Works Cited

Local Anesthetics in Dentistry

Course #55181 - $30 • 5 Hours/Credits

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  • Participation Instructions
    • Review the course material online or in print.
    • Complete the course evaluation.
    • Review your Transcript to view and print your Certificate of Completion. Your date of completion will be the date (Pacific Time) the course was electronically submitted for credit, with no exceptions. Partial credit is not available.

1. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Drug Facts: Cocaine. Available at https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/cocaine. Last accessed December 11, 2019.

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8. Becker DE, Reed KL. Essentials of local anesthetic pharmacology. Anesth Prog. 2006;53(3):98-108.

9. Bajwa SJS, Jindal R. Use of Articaine in loco-regional anesthesia for day care surgical procedures. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2012;28(4):444-450.

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11. American Dental Association. ADA/PDR Guide to Dental Therapeutics. 5th ed. Montvale, NJ: Physicians' Desk Reference; 2009.

12. Marieb EN, Hoehn K. Human Anatomy and Physiology. 10th ed. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Education, Inc.; 2015.

13. Malamed SF. Handbook of Local Anesthesia. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2019.

14. Wynn RL, Meiller TF, Crossley HL. Drug Information Handbook for Dentistry. 25th ed. Hudson, OH: Lexicomp; 2019.

15. Paarmann C. Decision Making and Local Anesthesia: Selecting the Most Appropriate Local Anesthetic. Available at https://dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com/article/decision-making-and-local-anesthesia/. Last accessed December 11, 2019.

16. Tofoli GR, Ramacciato JC, de Oliveira PC, Volpato MC, Groppo FC, Ranali J. Comparison of effectiveness of 4% articaine associated with 1:100,000 or 1:200,000 epinephrine in inferior alveolar nerve block. Anesth Prog. 2003;50(4):164-168.

17. Little JW, Falace DA, Miller CS, Rhodus NL. Little and Falace's Dental Management of the Medically Compromised Patient. 9th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2018.

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19. Balakrishnan R, Ebenezer V. Contraindications of vasoconstrictors in dentistry. Biomed Pharmacol J. 2013;6(2):409-414.

20. Dimensions of Dental Hygiene. Up Close with Amide Anesthetic Agents. Available at https://dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com/article/up-close/. Last accessed December 11, 2019.

21. Budenz AW. Local anesthetics in dentistry: then and now. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2003;31(5):388-396.

22. Malamed SF, Gagnon S, Leblanc D. Efficacy of articaine: a new amide local anesthetic. J Am Dent Assoc. 2000;131(5):635-642.

23. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Drug Approval Package: Septocaine (Articaine). Available at https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2006/022010_septocaine_toc.cfm. Last accessed December 11, 2019.

24. Dembo JB. Articaine: anecdote and science. Today's FDA. 2009;21(4):15-17.

25. Malamed SF, Gagnon S, Leblanc D. Articaine hydrochloride: a study of the safety of a new amide local anesthetic. J Am Dent Assoc. 2001;132(2):177-185.

26. Mikesell P, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J. A comparison of articaine and lidocaine for inferior alveolar nerve blocks. J Endod. 2005;31(4):265-270.

27. Costa CG, Tortamano IP, Rocha RG, Francischone CE, Tortamano N. Onset and duration periods or articaine and lidocaine on maxillary infiltration. Quintessence Int. 2005;36(3):197-201.

28. Evans G, Nusstein J, Drum M, Reader A, Beck M. A prospective, randomized double-blind comparison of articaine and lidocaine for maxillary infiltrations. J Endod. 2008;34(4):389-393.

29. National Library of Medicine. Septocaine: Articaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Bitartrate Injection, Solution. Available at https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=fbb95791-d582-4fb4-81df-3084eb069b10. Last accessed December 11, 2019.

30. Haas DA. An update on local anesthetics in dentistry. J Can Dent Assoc. 2002;68(9):546-551.

31. Uckan S, Dayangac E, Araz K. Is permanent maxillary tooth removal without palatal anesthesia possible? Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;102(6):733-735.

32. Haas DA, Harper DG, Saso MA, Young ER. Lack of differential effect by Ultracaine (articaine) and Citanest (prilocaine) in infiltration anesthesia. J Can Dent Assoc. 1991;57(3):217-223.

33. Hillerup S, Jensen R. Nerve injury caused by mandibular block analgesia. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;35(5):437-443.

34. Pogrel MA. Permanent nerve damage from inferior alveolar nerve blocks: an update to include articaine. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2007;35(4):271-273.

35. Paganelli MA, Popescu GK. Actions of bupivacaine, a widely used local anesthetic, on NMDA receptor responses. J Neurosci. 2015;35(2):831-842.

