Works Cited

Multimodal Pharmacotherapy for Pain Management

Course #35270 - $30 -

  • Back to Course Home
  • Participation Instructions
    • Review the course material online or in print.
    • Complete the course evaluation.
    • Review your Transcript to view and print your Certificate of Completion. Your date of completion will be the date (Pacific Time) the course was electronically submitted for credit, with no exceptions. Partial credit is not available.

1. Hamilton G, Baskett T. In the arms of Morpheus: the development of morphiene for postoperative pain relief. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. 2000;47:367-374.

2. Stanley T. The history and development of the fentanyl series. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 1992;7:S3-S7.

3. Lewy J. The Army disease: drug addiction and the Civil War. War in History. 2014;21:102-119.

4. Raffa RB, Pergolizzi JV Jr, LeQuang JA, et al. The fentanyl family: a distinguished medical history tainted by abuse. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2018;43:154-158.

5. Hall J, Hall M. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology. 14th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020.

6. Leunig M, Beck M, Stauffer E, Hertel R, Ganz R. Free nerve endings in the ligamentum capitis femoris. Acta Orthop Scand. 2000;71:452-454.

7. Julius D, Basbaum A. Molecular mechanisms of nociception. Nature. 2001;413(6852):203-210.

8. Dubin AE, Patapoutian A. Nociceptors: the sensors of the pain pathway. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3760-3772.

9. Mense S. Functional anatomy of muscle: muscle, nociceptors and afferent fibers. In: Mense S, Gerwin RD (eds). Muscle Pain: Understanding the Mechanisms. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 2010: 17-48.

10. Black PH. Stress and the inflammatory response: a review of neurogenic inflammation. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 2002;16:622-653.

11. Ji RR, Nackley A, Huh Y, Terrando N, Maixner W. Neuroinflammation and central sensitization in chronic and widespread pain. Anesthesiology. 2018;129:343-366.

12. Yam MF, Loh YC, Tan CS, Khadijah Adam S, Abdul Manan N, Basir R. General pathways of pain sensation and the major neurotransmitters involved in pain regulation. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(8):2164.

13. Petho G, Reeh PW. Sensory and signaling mechanisms of bradykinin, eicosanoids, platelet-activating factor, and nitric oxide in peripheral nociceptors. Physiol Rev. 2012;92:1699-775.

14. Zieglgansberger W. Substance P and pain chronicity. Cell Tissue Res. 2019;375:227-241.

15. Kosse A, Kang H. Antiepileptic agents. In: Kaye A, Kaye A, Urman R (eds). Essentials of Pharmacology for Anesthesia, Pain Medicine and Critical Care. New York, NY: Springer; 2015.

16. Dydyk AM, Munakomi S. Thalamic Pain Syndrome. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing; 2021.

17. Huffman J, Haas RE. The safe and effective use of pharmacological agents used for sedation during radiological procedures. Journal of Radiology Nursing. 2014;33:132-144.

18. Abdallah CG, Salas R, Jackowski A, Baldwin P, Sato JR, Mathew SJ. Hippocampal volume and the rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine. J Psychopharmacol. 2015;29:591-595.

19. Fasick V, Spengler RN, Samankan S, Nader ND, Ignatowski TA. The hippocampus and TNF: common links between chronic pain and depression. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015;53:139-159.

20. Sheline YI. Depression and the hippocampus: cause or effect? Biol Psychiatry. 2011;70:308-309.

21. Ong WY, Stohler CS, Herr DR. Role of the prefrontal cortex in pain processing. Mol Neurobiol. 2019;56:1137-1166.

22. Aizenberg M, Rolon-Martinez S, Pham T, Rao W, Haas JS, Geffen MN. Projection from the amygdala to the thalamic reticular nucleus amplifies cortical sound responses. Cell Rep. 2019;28:605-615.

23. Luscher C, Malenka RC. NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation and long-term depression (LTP/LTD). Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2012;4(6):a005710.

24. Jensen MP, Brownstone RM. Mechanisms of spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of pain: still in the dark after 50 years. Eur J Pain. 2019;23:652-659.

25. Reus GZ, Abelaira HM, Tuon T, et al. Glutamatergic NMDA receptor as therapeutic target for depression. Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol. 2016;103:169-202.

