Works Cited

Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary Care

Course #48762 - $25 • 5 Hours/Credits

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  • Participation Instructions
    • Review the course material online or in print.
    • Complete the course evaluation.
    • Review your Transcript to view and print your Certificate of Completion. Your date of completion will be the date (Pacific Time) the course was electronically submitted for credit, with no exceptions. Partial credit is not available.

1. National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;39(Suppl 1):S1-S266.

2. U.S. Renal Data System. 2018 USRDSAnnual Data Report: Volume 1: CKD in the United States. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2018.

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4. Gross ML, Dikow R, Ritz E. Diabetic nephropathy: recent insights into the pathophysiology and the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Kidney Int. 2005;(94):S50-S53.

5. Bruce MA, Beech BM, Crook ED, et al. Association of socioeconomic status and CKD among African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010;55(6):1001-1008.

6. Hall YN, Choi AT, Himmelfarb J, Chertow GM, Bindman AB. Homelessness and CKD: a cohort study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;7(7):1094-1102.

7. Jones J, Holmen J, De Graauw J, Jovanovich A, Thornton S, Chonchol M. Association of complete recovery from acute kidney injury with incident CKD stage 3 and all-cause mortality. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;60(3):402-408.

8. McClellan AC, Plantinga L, McClellan WM. Epidemiology, geography and chronic kidney disease. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2012;21(3):323-328.

9. Hart PD, Bakris GL. Hypertensive nephropathy: prevention and treatment recommendations. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010;11(16):2675-2686.

10. Fischer MJ, Go AS, Lora CM, et al. CKD in Hispanics: baseline characteristics from the CRIC and Hispanic-CRIC studies.Am J Kidney Dis. 2011;58(2):214-227.

11. Babitt JL, Lin HY. Mechanisms of anemia in CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;23(10):1631-1634.

12. Lora CM, Gordon EJ, Sharp LK, Fischer MJ, Gerber BS, Lash JP. Progression of CKD in Hispanics: potential roles of health literacy, acculturation, and social support. Am J Kidney Dis. 2011;58(2):282-290.

13. Portolés J1, Gorriz JL, Rubio E, et al. The development of anemia is associated to poor prognosis in NKF/KDOQI stage 3 chronic kidney disease. BMC Nephrol. 2013;14:2.

14. Crews DC, Pfaff T, Powe NR. Socioeconomic factors and racial disparities in kidney disease outcomes. Semin Nephrol. 2013;33(5):468-475.

15. Peralta CA, Ziv E, Katz R, et al. African ancestry, socioeconomic status, and kidney function in elderly African Americans: a genetic admixture analysis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17:3491-3496.

16. National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI 2017 clinical practice guideline update for the diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). J Int Soc Nephrol. 2017;7(1):1-60.

17. McClellan WM, Newsome BB, McClure LA, et al. Poverty and racial disparities in kidney disease: the REGARDS study. Am J Nephrol. 2010;32:38-46.

18. Shumway JT, Gambert SR. Diabetic nephropathy: pathophysiology and management. Int Urol Nephrol. 2002;34(2):257-264.

19. U.S. Renal Data System. USRDS 2014 Annual Data Report: Epidemiology of Kidney Disease in the United States. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2014.

20. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD Work Group. KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2013;3:1-150.

21. Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, et al. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150(9): 604-612.

22. Becker BN, Vassalotti JA. A software upgrade: CKD testing in 2010. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010;55(1):8-10.

23. Stevens LA, Li S, Kurella Tamura M, et al. Comparison of the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equations: risk factors for and complications of CKD and mortality in the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP). Am J Kidney Dis. 2011;57(3 Suppl 2):S9-S16.

24. College of American Pathologists. Current Status of Reporting Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate. Available at https://webapps.cap.org/apps/docs/committees/chemistry/current_status_reporting_egfr2012.pdf. Last accessed August 24, 2020.

25. Moyer VA, U.S. Preventative Service Task Force. Screening for chronic kidney disease: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157(8):567-570.