36. Becker DE, Reed KL. Local anesthetics: review of pharmacological considerations. Anesth Prog. 2012;59(2):90-103.

37. Drugs.com. Citanest Plain Dental Injection. Available at https://www.drugs.com/pro/citanest-plain-dental-injection.html. Last accessed December 11, 2019.

38. Garisto GA, Gaffen AS, Lawrence HP, Tenenbaum HC, Haas DA. Occurrence of paresthesia after dental local anesthetic administration in the United States. J Am Dent Assoc. 2010;141(7):836-844.

39. Prchal JT, Gregg X. Hemoglobinopathies: methemoglobinemia, polycythemia and unstable hemoglobins. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI (eds). Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. New York, NY: Elsevier; 2015.

40. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Drug Approval Package: Oraqix (Lidocaine and Prilocaine) Periodontal Gel. Available at https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2003/021451s000_OraqixTOC.cfm. Last accessed December 11, 2019.

41. Brockmann WG. Mepivacaine: a closer look at its properties and current utility. Gen Dent. 2014;62(6):70-75.

42. Logothetis D. Local anesthetic agents: a review of the current options for dental hygienists. CDHA Journal. 2011:27(2):6-11.

43. Chin KL, Yagiela JA, Quinn CL, Henderson KR, Duperon DF. Serum mepivacaine concentrations after intraoral injection in young children. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2003;31(10):757-764.

44. Robertson VJ, Taylor SE, Gage TW. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the pressor effects of levonordefrin. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1984;6(5):929-935.

45. Logothetis DD. Local Anesthesia for the Dental Hygienist. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2016.

46. Webb LJ. Dental Anesthesia: Overview of Injectable Agents Useful for Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy. Available at https://www.rdhmag.com/patient-care/article/16409431/dental-anesthesia-overview-of-injectable-agents-useful-for-nonsurgical-periodontal-therapy. Last accessed December 11, 2019.

47. Drugs.com. OraVerse Approval History. Available at https://www.drugs.com/history/oraverse.html. Last accessed December 11, 2019.

48. Wynn RL. Oraverse: A Newly Approved Drug that is Effective in Children in Reversing Soft-Tissue Local Anesthesia. Available at https://www.lexi.com/individuals/dentistry/newsletters.jsp?id=january_09. Last accessed December 11, 2019.

49. Kattan S, Lee SM, Hersh EV, et al. Do buffered local anesthetics provide more successful anesthesia than nonbuffered solutions in patients with pulpally involved teeth requiring dental therapy? A systematic review. JADA. 2019;150(3):165-177.

50. Tavares M, Goodson JM, Studen-Pavlovich D, et al. Reversal of soft-tissue local anesthesia with phentolamine mesylate in pediatric patients. J Am Dent Assoc. 2008;139(8):1095-1104.

51. Malamed SF. Buffering local anesthetic solutions. The Pulse. 2011;44(1):7-9.

52. Logothetis DD. Anesthetic buffering: new advances for use in dentistry. RDH Magazine. 2013;1:61-66.

53. Stewart JH, Cole GW, Klein JA. Neutralized lidocaine with epinephrine for local anesthesia. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1989;15(10):1081-1083.

54. Malamed SF. Allergy and toxic reactions to local anesthetics. Dentistry Today. 2003.

55. Wood M. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions in anesthetic practice. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1991;21(4):285-307.

56. Munson ES, Tucker WK, Ausinsch B, Malagodi MH. Etidocaine, bupivacaine, and lidocaine seizure thresholds in monkeys. Anesthesiology. 1975;42(4):471-478.

57. McEntire M, Nusstein J, Drum M, Reader A, Beck M. Anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine versus 4% articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine as a primary buccal infiltration in the mandibular first molar. J Endod. 2011;37(4):450-454.

58. Saraf SP, Saraf PA, Kamatagi L, et al. A comparative evaluation of anesthetic efficacy of articaine 4% and lidocaine 2% with anterior middle superior alveolar nerve block and infraorbital nerve block: an in vivo study. J Conserv Dent. 2016;19(6):527-531.

59. LexiComp Online. Available at https://online.lexi.com. Last accessed December 11, 2019.

60. Piccinni C, Gissi DB, Gabusi G, et al. Paraesthesia after local anaesthetics: an analysis of reports to the FDA adverse event reporting system. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2015;117(1):52-56.

61. Lee HS. Recent advances in topical anesthesia. J Dent Anesth Pain Med. 2016;16(4):237-244.

62. Daubländer M, Liebaug F, Niedeggen G, Theobald K, Kürzinger ML. Effectiveness and safety of phentolamine mesylate in routine dental care. J Am Dent Assoc. 2017;148(3):149-156.

  • Back to Course Home
  • Participation Instructions
    • Review the course material online or in print.
    • Complete the course evaluation.
    • Review your Transcript to view and print your Certificate of Completion. Your date of completion will be the date (Pacific Time) the course was electronically submitted for credit, with no exceptions. Partial credit is not available.