26. Nikolajsen L, Jensen TS. Phantom limb pain. Br J Anaesth. 2001;87:107-116.

27. Nguyen J, Haas R, Pugh L. The application of the theory of unpleasant symptoms to the education and practice of nurse anesthetists. Nursing and Healthcare International Journal. 2017;1:000120.

28. Ma RSY, Kayani K, Whyte-Oshodi D, et al. Voltage-gated sodium channels as therapeutic targets for chronic pain. J Pain Res. 2019;12:2709-2722.

29. von Hehn CA, Baron R, Woolf CJ. Deconstructing the neuropathic pain phenotype to reveal neural mechanisms. Neuron. 2012;73(4):638-652.

30. Widerström-Noga EG, Finnerup NB, Siddall PJ. Biopsychosocial perspective on a mechanisms-based approach to assessment and treatment of pain following spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2009;46(1):1-12.

31. Institute of Medicine. Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2011.

32. Woolf CJ. Pain: moving from symptom control toward mechanism-specific pharmacologic management. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140:441-451.

33. American Society of Anesthesiologists. Practice guidelines for chronic pain management. Anesthesiology. 2010;112(4):810-833.

34. Latremoliere A, Woolf CJ. Central sensitization: a generator of pain hypersensitivity by central neural plasticity. J Pain. 2009;10:895-926.

35. Costigan M, Scholz J, Woolf CJ. Neuropathic pain: a maladaptive response of the nervous system to damage. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2009;32:1-32.

36. Chou R, Qaseem A, Snow V, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: a joint clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(7):478-491.

37. Woolf CJ. What is this thing called pain? J Clin Invest. 2010;120(11):3742-3744.

38. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Adult Cancer Pain: Version 2.2022. Available at Last accessed October 18, 2022.

39. Chen H, Lamer TJ, Rho RH, et al. Contemporary management of neuropathic pain for the primary care physician. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004;79(12):1533-1545.

40. Dworkin RH, O'Connor AB, Backonja M, et al. Pharmacologic management of neuropathic pain: evidence-based recommendations. Pain. 2007;132(3):237-251.

41. Voscopoulos C, Lema M. When does acute pain become chronic? Br J Anaesth. 2010;105(S1):i69-i85.

42. Prommer EE. Pharmacological management of cancer-related pain. Cancer Control. 2015;22(4):412-425.

43. Chong WS, Johnson DS. Update on Opioid Pharmacology Anaesthesia: Tutorial of the Week. Available at Last accessed October 18, 2022.

44. Yaksh TL, Wallace MS. Opioids, analgesia, and pain management. In: Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC (eds). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 13th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2017: 481-525.

45. Pasternak GW. Opioid pharmacotherapy: from receptor to bedside. In: Inturrisi CE, Nicholson B, Pasternak GW (eds). Dual Opioid Therapy. London: The Royal Society of Medicine Press Limited; 2009.

46. Ghelardini C, Di Cesare Mannelli L, Bianchi E. The pharmacological basis of opioids. Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 2015;12(3):219-221.

47. McDonald J, Lambert DG. Opioid receptors. Continuing Education in Anaesthesia: Critical Care & Pain. 2005;5(1):22-27.

48. Toll L, Caló G, Cox BM, IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. Opioid Receptors. Available at Last accessed October 18, 2022.

49. McKeen MJ, Quraishi SA. Clinical review of intravenous opioids in acute care. J Anesthiol Clin Sci. 2013;2:1-11.

50. Trang T, Al-Hasani R, Salvemini D, Salter MW, Gutstein H, Cahill CM. Pain and poppies: the good, the bad, and the ugly of opioid analgesics. J Neurosci. 2015;35(41):13879-13888.

51. Sprouse-Blum AS, Smith G, Sugai D, Parsa FD. Understanding endorphins and their importance in pain management. Hawaii Med J. 2010;69(3):70-71.

52. Dietis N, Guerrini R, Calo G, Salvadori S, Rowbotham DJ, Lambert DG. Simultaneous targeting of multiple opioid receptors: a strategy to improve side-effect profile. Br J Anaesth. 2009;103(1):38-49.

