. Diabetic neuropathy: clinical manifestations and current treatments. Lancet Neurol. 2012;11(6):521-534.

262. Callaghan B, Little A, Feldman EL, Hughes RA. Enhanced glucose control for preventing and treating diabetic neuropathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;6:CD007543.

263. Arora N, Niraj G. Management of painful peripheral diabetic neuropathy. BJMP. 2013;6(1):a606.

264. Mohammed G. Painful diabetic neuropathy. In: Kopf A, Patel NB (eds). Guide to Pain Management in Low-Resource Settings. Seattle, WA: IASP Press; 2010.

265. Veves A, Backonja M, Malik RA. Painful diabetic neuropathy: epidemiology, natural history, early diagnosis, and treatment options. Pain Med. 2008;9(6):660-674.

266. Lauria G, Merkies IS, Faber CG. Small fibre neuropathy. Curr Opin Neurol. 2012;25(5):542-549.

267. Yagihashi S, Yamagishi S, Wada R. Pathology and pathogenetic mechanisms of diabetic neuropathy: correlation with clinical signs and symptoms. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007;77(Suppl 1):S184-S289.

268. Vinik AI, Casellini CM. Guidelines in the management of diabetic nerve pain: clinical utility of pregabalin. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2013;6:57-78.

269. Bril V, England J, Franklin GM, et al. Evidence-based guideline: treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: report of the American Academy of Neurology, the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Neurology. 2011;76(20):1758-1765.

270. Tesfaye S, Vileikyte L, Rayman G, et al. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: consensus recommendations on diagnosis, assessment and management. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2011;27(7):629-638.

271. Garcia-Alcala H, Santos Vichido CI, Islas Macedo S, et al. Treatment with α-lipoic acid over 16 weeks in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy who responded to initial 4-week high-dose loading. J Diabetes Res. 2015;2015:189857.

272. Ziegler D, Low PA, Litchy WJ, et al. Efficacy and safety of antioxidant treatment with alpha-lipoic acid over four years in diabetic polyneuropathy: the NATHAN 1 trial. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:2054-2060.

273. Ziegler D, Ametov A, Barinov A, et al. Oral treatment with alpha-lipoic acid improves symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy: the SYDNEY 2 trial. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:2365-2370.

274. Han T, Bai J, Liu W, Hu Y. A systematic review and meta-analysis of a-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012;167(4):465-471.

275. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Fact Sheet. Available at https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-Sheets/Complex-Regional-Pain-Syndrome-Fact-Sheet. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

276. Veldman PH, Reynen HM, Arntz IE, Goris RJ. Signs and symptoms of reflex sympathetic dystrophy: prospective study of 829 patients. Lancet. 1993;342:1012-1016.

277. Bruehl S. An update on the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome. Anesthesiology. 2010;113(3):713-725.

278. Gupta G. Complex Regional Pain Syndromes Clinical Presentation. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1145318-clinical. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

279. Charlton JE. Complex regional pain syndromes. In: Charlton JE (ed). Core Curriculum for Professional Education in Pain. Seattle, WA: IASP Press; 2005.

280. Hyatt KA. Overview of complex regional pain syndrome and recent management using spinal cord stimulation. AANA J. 2010;78(3):208-212.

281. Harden RN, Oaklander AL, Burton AW, et al. Complex regional pain syndrome: practical diagnostic and treatment guidelines, 4th edition. Pain Med. 2013;14(2):180-229.

282. Schwartzman RJ, Alexander GM, Grothusen JR. The use of ketamine in complex regional pain syndrome: possible mechanisms. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011;11(5):719-734.

283. Patil S, Anitescu M. Efficacy of outpatient ketamine infusions in refractory chronic pain syndromes: a 5-year retrospective analysis. Pain Med. 2012;13(2):263-269.

284. Kiefer RT, Rohr P, Ploppa A, Altemeyer KH, Schwartzman RJ. Complete recovery from intractable complex regional pain syndrome, CRPS-type I, following anesthetic ketamine and midazolam. Pain Pract. 2007;7(2):147-150.

285. Nama S, Meenan DR, Fritz WT. The use of sub-anesthetic intravenous ketamine and adjuvant dexmedetomidine when treating acute pain from CRPS. Pain Physician. 2010;13(4):365-368.

286. Schwartzman RJ, Alexander GM, Grothusen JR, Paylor T, Reichenberger E, Perreault M. Outpatient intravenous ketamine for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome: a double-blind placebo controlled study. Pain. 2009;15;147(1-3):107-115.

287. Kiefer RT, Rohr P, Ploppa A et al. Efficacy of ketamine in anesthetic dosage for the treatment of refractory complex regional pain syndrome: an open-label Phase II study. Pain Med. 2008;9:1173-1201.

288. Cohen SP, Bhatia A, Buvanendran A, et al. Consensus guidelines on the use of intravenous ketamine infusions for chronic pain from the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2018;43(5):521-546.

289. National Fibromyalgia Association. Prevalence. Available at http://www.fmaware.org/about-fibromyalgia/prevalence/. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

290. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fibromyalgia. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/fibromyalgia.htm. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

291. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Fibromyalgia. Available at https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/fibromyalgia. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

292. International Association for the Study of Pain. Update on Fibromyalgia Syndrome. Available at https://www.iasp-pain.org/PublicationsNews/NewsletterIssue.aspx?ItemNumber=2102. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

293. National Fibromyalgia Association. Fibromyalgia Symptoms. Available at http://www.fmaware.org/about-fibromyalgia/symptoms/. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

294. Smith HS, Harris R, Clauw D. Fibromyalgia: an afferent processing disorder leading to a complex pain generalized syndrome. Pain Physician. 2011;14(2):E217-E245.

295. National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association. Diagnosis: Fibromyalgia Fact Sheet. Available at http://www.fmaware.org/about-fibromyalgia/diagnosis/. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

296. Sommer C, Häuser W, Burgmer M, et al. Etiology and pathophysiology of fibromyalgia syndrome. Schmerz. 2012;26(3):259-267.

297. International Association for the Study of Pain. Fibromyalgia: A Clinical Update. Available at https://www.iasp-pain.org/PublicationsNews/NewsletterIssue.aspx?ItemNumber=2086. Last accessed July 26, 2019.

298. Lawson K. Tricyclic antidepressants and fibromyalgia: what is the mechanism of action? Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2002;11(10):1437-1445.

299. Häuser W, Petzke F, Sommer C. Comparative efficacy and harms of duloxetine, milnacipran, and pregabalin in fibromyalgia syndrome. J Pain. 2010;11:505-521.

300. Tort S, Urrútia G, Nishishinya MB, Walitt B. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) for fibromyalgia syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;18(4):CD009807.

301. Adler ED, Goldfinger JZ, Park ME, Meier DE. Palliative care in the treatment of advanced heart failure. Circulation. 2009;120:2597-2606.

  • Back to Course Home
  • Participation Instructions