Works Cited

Epidural Analgesia Update

Course #30873 - $25 • 5 Hours/Credits

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  • Participation Instructions
    • Review the course material online or in print.
    • Complete the course evaluation.
    • Review your Transcript to view and print your Certificate of Completion. Your date of completion will be the date (Pacific Time) the course was electronically submitted for credit, with no exceptions. Partial credit is not available.

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22. Carroll IR, Angst MS, Clark JD. Management of perioperative pain in patients chronically consuming opioids. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2004;29(6):576-591.

23. Dawson S. Epidural catheter infections. J Hosp Infect. 2001;47(1):3-8.

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31. Towell TJ, Maric S, Jones M, Wyatt R, Duthie DJ. Introducing ropivacaine into a department's epidural analgesic practice: improving acute pain service practice. Clin Perform Qual Health Care. 2000;8(4):217-221.

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33. Tenenbein PK, Debrouwere R, Maguire D, et al. Thoracic epidural analgesia improves pulmonary function in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Can J Anaesth. 2008;55(6):344-350.

34. Bignami E, Landoni G, Biondi-Zoccai GG, et al. Epidural analgesia improves outcome in cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2010;24(4):586-597.

35. Ullman DA, Fortune JB, Greenhouse BB, Wimpy RE, Kennedy TM. The treatment of patients with multiple rib fractures using continuous thoracic epidural narcotic infusion. Reg Anesth. 1989;14(1):43-47.

36. Shi SH, Kong HS, Jia CK, et al. Risk factors for pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli among liver patients. Clin Transplant. 2010;24(6):758-765.

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38. Mehta Y, Arora D, Vats M. Epidural analgesia in high risk cardiac surgical patients. HSR Proc Intensive Care Cardiovasc Anesth. 2012;4(1):11-14.

39. Augestad KM, Delaney CP. Postoperative ileus: impact of pharmacological treatment, laparoscopic surgery and enhanced recovery pathways. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16(17):2067-2074.

40. Nendick M. Patient satisfaction with post-operative analgesia. Nurs Stand. 2000;14(22):32-37.

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43. Kampe S, Weinreich G, Darr C, et al. The impact of epidural analgesia compared to systemic opioid-based analgesia with regard to length of hospital stay and recovery of bowel function: retrospective evaluation of 1,555 patients undergoing thoracotomy. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2014;9:175.

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45. Pöpping DM, Elia N, Marret E, Remy C, Tramèr MR. Protective effects of epidural analgesia on pulmonary complications after abdominal and thoracic surgery: a meta-analysis. Arch Surg. 2008;143(10):990-999.

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50. Korula S, George GM, Ipe S, Abraham SP. Epidural anesthesia and post-operative analgesia for bilateral inguinal mesh hernioplasty: comparison of equipotent doses of ropivacaine and bupivacaine. Saudi J Anaesth. 2011;5(3):277-281.

51. American Society for Pain Management Nursing. ASPMN Position Statements. Registered Nurse Management and Monitoring of Analgesia by Catheter Techniques. Available at Last accessed February 4, 2021.

52. American Society of Anesthesiologists. Statement on the Role of Registered Nurses in the Management of Continuous Regional Analgesia. Available at Last accessed February 4, 2021.

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54. Paul JE, Bertram B, Antoni K, et al. Impact of a comprehensive safety initiative on patient-controlled analgesia errors. Pain Med. 2010;113(6):1427-1432.

55. The Royal College of Anaesthetists. Best Practice in the Management of Epidural Analgesia in the Hospital Setting. Available at Last accessed February 4, 2021.

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66. Dalton JA, Carlson J, Lindley C, Blau W, Youngblood R, Greer SM. Clinical economics: calculating the cost of acute postoperative pain medication. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000;19(4):295-308.

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69. Albrecht E, Taffe P, Yersin B, Schoettker P, Decosterd I, Hugli O. Undertreatment of acute pain (oligoanalgesia) and medical practice variation in prehospital analgesia of adult trauma patients: a 10 yr retrospective study. Br J Anaesth. 2013;110(1):96-106.

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71. Devlin JW, Skrobik Y, Gélinas C, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of pain, agitation/sedation, delirium, immobility, and sleep disruption in adult patients in the ICU. Crit Care Med. 2018;46(9):e825-e873.

72. Guay J, Kopp S. Epidural pain relief versus systemic opioid-based pain relief for abdominal aortic surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(1):CD005059.

73. Cashman JN, Dolin SJ. Respiratory and haemodynamic effects of acute postoperative pain management: evidence from published data. Br J Anaesth. 2004;93(2):212-223.

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75. Olson B, Ustanko L, Melland H, Langemo D. Variables associated with hypotension in postoperative total knee arthroplasty patients receiving epidural analgesia. Orthop Nurs. 1992;11(4):31-37, 62.

76. Ladak SS, Katznelson R, Muscat M, Sawhney M, Beattie WS, O'Leary G. Incidence of urinary retention in patients with thoracic patient-controlled epidural analgesia (TPCEA) undergoing thoracotomy. Pain Manag Nurs. 2009;10(2):94-98.

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78. Turnbull DK, Shepherd DB. Post-dural puncture headache: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment. Br J Anaesth. 2003;91(5): 718-729.

79. Calderon R, Copenhaver D. Postdural puncture headache. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2013;27(4):406-407.

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81. Zorrilla-Vaca A, Healy R, Zorrilla-Vaca C. Finer gauge of cutting but not pencil-point needles correlate with lower incidence of post-dural puncture headache: a meta-regression analysis. J Anesth. 2016;30(5):855-863.

82. Xu H, Liu Y, Song WY, et al. Comparison of cutting and pencil-point spinal needle in spinal anesthesia regarding postdural puncture headache: a meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96(14):e6527.

83. Yuan HB, Zuo Z, Yu KW, et al. Bacterial colonization of epidural catheters used for short-term post-operative analgesia: microbiological examination and risk factor analysis. Anesthesiology. 2008;108:130-137.

84. Bomberg H, Kubulus C, Herberger S, et al. Tunneling of thoracic epidural catheters if associated with fewer catheter-related infections: a retrospective registry analysis. Br J Anaesth. 2016;116(4):546-553.

  • Back to Course Home
  • Participation Instructions
    • Review the course material online or in print.
    • Complete the course evaluation.
    • Review your Transcript to view and print your Certificate of Completion. Your date of completion will be the date (Pacific Time) the course was electronically submitted for credit, with no exceptions. Partial credit is not available.