53. Lesniak A, Lipkowski AW. Opioid peptides in peripheral pain control. Acta Neurobiol Exp. 2011;71(1):129-138.

54. Yaksh TL. Pharmacology and mechanisms of opioid analgesic activity. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1997;41(1 Pt 2):94-111.

55. Atkinson TJ, Fudin J, Pandula A, Mirza M. Medication pain management in the elderly: unique and underutilized analgesic treatment options. Clin Ther. 2013;35(11):1669-1689.

56. Trescot AM, Datta S, Lee M, Hansen H. Opioid pharmacology. Pain Physician. 2008;11(2 Suppl):S133-S153.

57. Sindt J, Jenkinson R. Nonintravenous Opioids. In: Hemmings HC Jr, Egan T (eds). Pharmacology and Physiology for Anesthesia. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019: 354-368.

58. Goldsack C, Scuplak S, Smith M. A double-blind comparison of codeine and morphine for postoperative analgesia. Anaesthesia. 1996;51:1029-1032.

59. Vallejo R, Barkin RL, Wang VC. Pharmacology of opioids in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. Pain Physician. 2011;14(4):E343-E360.

60. Eisenberg E, McNicol ED, Carr DB. Efficacy and safety of opioid agonists in the treatment of neuropathic pain of nonmalignant origin. JAMA. 2005;293(24):3043-3052.

61. Smith HS. Opioids and neuropathic pain. Pain Physician. 2012;15(3 Suppl):ES93-ES110.

62. Sehgal N, Smith H, Manchikanti L. Peripherally acting opioids and clinical implications for pain control. Pain Physician. 2011;14(3):249-258.

63. Haeseler G, Foadi N, Ahrens J, Dengler R, Hecker H, Leuwer M. Tramadol, fentanyl and sufentanil but not morphine block voltage-operated sodium channels. Pain. 2006;126(1-3):234-244.

64. Armstrong SC, Cozza KL. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions of morphine, codeine, and their derivatives: theory and clinical reality, Part II. Psychosomatics. 2003;44(6):515-520.

65. Leavitt SB. Opioid Antagonists in Pain Management. Available at Last accessed October 18, 2022.

66. Power I. An update on analgesics. Br J Anaesth. 2011;107(1):19-24.

67. Stavitskaya L, Coop A. Most recent developments and modifications of 14-alkylamino and 14-alkoxy-4,5-epoxymorphinan derivatives. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2011;11(12):1002-1008.

68. Hamann S, Sloan PA, Witt W. Low-dose intrathecal naloxone to enhance intrathecal morphine analgesia: a case report. J Opioid Manag. 2008;4(4):251-254.

69. Arbuck D, Gharibo C, Labhsetwar S, et al. Management of opioid tolerability and related adverse effects. J Medicine. 2010;3(1): 1-10.

70. Cruciani RA, Lussier D, Miller-Saultz D, Arbuck DM. Ultra-low dose oral naltrexone decreases side effects and potentiates the effect of methadone. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2003;25(6):491-494.

71. Raffa RB, Pergolizzi JV Jr, Tallarida RJ. The determination and application of fixed-dose analgesic combinations for treating multimodal pain. J Pain. 2010;11(8):701-709.

72. Scheiman JM. The use of proton pump inhibitors in treating and preventing NSAID-induced mucosal damage. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15(Suppl 3):S5.

73. Whittle SL, Colebatch AN, Buchbinder R, et al. Multinational evidence-based recommendations for pain management by pharmacotherapy in inflammatory arthritis: integrating systematic literature research and expert opinion of a broad panel of rheumatologists in the 3e Initiative. Rheumatology. 2012;51:1416-1425.

74. Calvey N, Williams N. Analgesic drugs. In: Calvey N (ed). Pharmacology for Anaesthetists. 5th ed. Maldwell, MA: Blackwell; 2008.

75. Bekhit M, Navab K, Ghobrial A, Aust T. Nonopiod analgesic and adjunct drugs. In: Kaye A, Kaye A, Urman R (eds). Essentials of Pharmacology for Anesthesia, Pain Medicine and Critical Care. New York, NY: Springer; 2015: 148-156.

76. Smith HS, Kara DK, Argoff CE. Management of neuropathic pain: current insights and future perspectives. US Neurology. 2012;8(1):57-61.