26. Qaseem A, Hopkins RH, Sweet DE, Starkey M, Shekelle P. Screening, monitoring, and treatment of stage 1 to 3 chronic kidney disease: a clinical practical guideline from the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(12):835-847.

27. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Effect of intensive blood glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet. 1998;352(9131):854-865.

28. Sarafidis PA, Blacklock R, Wood E, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with hyperkalemia in predialysis patients followed in a low-clearance clinic. Clin Am J Soc Nephrol. 2012;7(8):1234-1241.

29. Block GA, Ix JH, Ketteler M, et al. Phosphate homeostasis in CKD: report of a scientific symposium sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation. Am J Kidney Dis. 2013;62(3):457-473.

30. The DCCT Research Group. Effect of intensive therapy on the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Kidney Int. 1995;47(6):1703-1720.

31. Shichiri M, Kishikawa H, Ohkubo Y, Wake N. Long-term results of the Kumamoto Study on optimal diabetes control in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(Suppl 2):B21-B29.

32. National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI clinical practice guideline for diabetes and CKD: 2012 update. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;60(5):850-886.

33. National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI clinical practice guideline and clinical practice recommendations for anemia in chronic kidney disease: 2007 update of hemoglobin target. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;50(3):471-530.

34. Fried LF, Emanuele N, Zhang JH, et al. Combined angiotensin inhibition for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(20):1892-1903.

35. Parving HH, Brenner BM, McMurray JJ, et al. Cardiorenal end points in a trial of aliskiren for type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(23):2204-2213.

36. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Revises Warnings Regarding Use of the Diabetes Medicine Metformin in Certain Patients with Reduced Kidney Function. Available at https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-drug-safety-communication-fda-revises-warnings-regarding-use-diabetes-medicine-metformin-certain. Last accessed August 24, 2020.

37. National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI clinical practice guideline for the management of blood pressure in chronic kidney disease.J Int Soc Nephrol. 2012;2(5):1-85.

38. Fraser SD, Roderick PJ, McIntyre NJ, et al. Suboptimal blood pressure control in chronic kidney disease stage 3: baseline data from a cohort study in primary care. BMC Fam Pract. 2013;14:88.

39. Pilz S, Iodice S, Zittermann A, Grant WB, Gandini S. Vitamin D status and mortality risk in CKD: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Kidney Dis. 2011;58(3):374-382.

40. Tanner RM, Calhoun DA, Bell EK, et al. Prevalence of apparent treatment-resistant hypertension among individuals with CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;8(9):1583-1590.

41. Slagman MCJ, Waanders F, Hemmelder MH, et al. Moderate dietary sodium restriction added to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition compared with dual blockade in lowering proteinuria and blood pressure: randomized controlled trial. BMJ. 2011;343:d4366.

42. Muntner P, Anderson A, Charleston J, et al. Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in adults with CKD: results from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010;55(3):441-451.

43. Jamal SA, Vandermeer B, Raggi P, et al. Effect of calcium-based versus non-calcium-based phosphate binders on mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2013;382(9900):1268-1277.

44. Ureña-Torres P, Metzger M, Haymann JP, et al. Association of kidney function, vitamin D deficiency, and circulating markers of mineral and bone disorders in CKD. Am J Kidney Dis. 2011;58(4):544-553.

45. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: New Warning and Contraindication for Blood Pressure Medicines Containing Aliskiren (Tekturna). Available at https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-drug-safety-communication-new-warning-and-contraindication-blood-pressure-medicines-containing. Last accessed August 24, 2020.

46. National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI clinical practice guideline for anemia in chronic kidney disease. J Int Soc Nephrol. 2012;2(4):1-64.

47. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Anemia Work Group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for anemia in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012;2(S2):S279-S335.

48. McMahon EJ, Bauer JD, Hawley CM, et al. A randomized trial of dietary sodium restriction in CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24(12):2096-2103.