77. Kulkantrakorn K. Emerging concepts and treatment in neuropathic pain. Neurology Asia. 2012;17:265-271.

78. Voscopoulos C, Lema M. When does acute pain become chronic? Br J Anaesth. 2010;105(S1):i69-i85.

79. European Urological Association. Guidelines on Pain Management and Palliative Care. Available at Last accessed October 18, 2022.

80. Paul J, RArya A, Hurlburt L, et al. Femoral nerve block improves analgesia outcomes after total knoee arthroplasty. Anesthesiology. 2010;113:1144-1162.

81. El-Boghdadly K, Pawa A, Chin KJ. Local anesthetic systemic toxicity: current perspectives. Local Reg Anesth. 2018;11:35-44.

82. Suzuki S, Gerner P, Lirk P. Local anesthetics. In: Hemmings HC Jr, Egan T (eds). Pharmcology and Physiology for Anesthesia. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019.

83. Cherobin A, Tavares GT. Safety of local anesthetics. An Bras Dermatol. 2020;95:82-90.

84. Indiana Health Alert Network. Maximum recommended doses and duration of local anesthetics. In: Protocols IHaN. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Press; 2019.

85. Ciechanowicz S, Patil V. Lipid emulsion for local anesthetic systemic toxicity. Anesthesiology Research and Practice. 2012;2012:131784.

86. Ghai A, Gupta M, Hooda S, Singla D, Wadhera R. A randomized controlled trial to compare pregabalin with gabapentin for postoperative pain in abdominal hysterectomy. Saudi J Anaesth. 2011;5:252-257.

87. Imani F, Rahimzadeh P. Gabapentinoids: gabapentin and pregabalin for postoperative pain management. Anesth Pain Med. 2012;2:52-53.

88. Cheng TH. Spinal cord mechanisms of chronic pain and clinical implications. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2010;14(3):213-220.

89. Xu B, Descalzi G, Ye HR, Zhuo M, Wang YW. Translational investigation and treatment of neuropathic pain. Mol Pain. 2012;8:15.

90. Hayashida KI, Obata H. Strategies to treat chronic pain and strengthen impaired descending noradrenergic inhibitory system.Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20(4):822.

91. Hoffman J. The historical shift in the perception of opiates: from medicine to social menace. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 1990;22:53-62.

92. Barkin RL, Barkin SJ, Barkin DS. Pharmacotherapeutic management of pain with a focus directed at the geriatric patient. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2007;33(1):1-31.

93. Yabeck-Karam V, Aouad M. Perioperative use of dexmedetomidine. Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology. 2006;18:1043.

94. Seymore RJ, Manis MM, Coyne PJ. Dexmedetomidine use in a case of severe cancer pain. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2019;33:34-41.

95. Brown E, Lydic R, Schiff N. General anesthesia, sleep and coma. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:2638-2650.

96. Calvey N, Williams N. Inhalational anesthesia agents. In: Calvey N, Williams N (ed). Principles and Practice of Pharmacology for Anaesthestists. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science; 2008: 129-148.

97. Calvey N, Williams N. Intravenous anaesthetic agents. In: Calvey N, Williams N (ed). Principles and Practice of Pharmacology for Anaesthestists. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science; 2008: 110-128.

98. Blonk MI, Koder BG, van den Bemt P, Huygen FJ. Use of oral ketamine in chronic pain management: a review. Eur J Pain. 2009;14(5):466-472.

99. Schwartzman RJ, Alexander GM, Grothusen JR. The use of ketamine in complex regional pain syndrome: possible mechanisms. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011;11(5):719-734.

100. Patil S, Anitescu M. Efficacy of outpatient ketamine infusions in refractory chronic pain syndromes: a 5-year retrospective analysis. Pain Med. 2012;13(2):263-269.

101. Schwartzman RJ, Alexander GM, Grothusen JR, Paylor T, Reichenberger E, Perreault M. Outpatient intravenous ketamine for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Pain. 2009;147(1-3):107-115.

102. Quibell R, Prommer EE, Mihalyo M, Twycross R, Wilcock A. Ketamine. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2011;41:640-649.

103. Chen L, Malek T. Follow me down the K-hole: ketamine and its modern applications. Crit Care Nurs Q. 2015;38:211-216.

104. Cleveland Clinic. Date rape drugs: what parents should know. Cleve Clin J Med. 2001;68(6):551-552.

105. Abdallah CG, Sanacora G, Duman RS, Krystal JH. The neurobiology of depression, ketamine and rapid-acting antidepressants: is it glutamate inhibition or activation? Pharmacol Ther. 2018;190:148-158.

106. Xiong J, Lipsitz O, Chen-Li D et al. The acute antisuicidal effects of single-dose intravenous ketamine and intranasal esketamine in individuals with major depression and bipolar disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Psychiatr Res. 2021;134:57-68.

107. Silverman M, Hexem J. Nitrous oxide/oxygen sedation and the single-dose sedative. Inside Dentistry. 2011;42-54.

108. Whizar-Lugo VM, Heredia-Mota C, Camacho A. Back to the future: ketamine and nitrous oxide in major refractory depression.J Anesth Crit Care. 2017;9(3):1-5.

109. Vallejo MC, Zakowski MI. Pro-con debate: nitrous oxide for labor analgesia. Biomed Res Int. 2019;2019:4618798.

110. Faddy SC, Garlick SR. A systematic review of the safety of analgesia with 50% nitrous oxide: can lay responders use analgesic gases in the prehospital setting? Emerg Med J. 2005;22:901-908.

111. Urits I, Peck J, Orhurhu MS, et al. Off-label antidepressant use for treatment and management of chronic pain: evolving understanding and comprehensive review. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2019;23:66.

112. Verdu B, Decosted I, Buclin T, Stiefel F, Berney A. Antidepressants for the treatment of chronic pain. Drugs. 2008;68:2611-2632.

113. Costigan M, Scholz J, Woolf CJ. Neuropathic pain: a maladaptive response of the nervous system to damage. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2009;32:1-32.

114. Rahman W, D'Mello R, Dickenson AH. Peripheral nerve injury-induced changes in spinal alpha(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated modulation of mechanically evoked dorsal horn neuronal responses. J Pain. 2008;9:350-359.

115. Marks DM, Shah MJ, Patkar AA, et al. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors for pain control: premise and promise. Cur Neuropharmacology. 2009;7(4):331-336.

116. Jackson K, St. Onge EL. Antidepressant pharmacotherapy: considerations for the pain clinician. Pain Practice. 2003;3:135-143.

117. Chan H, Fam J, Ng B. Use of antidepressants in the treatment of chronic pain. Annals Academy of Medicine Singapore. 2009;38:974.

118. World Health Organization. WHO Guidelines for the pharmacological and radiotherapeutic management of cancer pain in adults and adolescents. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2019.

119. Pollak A, Barnes L, Ciotola J, Gulli B. Emergency Care and Transportation of the Sick and Injured. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning; 2011.

120. McLaughlin DC, Cheah JW, Aleshi P, Zhang AL, Ma CB, Feeley BT. Multimodal analgesia decreases opioid consumption after shoulder arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2018;27:686-691.

121. Guo JG, Zhao LP, Rao YF et al. Novel multimodal analgesia regimen improves post-TACE pain in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2018;17:510-516.

122. Renew J, Harrison B. Dexmedetomidine. In: Trentman T (ed). Faust's Anesthesiology Review. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier, 2020: 193-195.

123. Mariano ER, Schatman ME. A commonsense patient-centered approach to multimodal analgesia within surgical enhanced recovery protocols. J Pain Res. 2019;12:3461-3466.

124. Zeilhofer HU. Prostanoids in nociception and pain. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007;73:165-174.

125. Luchting B, Azad SC. Pain therapy for the elderly patient: is opioid-free an option? Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2019;32:86-91.

126. Schwan J, Sclafani J, Tawfik VL. Chronic pain management in the elderly. Anesthesiol Clin. 2019;37:547-560.

127. Gau P, Chen Y, Lo Y, Lu I, Chen P. Opioid-sparing multimodal analgesia for recurrent sciatic pain. Taiwan Journal of Pain. 2018;28:46-51.

  • Back to Course Home
  • Participation Instructions
    • Review the course material online or in print.
    • Complete the course evaluation.
    • Review your Transcript to view and print your Certificate of Completion. Your date of completion will be the date (Pacific Time) the course was electronically submitted for credit, with no exceptions. Partial credit is not available.