49. Pfeffer MA, Burdmann EA, Chen CY, et al. A trial of darbepoetin alfa in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(21):2019-2032.

50. Koulouridis I, Alfayez M, Trikalinos TA, Balk EM, Jaber BL. Dose of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and adverse outcomes in CKD: a meta-regression analysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2013;61(1):44-56.

51. Hruska KA, Mathew S, Lund R, Qiu P, Pratt R. Hyperphosphatemia of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2008;74(2):148-157.

52. Spasovski G, Massy Z, Vanholder R. Phosphate metabolism in chronic kidney disease: from pathophysiology to clinical management. Semin Dial. 2009;22(4):357-362.

53. Suki WN, Moore LW. Phosphorus regulation in chronic kidney disease. Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J. 2016;12(4 Suppl):6-9.

54. Zheng Z, Shi H, Jia J, Li D, Lin S. Vitamin D supplementation and mortality risk in chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis of 20 observational studies. BMC Nephrol. 2013;14(1):199.

55. Goraya N, Wesson DE. Does correction of metabolic acidosis slow chronic kidney disease progression? Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2013;22(2):193-197.

56. Tamez H, Zoccali C, Packham D, et al. Vitamin D reduces left atrial volume in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy and chronic kidney disease. Am Heart J. 2012;164(6):902-909.

57. Wang AY, Fang F, Chan J, et al. Effect of paricalcitol on left ventricular mass and function in CKD—the OPERA trial. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;25(1):175-186.

58. Thadhani R, Appelbaum E, Pritchett Y, et al. Vitamin D therapy and cardiac structure and function in patients with chronic kidney disease: the PRIMO randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2012;307(7):674-684.

59. Hartle JE, Tang X, Kirchner HL, et al. Bisphosphonate therapy, death, and cardiovascular events among female patients with CKD: a retrospective cohort study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;59(5):636-644.

60. Levey AS, Greene T, Beck GJ, et al. Dietary protein restriction and the progression of chronic renal disease: what have all of the results of the MDRD study shown? Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study group. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999;10(11):2426-2439.

61. Ricardo AC, Madero M, Yang W, et al. Adherence to a healthy lifestyle and all-cause mortality in CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;8(4):602-609.

62. Filipowicz R, Beddhu S. Optimal nutrition for predialysis chronic kidney disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2013;20(2):175-180.

63. McMahon EJ, Campbell KL, Bauer JD, Mudge DW. Altered dietary salt intake for people with chronic kidney disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(2):CD010070.

64. Eddington H, Hoefield R, Sinha S, et al. Serum phosphate and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5(12):2251-2257.

65. Kusano K, Segawa H, Ohnishi R, Fukushima N, Miyamoto K. Role of low protein and low phosphorus diet in the progression of chronic kidney disease in uremic rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 2008;54(3):237-243.

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67. Wang HH, Hung CC, Hwang DY, et al. Hypokalemia, its contributing factors, and renal outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e67140.

68. Rifkin DE, Laws MB, Rao M, Balakrishnan VS, Sarnak MJ, Wilson IB. Medication adherence behavior and priorities among older adults with CKD: a semi-structured interview study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010;56(3):439-446.

69. Hsu CY, Chertow GM. Elevations of serum phosphorus and potassium due to mild to moderate chronic renal insufficiency. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2002;17(8):1419-1425.

70. Jain AK, McLeod I, Huo C, et al. When laboratories report estimated glomerular filtration rates in addition to serum creatinines, nephrology consults increase. Kidney Int. 2009;76(3):318-323.

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74. Chen KC, Peng CC, Hsieh CL, Peng RY. Exercise ameliorates renal cell apoptosis in chronic kidney disease by intervening in the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in a rat model. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:368450.

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  • Back to Course Home
  • Participation Instructions
    • Review the course material online or in print.
    • Complete the course evaluation.
    • Review your Transcript to view and print your Certificate of Completion. Your date of completion will be the date (Pacific Time) the course was electronically submitted for credit, with no exceptions. Partial credit is not available.